malaria in nepal


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Malaria :

Malaria Prepared by rautbhola Shree medical and technical college Bachelor in pharmacy-5 th semester PUBLIC HEALTH PHARMACY 7/24/2012 1


I ntroduction Malaria is a protozoal communicable disease caused by any one or combination of four species of plasmodim : Plasmodium vivax Plasmodium falciparum (Almost 80% of cases and 90% of malaria deaths) Plasmodium ovale Plasmodium malariae These parasites are transmitted by bite of female Anopheles mosquito. 7/24/2012 2

Life cycle of malaria:

Life cycle of malaria 7/24/2012 3

Clinical features(signs and symptoms):

Clinical features(signs and symptoms) Headache, fever, chills, sweating, fatigue, pain, shaking, splenomegaly, nausea and vomiting Hemolytic anemia (due to destructions of large no RBCs),muscle and joint pain Cerebral ischemia, hepatomegali, hypoglycemia, hemoglobinuria , renal failure (due to blackwater fever where hemoglobin from lysed RBCs leaks into urine) Cerebral malaria (brain complication and may lead to death ) The classical symptom of malaria is cyclical occurrence of sudden coldness followed by rigor and then fever and sweating lasting about 2 hours or more, occurring every two days in P. vivax, P. ovale infection and every 3 days for P. malariae 7/24/2012 4

Preventive measures:

Preventive measures Mosquito repellents, mosquito coils, insecticide treated nets ( Supanet ) use of small electrical mats plugged into a socket , other pests ,pesticide DDT, sleeping dress Cover over the area of stagnant, still water, spraying kerosene oil 7/24/2012 5

Treatments and drugs :

Treatments and drugs The types of drugs and the length of treatment will vary, depending on: Which type of malaria parasite you have The severity of your symptoms Your age Whether you're pregnant Medications The most common antimalarial drugs include: Chloroquine ( Aralen ) Quinine sulfate ( Qualaquin ) Hydroxychloroquine ( Plaquenil ) Mefloquine Combination of atovaquone and proguanil ( Malarone ) Malaria - Vaccination 7/24/2012 6

PowerPoint Presentation:

7/24/2012 7

PowerPoint Presentation:

7/24/2012 8

PowerPoint Presentation:

3 to 700 million people get malaria each year, but only kills 1 to 2 million 40% of the worlds population lives in malaria zones Malaria zones are: Africa, India, Middle East, Southeast Asia, Central and South America, Eastern Europe, and the South Pacific 7/24/2012 9

PowerPoint Presentation:

Leading causes of death in Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and Southeast Asia for persons age 0-44 (World Health Organization) Now it’s time to look at Malaria




THANKS 7/24/2012 12

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