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Premium member Presentation Transcript Science in the Extreme at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station: Science in the Extreme at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station Ken Ratzlaff The University of Kansas The Fourth Friday EditionHumans have always been interested in extreme places . . .: Whither shall I go from thy spirit? or whither shall I flee from thy presence? If I ascend up into heaven, thou art there: if I make my bed in the depths, behold, thou art there . If I take the wings of the morning, and dwell in the uttermost parts of the sea; Even there shall thy hand lead me, and thy right hand shall hold me. If I say, Surely the darkness shall cover me; even the night shall be light about me. Yea , the darkness hideth not from thee; but the night shineth as the day: the darkness and the light are both alike to thee . Psalm 139 Humans have always been interested in extreme places . . .We all know Antarctica, right?: Let’s look at the rest of Antarctica! Now, We all know Antarctica, right? … from those wonderful National Geographic Specials!What do you know about Antarctica?: Most fresh Water. About 70% of world’s fresh water held in the ice. Least populated. About 5000 in summer in many stations and camps; less than 1000 in winter. Coldest.. Averages about - 60F. Biggest Laboratory A wonderful place to do science! It’s isolated, cold, dark, clean and icy! Darkest. For half the year, NO sun . (And for half the year, no darkness.) What do you know about Antarctica? Highest. Averages 7500 ft. Windiest Mostly on the margins. Big. Of the 7 continents, Antarctica is Driest; b iggest desert. Average: a few inches. Governed by treaty (1960). No armed military operations; no mining; no political boundaries; Limits on domestic animals; all waste removed; controlled contact with flora & fauna . . .Antarctica’s Regions: Antarctica’s Regions Everything below 60ᵒ S is protected. Coast Ice shelves Mountains Plateau Station examples: McMurdo Palmer Amundsen-Scott Vostok ConcordiaLet’s Go to Pole!: Let’s Go to Pole! First, to New Zealand, south islandSouth Island Region: South Island RegionChristchurch (before Feb. quake): Christchurch (before Feb. quake)Prepare for Antarctica: Prepare for Antarctica Clothing Distribution Center, ChristchurchArrival in McMurdo: Arrival in McMurdoMacTown: MacTownThe Gateway to Antarctica: The Gateway to AntarcticaScience Base: Science BaseRobert Scott’s Discovery Hut: Robert Scott’s Discovery HutNext Stop: Pole: Next Stop: PoleOn the Plateau: On the PlateauWhat do we find on the plateau?: What do we find on the plateau? 180 ft of packed ice Over 9000 ft of clear ice Cool: Summer (December/January) around - 20F. Sun shines 24 hours a day. Sunshine contains high-intensity UV. Very, very, very dry. High Altitude: 9300 ft. (Feels like 10,300 ft .) Bedrock Under-Ice LakeAmundsen-Scott Station: Amundsen-Scott StationThe Old Dome: The Old DomeStation Life : Station LifeStation Support: Station SupportHaving fun!: Having fun!Tourists: TouristsIn the Cleanest Air Atmospheric Research Observatory: In the Cleanest Air Atmospheric Research Observatory Now, Some Science – A few examplesIn a Dark, Polar Environment Great for optical telescopes, study of auroras: In a Dark, Polar Environment Great for optical telescopes, study of aurorasIn a High and Cold environment Great for infrared & microwave telescopes: In a High and Cold environment Great for infrared & microwave telescopesSlide 27: [now, just a little detailed science] A Telescope in the Ice To “view” the most distant parts of the universe, use neutrinos instead of light. IceCube was just completed last December. ARA is just starting.What are a Neutrinos?: Cosmic Gall , by John Updike (December, 1960, New Yorker) Neutrinos they are very small. They have no charge and have no mass And do not interact at all. The earth is just a silly ball To them, through which they simply pass, Like dustmaids down a drafty hall . . . almost hardly What are a Neutrinos? The only uncharged fundamental particles. Originate in nuclear reactions, stars (sun), black holes, supernovae, Big Bang.We have looked into space with light for a million years: We have looked into space with light for a million years Light To light, space appears “empty.”Light has its limits: Light has its limits Light Over a LONG distance, space is “cloudy.”But Neutrinos . . .: But Neutrinos . . . To a neutrino, space is transparent! NeutrinoHow can we detect neutrinos?: How can we detect neutrinos? They are not affected by any kind of lens. They rarely are absorbed. Very rarely, a cosmic neutrino hits a molecule. High energy neutrinos will give a flash of blue light. Clear ice is an ideal place to detect these events.The IceCube Experiment: The IceCube ExperimentIceCube Deployment: IceCube DeploymentCompleted, December, 2010!: Completed, December, 2010!For an Ultra High Energy neutrino . . .: For an Ultra High Energy neutrino . . . Mechanism proposed by G. Askaryan (1962): A coherent radio signal is generated by neutrino interaction in dielectric media (such as ice) . In a cubic kilometer of ice, only a handful of events per year! E > 10 17 eV Particle cascadeUltra-High Energy Neutrinos . . .: Ultra-High Energy Neutrinos . . . When a UHE neutrino hits an ice molecule, it produces a tiny radio pulse. Ice is very transparent to radio waves. First developed in the ice by Professor Dave Besson at KU: the “Radio In-Ice Cerenkov Experiment” – RICE . Adapted in 2006 to the IceCube Holes -- AURA .AURA Extension to IceCube: AURA Extension to IceCubeAURA Extension to IceCube: AURA Extension to IceCubeThe Askaryan Radio Array: Wisconsin Hawaii Maryland Kansas Belgium Taiwan Germany Ohio State London Japan(2) Australia(2) The Askaryan Radio ArrayARA Stations: ARA StationsDrilling and Deploying: Drilling and DeployingNext Challenge – Finding Power: Possibilities: Diesel Generators Solar Panels Wind Turbines In 2011, we study Wind Turbines. Next Challenge – Finding Power2011 – Finding Power: 2011 – Finding PowerDeploying Wind Bird 1: Deploying Wind Bird 1Wind - Bird 2: Wind - Bird 2Out to Wind-Bird 3: Out to Wind-Bird 3Raising Wind Bird 3: Raising Wind Bird 3Time to Head Home & Prepare for Next Season: Time to Head Home & Prepare for Next SeasonInto the sunset?: Into the sunset?Acknowledgements: Acknowledgements Prof. Dave Besson, KU Physics Rob Young, Design Engineer, IDL Jeff Worth, Engineering Tech, IDL Andrew Wendorff, KU student Dan Kennedy, KU student Photo contributions: Andrew Wendorff, Mike Duvernois , and SP shared photos. National Science Foundation Raytheon Polar Services (esp. Jason Hunter, Kate Allen, Jesse Palmer) You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.