Doing Science in the Extreme - 6

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Science in the Extreme at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station:

Science in the Extreme at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station Ken Ratzlaff The University of Kansas The Fourth Friday Edition

Humans have always been interested in extreme places . . .:

Whither shall I go from thy spirit? or whither shall I flee from thy presence? If I ascend up into heaven, thou art there: if I make my bed in the depths, behold, thou art there . If I take the wings of the morning, and dwell in the uttermost parts of the sea; Even there shall thy hand lead me, and thy right hand shall hold me. If I say, Surely the darkness shall cover me; even the night shall be light about me. Yea , the darkness hideth not from thee; but the night shineth as the day: the darkness and the light are both alike to thee . Psalm 139 Humans have always been interested in extreme places . . .

We all know Antarctica, right?:

Let’s look at the rest of Antarctica! Now, We all know Antarctica, right? … from those wonderful National Geographic Specials!

What do you know about Antarctica?:

Most fresh Water. About 70% of world’s fresh water held in the ice. Least populated. About 5000 in summer in many stations and camps; less than 1000 in winter. Coldest.. Averages about - 60F. Biggest Laboratory A wonderful place to do science! It’s isolated, cold, dark, clean and icy! Darkest. For half the year, NO sun . (And for half the year, no darkness.) What do you know about Antarctica? Highest. Averages 7500 ft. Windiest Mostly on the margins. Big. Of the 7 continents, Antarctica is Driest; b iggest desert. Average: a few inches. Governed by treaty (1960). No armed military operations; no mining; no political boundaries; Limits on domestic animals; all waste removed; controlled contact with flora & fauna . . .

Antarctica’s Regions:

Antarctica’s Regions Everything below 60ᵒ S is protected. Coast Ice shelves Mountains Plateau Station examples: McMurdo Palmer Amundsen-Scott Vostok Concordia

Let’s Go to Pole!:

Let’s Go to Pole! First, to New Zealand, south island

South Island Region:

South Island Region

Christchurch (before Feb. quake):

Christchurch (before Feb. quake)

Prepare for Antarctica:

Prepare for Antarctica Clothing Distribution Center, Christchurch

Arrival in McMurdo:

Arrival in McMurdo

MacTown:

MacTown

The Gateway to Antarctica:

The Gateway to Antarctica

Science Base:

Science Base

Robert Scott’s Discovery Hut:

Robert Scott’s Discovery Hut

Next Stop: Pole:

Next Stop: Pole

On the Plateau:

On the Plateau

What do we find on the plateau?:

What do we find on the plateau? 180 ft of packed ice Over 9000 ft of clear ice Cool: Summer (December/January) around - 20F. Sun shines 24 hours a day. Sunshine contains high-intensity UV. Very, very, very dry. High Altitude: 9300 ft. (Feels like 10,300 ft .) Bedrock Under-Ice Lake

Amundsen-Scott Station:

Amundsen-Scott Station

The Old Dome:

The Old Dome

Station Life :

Station Life

Station Support:

Station Support

Having fun!:

Having fun!

Tourists:

Tourists

In the Cleanest Air Atmospheric Research Observatory:

In the Cleanest Air Atmospheric Research Observatory Now, Some Science – A few examples

In a Dark, Polar Environment Great for optical telescopes, study of auroras:

In a Dark, Polar Environment Great for optical telescopes, study of auroras

In a High and Cold environment Great for infrared & microwave telescopes:

In a High and Cold environment Great for infrared & microwave telescopes

Slide 27:

[now, just a little detailed science] A Telescope in the Ice To “view” the most distant parts of the universe, use neutrinos instead of light. IceCube was just completed last December. ARA is just starting.

What are a Neutrinos?:

Cosmic Gall , by John Updike (December, 1960, New Yorker) Neutrinos they are very small. They have no charge and have no mass And do not interact at all. The earth is just a silly ball To them, through which they simply pass, Like dustmaids down a drafty hall . . . almost hardly What are a Neutrinos? The only uncharged fundamental particles. Originate in nuclear reactions, stars (sun), black holes, supernovae, Big Bang.

We have looked into space with light for a million years:

We have looked into space with light for a million years Light To light, space appears “empty.”

Light has its limits:

Light has its limits Light Over a LONG distance, space is “cloudy.”

But Neutrinos . . .:

But Neutrinos . . . To a neutrino, space is transparent! Neutrino

How can we detect neutrinos?:

How can we detect neutrinos? They are not affected by any kind of lens. They rarely are absorbed. Very rarely, a cosmic neutrino hits a molecule. High energy neutrinos will give a flash of blue light. Clear ice is an ideal place to detect these events.

The IceCube Experiment:

The IceCube Experiment

IceCube Deployment:

IceCube Deployment

Completed, December, 2010!:

Completed, December, 2010!

For an Ultra High Energy neutrino . . .:

For an Ultra High Energy neutrino . . . Mechanism proposed by G. Askaryan (1962): A coherent radio signal is generated by neutrino interaction in dielectric media (such as ice) . In a cubic kilometer of ice, only a handful of events per year! E > 10 17 eV Particle cascade

Ultra-High Energy Neutrinos . . .:

Ultra-High Energy Neutrinos . . . When a UHE neutrino hits an ice molecule, it produces a tiny radio pulse. Ice is very transparent to radio waves. First developed in the ice by Professor Dave Besson at KU: the “Radio In-Ice Cerenkov Experiment” – RICE . Adapted in 2006 to the IceCube Holes -- AURA .

AURA Extension to IceCube:

AURA Extension to IceCube

AURA Extension to IceCube:

AURA Extension to IceCube

The Askaryan Radio Array:

Wisconsin Hawaii Maryland Kansas Belgium Taiwan Germany Ohio State London Japan(2) Australia(2) The Askaryan Radio Array

ARA Stations:

ARA Stations

Drilling and Deploying:

Drilling and Deploying

Next Challenge – Finding Power:

Possibilities: Diesel Generators Solar Panels Wind Turbines In 2011, we study Wind Turbines. Next Challenge – Finding Power

2011 – Finding Power:

2011 – Finding Power

Deploying Wind Bird 1:

Deploying Wind Bird 1

Wind - Bird 2:

Wind - Bird 2

Out to Wind-Bird 3:

Out to Wind-Bird 3

Raising Wind Bird 3:

Raising Wind Bird 3

Time to Head Home & Prepare for Next Season:

Time to Head Home & Prepare for Next Season

Into the sunset?:

Into the sunset?

Acknowledgements:

Acknowledgements Prof. Dave Besson, KU Physics Rob Young, Design Engineer, IDL Jeff Worth, Engineering Tech, IDL Andrew Wendorff, KU student Dan Kennedy, KU student Photo contributions: Andrew Wendorff, Mike Duvernois , and SP shared photos. National Science Foundation Raytheon Polar Services (esp. Jason Hunter, Kate Allen, Jesse Palmer)

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