An Analytical Chemist's Search for Neutrinos in Antarctica

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The Askaryan Radio Array at the South Pole, as viewed from the Instrumentation Design Laboratory at the University of Kansas

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An Analytical Chemist’s Search for Neutrinos at the South Pole:

An Analytical Chemist’s Search for Neutrinos at the South Pole Ken Ratzlaff Instrumentation Design Laboratory The University of Kansas KU Analytical Seminar May 2, 2011

The Elusive Neutrino:

The Elusive Neutrino The most inert particle, postulated by Wolfgang Pauli. “I have done a terrible thing. I have invented a particle that cannot be detected.” Produced by high-energy processes – accelerators, nuclear reactors, the sun, cosmic events (supernovae), the Big Bang, etc. Cosmic Gall , by John Updike Neutrinos they are very small. They have no charge and have no mass And do not interact at all. The earth is just a silly ball To them, through which they simply pass, Like dustmaids down a drafty hall . . . almost

Looking for UHE neutrinos:

Looking for UHE neutrinos Energy Shorthand 10 3 eV = 1,000 eV ; Kev = Kilo electron volt 10 6 eV = 1,000,000 eV ; MeV = Mega electron volt 10 9 eV = 1,000,000,000 eV ; GeV =Giga electron volt 10 12 eV = 1,000,000,000,000 eV ; TeV = Terra electron volt 10 15 eV = 1,000,000,000,000,000 eV ; PeV = Peta electron volt 10 18 eV = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 eV ; EeV = Exa electron volt } UHE ν

Why?:

Why? To use the cosmos as a giant accelerator. Study the results of UHE “atom- smashing.” “ You can see a lot by looking” – Yogi Berra Create a telescope capable of seeing new phenomena

We have looked into space with light for all human history:

We have looked into space with light for all human history Light To our eyes, the space between stars appears “empty.”

Light has its limits:

Light has its limits Light Over a LONG distance, space is “cloudy.”

But Neutrinos . . .:

But Neutrinos . . . To a neutrino, space is transparent. It doesn’t hit anything! Neutrino

How can we sense an inert UHE particle?:

How can we sense an inert UHE particle? Detection mechanism proposed by G. Askaryan (1962): Measure the coherent RF signal generated by neutrino interaction in dielectric media (such as ice) . E > 10 17 eV electric field strength proportional to the square of the shower energy Particle cascade

Puzzle – How can we detect Neutrinos?:

Puzzle – How can we detect Neutrinos? For our best chance, we need: A homogeneous dense medium better chance of a collision to produce a radio pulse. A radio-transparent medium better to detect that radio pulse . Ice and Salt qualify. Salt is difficult. Greenland or Antarctic ice could work.

Ultra-High Energy Neutrinos in Ice:

Ultra-High Energy Neutrinos in Ice When a UHE neutrino hits an oxygen atom, the collision produces a tiny Cherenkov radio pulse. Ice is very transparent to radio. BUT, even at SP, radio is all around us. we must sense radio and discriminate against noise. First measurements developed in the ice by Professor Dave Besson at KU: the “Radio In-Ice Cerenkov Experiment” – RICE .

Of the 7 Continents, Antarctica is:

Least populated. About 5000 in summer in many stations and camps; less than 1000 in winter. Coldest.. Averages about - 60F. Biggest Laboratory A wonderful place to do science! It’s isolated, cold, dark, clean and icy! Darkest. For half the year, NO sun . (And for half the year, no darkness.) Unmilitarized . By treaty (1960), no armed military , no mining , no political boundaries . . . Of the 7 Continents, Antarctica is Highest. Averages 7500 ft. Driest. Average: a few inches. Windiest Mostly on the margins. Most fresh Water. About 70% of world’s fresh water held in the ice. Big.

Antarctica’s Regions:

Antarctica’s Regions Coast Ice shelves Mountains Plateau LOTS of great ice!

Prepare for Antarctica – Christchurch, New Zealand:

Prepare for Antarctica – Christchurch, New Zealand

Arrival in McMurdo:

Arrival in McMurdo

The Gateway to Antarctica:

The Gateway to Antarctica

Next Stop: Pole:

Next Stop: Pole

What’s it Like?:

What’s it Like? 180 ft of packed ice Over 9000 ft of clear ice Cool: Summer (December/January) around - 20F. Sun up 24 hours a day. Sunshine contains high-intensity UV (damages eyes and burns skin.) Very, very, very dry. High Altitude: 9300 ft. ( T o our bodies, it’s like 10,300 ft .) Bedrock Under-Ice Lake

Amundsen-Scott Station:

Amundsen-Scott Station

Cleanest Air Atmospheric Research Observatory:

Cleanest Air Atmospheric Research Observatory Now, Some Science – A few examples

Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station:

Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station

RF Detection (RICE version):

RF Detection (RICE version) ~ 10 PeV event 600 m To identify a neutron, the radio wave must reach antennas in a coherent order – and NOT from straight up where most bogus signals originate.

Original RICE Instrument:

Original RICE Instrument MALU determines if the antennas were hit almost simultaneously. Computer needed to see if they came in a valid order. If the data are good enough, we can reconstruct where they came from! It’s a telescope. Problem: Bogus hits – low live-time.

HSV modification:

HSV modification

HSV/FPGA Block Diagram:

HSV/FPGA Block Diagram

HSV Unit:

HSV Unit FPGA compares dozens of antenna hit-times with dozens of patterns in under 100ns.

GUI on the PC:

GUI on the PC

Next Stage:

Next Stage With the improvements, we still only can detect a few neutrinos per year! Next: Need a lot more antennas Cover a much larger volume Digitize close to the antenna Multiple Levels of veto IceCube has holes and infrastructure! – Segue to AURA , A skar’yan U nder-Ice R adio A rray. But first . . .

The IceCube Experiment:

The IceCube Experiment Detect light emission with photomultipliers in DOMs. Instrument a cubic kilometer.

IceCube Deployment:

IceCube Deployment

Completed, December, 2010! 80 strings, 60 DOMs/String :

Completed, December, 2010! 80 strings, 60 DOMs/String

AURA: Radio Detectors in Ice-Cube Holes:

AURA: Radio Detectors in Ice-Cube Holes

Deployment Detail:

Deployment Detail

DRM Block Diagram:

DRM Block Diagram

Antenna Block Diagram:

Antenna Block Diagram

DRM Components:

DRM Components

AURA Extension to IceCube:

AURA Extension to IceCube

AURA Extension to IceCube:

AURA Extension to IceCube

High Power Calibration Points:

High Power Calibration Points Need power pulses 5v then 40v then 250v t hen 5kv Pulsewidth << ns 2009 ACU board

Power and Comms:

Power and Comms Power & communications over single pair for 1-3 km.

Off to SP for deployment:

Off to SP for deployment

AURAWaveform Examples:

AURAWaveform Examples

The Askaryan Radio Array:

Wisconsin Hawaii Maryland Kansas Belgium Taiwan Germany Ohio State London Adelaide The Askaryan Radio Array 37 detector stations • Each station has 4 strings of 200m depth • Each string has 2 Vpol + 2 Hpol broadband, deep antennas (200 MHz - 1 GHz) Area: ~80 km^2 Depth of ice sheet at the South Pole: 2.8km Effective Volume at high energies: ~2.5km*80km 2 = 200 km 3

ARA Station & Antenna Cluster:

ARA Station & Antenna Cluster

Each Cluster:

Each Cluster 4 antenna holes, 200m (well into ice). New: separate polarization measurements. Rubidium clock with GPS discipline for timing in order to do glaciology measurements. Pulser antenna for calibration. Runs on 100W or so. Where do we get the power?

First Challenge – Finding Power:

Possibilities: Diesel Generators Solar Panels Wind Turbines In 2011, The IDL adds Wind Turbines. First Challenge – Finding Power

Turbine Challenges on the Plateau:

Turbine Challenges on the Plateau Bearings to -80C (-100F). Test each bearing Grease with very low temperature grease Protect from “Diamond Dust”? Electrical noise. Power Generation Triboelectric effect on tower Slip Rings Materials – test to -80C. Wind outages Batteries. Capacity? Survivability? Data collection and transfer.

2011 – Finding Power:

2011 – Finding Power

Deploying Wind Bird 1:

Deploying Wind Bird 1

Wind - Bird 2:

Wind - Bird 2

Out to Wind-Bird 3:

Out to Wind-Bird 3

Raising Wind Bird 3:

Raising Wind Bird 3

Monitoring the Power System:

Monitoring the Power System

System Health Monitor Board:

System Health Monitor Board

Power Measurement Board:

Power Measurement Board

Time to Head Home & Prepare for Next Season:

Time to Head Home & Prepare for Next Season

Acknowledgements:

Acknowledgements Hardware Surface Veto Prof. Dave Besson, KU Physics Dr. Ilya Kravchenko , MIT John Ledford, MSEE, Design Engineer, IDL Jeff Worth, EET, Engineering Tech, IDL National Science Foundation

Acknowledgements:

Acknowledgements AURA DRM work Kansas Prof. Dave Besson, Physics John Ledford, MSEE, Design Engineer, IDL Jeff Worth, EET, Engineering Tech, IDL Wisconsin Prof. Albrecht Karle, Physics Dr. Hagar Landsman, IceCube Andrew Laundrie , MSEE, IceCube Perry Sandstrom , MSEE, IceCube IceCube Support Staff Penn State Dr. Dawn Williams, Physics Maryland Prof. Kara Hoffman, Physics Rob Bard, BSEE, Physics Hawaii- Manoa Dr. Gary Varner, Physics Larry Ruckman , Physics Delaware Prof. Dave Seckel , Bartol Institute National Science Foundation Raytheon Polar Services

Acknowledgements:

Acknowledgements ACU work Prof. Dave Besson, KU Physics Rob Young, MSEE, Design Engineer, IDL John Ledford, MSEE, Design Engineer, IDL Jeff Worth, EET, Engineering Tech, IDL Rob Bard, EE, Maryland Physics National Science Foundation Raytheon Polar Services

Acknowledgements:

Acknowledgements Turbine work Prof. Dave Besson, KU Physics Rob Young, MSEE, Design Engineer, IDL Jeff Worth, EET, Engineering Tech, IDL Andrew Wendorff, KU student Dan Kennedy, KU student National Science Foundation Raytheon Polar Services (esp. Jason Hunter, Kate Allen, Jesse Palmer)

The future:

The future 2012-2013: Test final prototype. 2014-2018: ARA-37 Tentative future: several hundred km 2 detector.

Neutrino of Love:

Neutrino of Love I go undetected In all my interactions I cannot be seen From any point of view You won't know if I'm here Except when I'm gone I'm the neutrino of love And I'm coming over you You cannot keep me in a cage No matter how thick the walls I will escape You cannot hold me in a box Cannot bind me with a lock Cannot keep me anyway I'm not afraid of the dark I'm the neutrino Neutrino of love I'm the neutrino Neutrino of love I go undetected In all my interactions I cannot be seen From any point of view You won't know if I'm here Except when I'm gone I'm the neutrino of love And I'm coming over you I'm the neutrino baby Neutrino of love Cannot inhibit my infiltration Neutrino Cannot prevent my penetration Neutrino I am the neutrino Dylan Casey

PowerPoint Presentation:

Askaryan Radio Array (ARA) 37 detector stations • Each station has 4 strings of 200m depth • Each string has 2 Vpol + 2 Hpol broadband, deep antennas (200 MHz - 1 GHz) Area: ~80 km^2 IceCube Depth of ice sheet at the South Pole: 2.8km Effective Volume at high energies: ~2.5km*80km 2 = 200 km 3 South Pole Station 64

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