Big Data

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This pdf contains a complete description about Big Data.This is a new technology very few people know about this. Every day, we create 2.5 quintillion bytes(one quintillion bytes = one billion gigabytes). of data — so much that 90% of the data in the world today has been created in the last two years alone. This data comes from everywhere: sensors used to gather climate information, posts to social media sites, digital pictures and videos, purchase transaction records, and cell phone GPS signals to name a few. This data is big data.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I take this opportunity to express my gratitude to all those people who have been directly and indirectly with me during the completion of this Seminar. I pay special thanks to my seminar guide Mr. Ved Prakash who was very supportive and compassionate throughout the preparation this seminar report. A lot of gratitude also goes to my friends who have contributed effectively towards the preparation and refinement of my Seminar undertaken at J.N.U Jaipur. They all inspired and encouraged me to carry out this seminar report in best of contents. Particular thanks to all authors whose work has been referenced. Finally I would like to acknowledge my profound gratitude to Almighty. It would not have been possible to accomplish this without their blessings. Raushan Kumar Chaurasiya Roll no.-6CS63 Computer Science and Technology School of Engineering and Technology Jaipur National UniversityJaipur

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LIST OF TABLES Table 1: Tools available for Big Data ................................................................................... 12 Table 2: Various Big Data Projects ...................................................................................... 13 iv

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 : Example of Big Data Architecture .......................................................................... 1 Figure 2 : Explosion in size of Data ........................................................................................ 3 Figure 3 : Hadoop High Level Architecture .......................................................................... 11 Figure 4 : HDFS Architecture ............................................................................................... 12 v

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1. INTRODUCTION Big data is defined as large amount of data which requires new technologies and architectures to make possible to extract value from it by capturing and analysis process. New sources of big data include location specific data arising from traffic management and from the tracking of personal devices such as Smartphones. Big Data has emerged because we are living in a society which makes increasing use of data intensive technologies. Due to such large size of data it becomes very difficult to perform effective analysis using the existing traditional techniques. Since Big data is a recent upcoming technology in the market which can bring huge benefits to the business organizations it becomes necessary that various challenges and issues associated in bringing and adapting to this technology are need to be understood. Big Data concept means a datasets which continues to grow so much that it becomes difficult to manage it using existing database management concepts tools. The difficulties can be related to data capture storage search sharing analytics and visualization etc. Figure 1 : Example of Big Data Architecture Aveksa Inc. 2013 Big data due to its various properties like volume velocity variety variability value and complexity put forward many challenges. The various challenges faced in large data management include – scalability unstructured data accessibility real time analytics fault tolerance and many more. In addition to variations in the amount of data stored in different sectors the types of data generated and stored—i.e. encoded video images audio or text/numeric information also differ markedly from industry to industry. 1

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2. BIG DATA CHARACTERISTICS Data Volume:The Big word in Big data itself defines the volume. At present thedata existing is in petabytes 10 15 and is supposed to increase to zettabytes 10 21 in nearby future. Data volume measures the amount of data available to an organization which does not necessarily have to own all of it as long as it can access it. Data Velocity: Velocity in Big data is a concept which deals with the speed of the datacoming from various sources. This characteristic is not being limited to the speed of incoming data but also speed at which the data flows and aggregated. Data Variety:Data variety is a measure of the richness of the data representation – textimages video audio etc. Data being produced is not of single category as it not only includes the traditional data but also the semi structured data from various resources like web Pages Web Log Files social media sites e-mail documents. Data Value:Data value measures the usefulness of data in making decisions. Datascience is exploratory and useful in getting to know the data but ―analytic science‖ encompasses the predictive power of big data. User can run certain queries against the data stored and thus can deduct important results from the filtered data obtained and can also rank it according to the dimensions they require. These reports help these people to find the business trends according to which they can change their strategies. Complexity:Complexity measures the degree of interconnectedness possibly verylarge and interdependence in big data structures such that a small change or combination of small changes in one or a few elements can yield very large changes or a small change that ripple across or cascade through the system and substantially affect its behavior or no change at all Katal Wazid Goudar 2013. 2

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3. ISSUES IN BIG DATA The issues in Big Data are some of the conceptual points that should be understood by the organization to implement the technology effectively. Big data Issues are need not be confused with problems but they are important to know and crucial to handle. Figure 2 : Explosion in size of Data Hewlett-Packard Development Company 2012 3.1 Issues related to the Characteristics Data Volume As data volume increases the value of different data records will decrease in proportion to age type richness and quantity among other factors. The social networking sites existing are themselves producing data in order of terabytes everyday and this amount of data is definitely difficult to be handled using the existing traditional systems. Data Velocity Our traditional systems are not capable enough on performing the analytics on the data which is constantly in motion. E-Commerce has rapidly increased the speed and richness of data used for different business transactions for example web-site clicks. Data velocity management is much more than a bandwidth issue. Data Variety All this data is totally different consisting of raw structured semi structured and even unstructured data which is difficult to be handled by the existing traditional analytic systems. From an analytic perspective it is probably the biggest obstacle to 3

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effectively using large volumes of data. Incompatible data formats non-aligned data structures and inconsistent data semantics represents significant challenges that can lead to analytic sprawl. Data Value As the data stored by different organizations is being used by them for data analytics. It will produce a kind of gap in between the Business leaders and the IT professionals the main concern of business leaders would be to just adding value to their business and getting more and more profit unlike the IT leaders who would have to concern with the technicalities of the storage and processing. Data Complexity One current difficulty of big data is working with it using relational databases and desktop statistics/visualization packages requiring massively parallel software running on tens hundreds or even thousands of servers. It is quite an undertaking to link match cleanse and transform data across systems coming from various sources. It is also necessary to connect and correlate relationships hierarchies and multiple data linkages or data can quickly spiral out of control Katal Wazid Goudar 2013. 3.2 Storage and Transport Issues The quantity of data has exploded each time we have invented a new storage medium. The difference about the most recent data explosion mainly due to social media is that there has been no new storage medium. Moreover data is being created by everyone and everything from Mobile Devices to Super Computers not just as here to fore by professionals such as scientist journalists writers etc. Current disk technology limits are about 4 terabytes 10 12 per disk. So 1 Exabyte 10 18 would require 25000 disks. Even if an Exabyte of data could be processed on a single computer system it would be unable to directly attach the requisite number of disks. Access to that data would overwhelm current communication networks. Assuming that a 1 gigabyte per second network has an effective sustainable transfer rate of 80 the sustainable bandwidth is about 100 megabytes. Thus transferring an Exabyte would take about 2800 hours if we assume that a sustained transfer could be maintained. It would take longer time to transmit the data from a collection or storage point to a processing point than the time required to actually process it. To handle this issue the data should be processed ―in place‖ and transmit only the resulting information. In other words ―bring the code to the data‖ 4

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unlike the traditional method of ―bring the data to the code.‖ Kaisler Armour Espinosa Money 2013. 3.3 Data Management Issues Data Management will perhaps be the most difficult problem to address with big data. Resolving issues of access utilization updating governance and reference in publications have proven to be major stumbling blocks. The sources of the data are varied - by size by format and by method of collection. Individuals contribute digital data in mediums comfortable to them like- documents drawings pictures sound and video recordings models software behaviors user interface designs etc. with or without adequate metadata describing what when where who why and how it was collected and its provenance. Unlike the collection of data by manual methods where rigorous protocols are often followed in order to ensure accuracy and validity Digital data collection is much more relaxed. Given the volume it is impractical to validate every data item. New approaches to data qualification and validation are needed. The richness of digital data representation prohibits a personalized methodology for data collection. To summarize there is no perfect big data management solution yet. This represents an important gap in the research literature on big data that needs to be filled. 3.4 Processing Issues Assume that an Exabyte of data needs to be processed in its entirety. For simplicity assume the data is chunked into blocks of 8 words so 1 Exabyte 1K petabytes. Assuming a processor expends 100 instructions on one block at 5 gigahertz the time required for end-to-end processing would be 20 nanoseconds. To process 1K petabytes would require a total end-to-end processing time of roughly 635 years. Thus effective processing of Exabyte of data will require extensive parallel processing and new analytics algorithms in order to provide timely and actionable information Kaisler Armour Espinosa Money 2013. 5

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4. CHALLENGES IN BIG DATA The challenges in Big Data are usually the real implementation hurdles which require immediate attention. Any implementation without handling these challenges may lead to the failure of the technology implementation and some unpleasant results. 4.1 Privacy and Security It is the most important challenges with Big data which is sensitive and includes conceptual technical as well as legal significance. • The personal information e.g. in database of a merchant or social networking website of a person when combined with external large data sets leads to the inference of new facts about that person and it’s possible that these kinds of facts about the person are secretive and the person might not want the data owner to know or any person to know about them. • Information regarding the people is collected and used in order to add value to the business of the organization. This is done by creating insights in their lives which they are unaware of. • Another important consequence arising would be Social stratification where a literate person would be taking advantages of the Big data predictive analysis and on the other hand underprivileged will be easily identified and treated worse. • Big Data used by law enforcement will increase the chances of certain tagged people to suffer from adverse consequences without the ability to fight back or even having knowledge that they are being discriminated. 4.2 Data Access and Sharing of Information If the data in the companies information systems is to be used to make accurate decisions in time it becomes necessary that it should be available in accurate complete and timely manner. This makes the data management and governance process bit complex adding the necessity to make data open and make it available to government agencies in standardized manner with standardized APIs metadata and formats thus leading to better decision making business intelligence and productivity improvements. Expecting sharing of data between companies is awkward because of the need to get an edge in business. Sharing data about their clients and operations threatens the culture of secrecy and competitiveness. 6

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4.3 Analytical Challenges The main challenging questions are as: • What if data volume gets so large and varied and it is not known how to deal with it • Does all data need to be stored • Does all data need to be analyzed • How to find out which data points are really important • How can the data be used to best advantage Big data brings along with it some huge analytical challenges. The type of analysis to be done on this huge amount of data which can be unstructured semi structured or structured requires a large number of advance skills. Moreover the type of analysis which is needed to be done on the data depends highly on the results to be obtained i.e. decision making. This can be done by using one of two techniques: either incorporate massive data volumes in analysis or determine upfront which Big data is relevant. 4.4 Human Resources and Manpower Since Big data is at its youth and an emerging technology so it needs to attract organizations and youth with diverse new skill sets. These skills should not be limited to technical ones but also should extend to research analytical interpretive and creative ones. These skills need to be developed in individuals hence requires training programs to be held by the organizations. Moreover the Universities need to introduce curriculum on Big data to produce skilled employees in this expertise. 4.5 Technical Challenges 4.5.1 Fault Tolerance: With the incoming of new technologies like Cloud computing and Big data it is always intended that whenever the failure occurs the damage done should be within acceptable threshold rather than beginning the whole task from the scratch. Fault-tolerant computing is extremely hard involving intricate algorithms. It is simply not possible to devise absolutely foolproof 100 reliable fault tolerant machines or software. Thus the main task is to reduce the probability of failure to an "acceptable" level. Unfortunately the more we strive to reduce this probability the higher the cost. Two methods which seem to increase the fault tolerance in Big data are as: • First is to divide the whole computation being done into tasks and assign these tasks to different nodes for computation. 7

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• Second is one node is assigned the work of observing that these nodes are working properly. If something happens that particular task is restarted. But sometimes it’s quite possible that that the whole computation can’t be divided into such independent tasks. There could be some tasks which might be recursive in nature and the output of the previous computation of task is the input to the next computation. Thus restarting the whole computation becomes cumbersome process. This can be avoided by applying Checkpoints which keeps the state of the system at certain intervals of the time. In case of any failure the computation can restart from last checkpoint maintained. 4.5.2 Scalability: The scalability issue of Big data has lead towards cloud computing which now aggregates multiple disparate workloads with varying performance goals into very large clusters. This requires a high level of sharing of resources which is expensive and also brings with it various challenges like how to run and execute various jobs so that we can meet the goal of each workload cost effectively. It also requires dealing with the system failures in an efficient manner which occurs more frequently if operating on large clusters. These factors combined put the concern on how to express the programs even complex machine learning tasks. There has been a huge shift in the technologies being used. Hard Disk Drives HDD are being replaced by the solid state Drives and Phase Change technology which are not having the same performance between sequential and random data transfer. Thus what kinds of storage devices are to be used is again a big question for data storage. 4.5.3 Quality of Data: Collection of huge amount of data and its storage comes at a cost. More data if used for decision making or for predictive analysis in business will definitely lead to better results. Business Leaders will always want more and more data storage whereas the IT Leaders will take all technical aspects in mind before storing all the data. Big data basically focuses on quality data storage rather than having very large irrelevant data so that better results and conclusions can be drawn. This further leads to various questions like how it can be ensured that which data is relevant how much data would be enough for decision making and whether the stored data is accurate or not to draw conclusions from it etc. Katal Wazid Goudar 2013. 4.5.4 Heterogeneous Data: Unstructured data represents almost every kind of data being produced like social media interactions to recorded meetings to handling of PDF documents fax transfers to emails and more. Working with unstructured data is 8

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cumbersome and of course costly too. Converting all this unstructured data into structured one is also not feasible. Structured data is always organized into highly mechanized and manageable way. It shows well integration with database but unstructured data is completely raw and unorganized. 5. BIG DATA TECHNOLOGIES AND PROJECTS Big data requires exceptional technologies to efficiently process large quantities of data within tolerable elapsed times. Technologies being applied to big data include massively parallel processing MPP databases data mining grids distributed file systems distributed databases cloud computing platforms the Internet and scalable storage systems. Real or near-real time information delivery is one of the defining characteristics of Big Data Analytics. A wide variety of techniques and technologies has been developed and adapted to aggregate manipulate analyze and visualize big data. These techniques and technologies draw from several fields including statistics computer science applied mathematics and economics. This means that an organization that intends to derive value from big data has to adopt a flexible multidisciplinary approach. When an enterprise can leverage all the information available with large data rather than just a subset of its data then it has a powerful advantage over the market competitors. Big Data can help to gain insights and make better decisions. Big Data presents an opportunity to create unprecedented business advantage and better service delivery. The average end user accesses myriad websites and employs a growing number of operating systems and apps daily utilizing a variety of mobile and desktop devices. This translates to an overwhelming and ever-increasing volume velocity and variety of data generated shared and propagated. Successful protection relies on the right combination of methodologies human insight an expert understanding of the threat landscape and the efficient processing of big data to create actionable intelligence. 5.1 Big Data Technologies The International Data Corporation IDC study predicts that overall data will grow by 50 times by 2020 driven in large part by more embedded systems such as sensors in clothing medical devices and structures like buildings and bridges. The study also determined that unstructured information - such as files email and video - will account for 90 of all data created over the next decade. But the number of IT professionals available to manage all 9

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that data will only grow by 1.5 times todays levels Worlds data will grow by 50X in next decade IDC study predicts 2011.The digital universe is 1.8 trillion gigabytes in size and stored in 500 quadrillion files. And its size gets more than double in every two years time frame. If we compare the digital universe with our physical universe then its nearly as many bits of information in the digital universe as stars in our physical universe The 2011 Digital Universe Study: Extracting Value from Chaos 2011. Given a very large heterogeneous data set a major challenge is to figure out what data one has and how to analyze it. Unlike the previous two sections hybrid data sets combined from many other data sets hold more surprises than immediate answers. To analyze these data will require adapting and integrating multiple analytic techniques to ―see around corners‖ e.g. to realize that new knowledge is likely to emerge in a non-linear way. It is not clear that statistical analysis methods as Ayres argues are or can be the whole answer. A Big Data platform should give a solution which is designed specifically with the needs of the enterprise in the mind. The following are the basic features of a Big Data Platform offering Singh Singh 2012- • Comprehensive - It should offer a broad platform and address all three dimensions of the Big Data challenge -Volume Variety and Velocity. • Enterprise-ready - It should include the performance security usability and reliability features. • Integrated - It should simplify and accelerates the introduction of Big Data technology to enterprise. It should enable integration with information supply chain including databases data warehouses and business intelligence applications. • Open source based - It should be open source technology with the enterprise-class functionality and integration. • Low latency reads and updates • Robust and fault-tolerant • Scalability • Extensible • Allows adhoc queries • Minimal maintenance Mainly used technique is Hadoop which is open source. 10

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Hadoop Hadoop is an open source project hosted by Apache Software Foundation. It consists of many small sub projects which belong to the category of infrastructure for distributed computing. Hadoop mainly consists of: • File System The Hadoop File System • Programming Paradigm Map Reduce The other subprojects provide complementary services or they are building on the core to add higher-level abstractions. There exist many problems in dealing with storage of large amount of data. Though the storage capacities of the drives have increased massively but the rate of reading data from them hasn’t shown that considerable improvement. The reading process takes large amount of time and the process of writing is also slower. This time can be reduced by reading from multiple disks at once. Only using one hundredth of a disk may seem wasteful. But if there are one hundred datasets each of which is one terabyte and providing shared access to them is also a solution. There occur many problems also with using many pieces of hardware as it increases the chances of failure. This can be avoided by Replication i.e. creating redundant copies of the same data at different devices so that in case of failure the copy of the data is available. 11 Figure 3 : Hadoop High Level Architecture Patel Birla Nair 2013

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The main problem is of combining the data being read from different devices. Many a methods are available in distributed computing to handle this problem but still it is quite challenging. All the problems discussed are easily handled by Hadoop. The problem of failure is handled by the Hadoop Distributed File System and problem of combining data is handled by Map reduce programming Paradigm. Map Reduce basically reduces the problem of disk reads and writes by providing a programming model dealing in computation with keys and values. Hadoop thus provides: a reliable shared storage and analysis system. The storage is provided by HDFS and analysis by MapReduce Katal Wazid Goudar 2013. Figure 4 : HDFS Architecture Patel Birla Nair 2013 The following are the key Big Data tools available in the market for the enterprise use- Table 1: Tools available for Big Data Tool Description It is open source Apache Hadoop with IBM Big Sheet which is able IBM to analyze data in its native format without imposing any schema/ InfoSphereBigInsights structure and enables fast adhoc analysis. 12

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WX2 Kognitio Analytical It is a fast and scalable in-memory analytic database platform Platform It is a columnar massively parallel processing MPP analytic ParAccel Analytic database platform. It has strong features for the query optimization Platform and compilation compression and network interconnect. It is a columnar analytic database platform that achieves linear data SAND Analytic Platform scalability through massively parallel processing MPP. 5.2 Big Data Projects The table below describes the some of the projects which are using Big Data effectively. Table 2: Various Big Data Projects Domain Description 1. The Large Hadron Collider LHC is the worlds largest and highest-energy particle accelerator with the aim of allowing physicists to test the predictions of different theories of particle physics and high-energy physics. The data flow in experiments consists of 25 petabytes as of 2012 before replication and reaches Big Sciences upto 200 petabytes after replication. 2. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey is a multi-filter imaging and spectroscopic redshift survey using a 2.5-m wide-angle optical telescope at Apache Point Observatory in New Mexico United States. It is Continuing at a rate of about 200 GB per night and has more than 140 terabytes of information. 1. Amazon.com handles millions of back-end operations every day as well as queries from more than half a million third-party sellers. The core technology that keeps Amazon running is Linux-based and as of 2005 they had the world’s three largest Linux databases Private Sector with capacities of 7.8 TB 18.5 TB and 24.7 TB. 2. Walmart is estimated to store about more than 2.5 petabytes of data in order to handle about more than 1 million customer transactions every hour. 13

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1. The Obama administration project is a big initiative where a Government is trying to find the uses of the big data which eases their tasks somehow and thus reducing the problems faced. It includes 84 different Big data programs which are a part of 6 Governments different departments. 2. The Community Comprehensive National Cyber Security initiated a data center Utah Data Center United States NSA and Director of National Intelligence initiative which stores data in scale of yottabytes. Its main task is to provide cyber security. Information and Communication Technologies for Development ICT4D uses the Information and Communication Technologies International Development ICTs for the socio economic development human rights and international development. Big data can make important contributions to international development. 14

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6. BIG DATA ADVANTAGES AND GOOD PRACTICES The Big Data has numerous advantages on society science and technology. It is unto the way that how it is used for the human beings. Some of the advantages Marr 2013are described below: • Understanding and Targeting Customers This is one of the biggest and most publicized areas of big data use today. Here big data is used to better understand customers and their behaviors and preferences. Companies are keen to expand their traditional data sets with social media data browser logs as well as text analytics and sensor data to get a more complete picture of their customers. The big objective in many cases is to create predictive models. • Understanding and Optimizing Business Process Big data is also increasingly used to optimize business processes. Retailers are able to optimize their stock based on predictions generated from social media data web search trends and weather forecasts. One particular business process that is seeing a lot of big data analytics is supply chain or delivery route optimization. HR business processes are also being improved using big data analytics. This includes the optimization of talent acquisition – Moneyball style as well as the measurement of company culture and staff engagement using big data tool. • Improving Science and Research Science and research is currently being transformed by the new possibilities big data brings. Take for example CERN the Swiss nuclear physics lab with its Large Hadron Collider the world’s largest and most powerful particle accelerator. Experiments to unlock the secrets of our universe – how it started and works - generate huge amounts of data. The CERN data centre has 65000 processors to analyse its 30 petabytes of data. However it uses the computing powers of thousands of computers distributed across 150 data centres worldwide to analyse the data. Such computing powers can be leveraged to transform so many other areas of science and research. 15

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• Improving Healthcare and Public Health The computing power of big data analytics enables us to decode entire DNA strings in minutes and will allow us to find new cures and better understand and predict disease patterns. Just think of what happens when all the individual data from smart watches and wearable devices can be used to apply it to millions of people and their various diseases. The clinical trials of the future won’t be limited by small sample sizes but could potentially include everyone. • Optimizing Machine and Device Performance Big data analytics help machines and devices become smarter and more autonomous. For example big data tools are used to operate Google’s self-driving car. The Toyota Prius is fitted with cameras GPS as well as powerful computers and sensors to safely drive on the road without the intervention of human beings. Big data tools are also used to optimize energy grids using data from smart meters. We can even use big data tools to optimize the performance of computers and data warehouses. • Financial Trading High Frequency Trading HFT is an area where big data finds a lot of use today. Here big data algorithms are used to make trading decisions. Today the majority of equity trading now takes place via data algorithms that increasingly take into account signals from social media networks and news websites to make buy and sell decisions in split seconds. • Improving Security and Law Enforcement Big data is applied heavily in improving security and enabling law enforcement. The revelations are that the National Security Agency NSA in the U.S. uses big data analytics to foil terrorist plots and maybe spy on us. Others use big data techniques to detect and prevent cyber-attacks. Police forces use big data tools to catch criminals and even predict criminal activity and credit card companies use big data use it to detect fraudulent transactions. Some other advantages and uses includes improving sports performance improving and optimizing cities and countries personal quantification and performance optimization. 16

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• Good Practices for Big Data • Creating dimensions of all the data being store is a good practice for Big data analytics. It needs to be divided into dimensions and facts. • All the dimensions should have durable surrogate keys meaning that these keys can’t be changed by any business rule and are assigned in sequence or generated by some hashing algorithm ensuring uniqueness. • Expect to integrate structured and unstructured data as all kind of data is a part of Big data which needs to be analyzed together. • Generality of the technology is needed to deal with different formats of data. Building technology around key value pairs work. • Analyzing data sets including identifying information about individuals or organizations privacy is an issue whose importance particularly to consumers is growing as the value of Big data becomes more apparent. • Data quality needs to be better. Different tasks like filtering cleansing pruning conforming matching joining and diagnosing should be applied at the earliest touch points possible. • There should be certain limits on the scalability of the data stored. • Business leaders and IT leaders should work together to yield more business value from the data. Collecting storing and analyzing data comes at a cost. Business leaders will go for it but IT leaders have to look for many things like technological limitations staff restrictions etc. The decisions taken should be revised to ensure that the organization is considering the right data to produce insights at any given point of time. • Investment in data quality and metadata is also important as it reduces the processing time. 17

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7. CONCLUSION In this seminar report some of the important issues are covered that are needed to be analyzed by the organization while estimating the significance of implementing the Big Data technology and some direct challenges to the infrastructure of the technology. The commercial impacts of the Big data have the potential to generate significant productivity growth for a number of vertical sectors. They should also create healthy demand for talented individuals who are capable to help organizations in making sense of this growing volume of raw data. In short Big Data presents opportunity to create unprecedented business advantages and better service delivery. A regulatory framework for big data is essential. That framework must be constructed with a clear understanding of the ravages that have been wrought on personal interests by the reduction of information to data its centralization and its expropriation but the biggest gap is the lack of the skilled managers to make decisions based on analysis by a factor of 10x. Growing talent and building teams to make analytic-based decisions is the key to realize the value of Big Data. 18

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REFERENCES Aveksa Inc. 2013. Ensuring ―Big Data‖ Security with Identity and Access Management. Waltham MA: Aveksa. Hewlett-Packard Development Company. 2012. Big Security for Big Data. L.P.: Hewlett- Packard Development Company. Kaisler S. Armour F. Espinosa J. A. Money W. 2013. Big Data: Issues and Challenges Moving Forward. International Confrence on System Sciences pp. 995-1004. Hawaii: IEEE Computer Soceity. Katal A. Wazid M. Goudar R. H. 2013. Big Data: Issues Challenges Tools and Good Practices. IEEE 404-409. Marr B. 2013 November 13. The Awesome Ways Big Data is used Today to Change Our World. Retrieved November 14 2013 from LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/today /post/article/20131113065157-64875646-the-awesome-ways-big-data-is-used- today-to-change-our-world Patel A. B. Birla M. Nair U. 2013. Addressing Big Data Problem Using Hadoop and. Nirma University Gujrat: Nirma University. Singh S. Singh N. 2012. Big Data Analytics. International Conference on Communication Information Computing Technology ICCICT pp. 1-4. Mumbai: IEEE. The 2011 Digital Universe Study: Extracting Value from Chaos. 2011 November 30. Retrieved from EMC: http://www.emc.com/collateral/demos/microsites/emc- digital-universe-2011/index.htm Worlds data will grow by 50X in next decade IDC study predicts . 2011 June 28. Retrieved from Computer World: http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/9217988/World_s_data_will_grow_by_50X_in_ne xt_decade_IDC_study_predicts 19

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