Defined as…. : Defined as…. …….Can be defined as
“ Those inner psychological characteristics that both determine & reflect how a person responds to his or her environment. ” Slide 2: that distinguish one individual from other individuals
the deeply ingrained characteristics that we call personality influences the individual's
product choices Inner characteristics —
those specific The Nature Of Personality… : The Nature Of Personality… Theories of Personality… : Theories of Personality… Unconscious needs or drives are at the heart of human motivation Social relationships fundamental formation and `development of personality Quantitative approach psychological traits 1. Freudian theory… : 1. Freudian theory… Sigmund Freud believed that unconscious thoughts controlled the conscious mind and this plays a significant role in developing our personalities
Freud proposed that personality is made up of three parts:
Our primitive instincts or drives
Our urge to ‘do what is right’ – achieving perfection
The ‘balance’ between the id and the superego Freudian theory : Freudian theory Eg. If ur thirsty
At id level-
U would grab some water from any body having a water bottle. It superego-
U ask the person for water. But at EGO
u may buy a water bottle or any other drink. Structures of the Mind : Structures of the Mind VALUES – STANDARDS – JUDGMENTS
MOTIVES – ETHICS - BELIEFS Slide 8: Lmn ad
Fuel and almost all ads Application of Freud’s ideas in marketing: : Application of Freud’s ideas in marketing: human drives are largely unconscious, and consumers are primarily unaware of their true reasons for buying what they buy.
to underlying motivations and drives, e.g.:
Underlying sexual connotations in ads
Show glamorous people using the product – appealing to social acceptance of the product rather than its practical uses
Communicate message that anxiety may be reduced with the use of a particular product/service 2. Neo-Freudians (social theory) : 2. Neo-Freudians (social theory) Neo freudians
Those who further developed Freud’s ideas but presented new ways of looking at personality
Believed that individuals engage in constant adaptation and creative development, based on the environment
conscious mind and external factors are also important influences on personality
social relationships are fundamental to the formation and development of personality Neo - Freudian approach : Neo - Freudian approach Types… : Types… 3. Trait Theory : 3. Trait Theory A trait is defined as
“Any distinguishing, relatively enduring way
in which one individual differs from another.“
A personality characteristic, e.g. outgoing or shy
Primarily quantitative or empirical
Focuses on the measurement of personality in terms of specific traits.
Attempt to identify and categorise personality characteristics
Useful for Marketers to identify characteristics of a certain market segment
Personality traits that have been useful in differentiating between consumer innovators and non-innovators include Slide 15: seeking Trait Theory Consumer innovativeness : Consumer innovativeness How receptive are consumers to new products, new services, or new practices?
Recent consumer research indicates a positive relationship between innovative use of the Internet and buying online.
consumer innovators—those who are likely to try new products. Those innovators are often crucial to the success of new products.
Degree of rigidity displayed by an individual toward the unfamiliar & information contrary to their established beliefs.
Consumers low in dogmatism are more likely to prefer innovative products to established ones.
Consumers high in dogmatism are more accepting of authority-based ads for new products. Dogmatism Social Character : Social Character Social character is a personality trait that ranges on a continuum from inner-directed to other-directed.
Inner-directed consumers tend to rely on their own “inner” values or standards in evaluating new products and are innovators. They also prefer ads stressing product features and personal benefits.
Other-directed consumers tend to look to others for direction and are not innovators. They prefer ads that feature social environment and social acceptance.
people who seek to be unique.
These people avoid conformity. Need for Uniqueness Optimum Stimulation Level : Optimum Stimulation Level Sensation Seeking : Sensation Seeking Closely related to the OSI concept is sensation seeking (SS) which has been defined as “a trait characterized by the need for varied, novel, and complex sensations and experience, and the willingness to take physical and social risks for the sake of such experience.”
E.g. sports car.
This is similar to OSL.
Primary types are variety or novelty seeking
There appear to be many different types of variety seeking:
exploratory purchase behavior (e.g., switching brands to experience new and possibly better alternatives), shampoos, chocolates,
vicarious exploration (e.g., where the consumer secures information about a new or different alternative and then contemplates or even daydreams about the option), e.g. sports cars, modified bikes,
use innovativeness (e.g., where the consumer uses an already adopted product in a new or novel way).e.g sneakers
The third form of variety or novelty seeking—use innovativeness—is particularly relevant to technological products. Variety- novelty seeking Slide 20: Consumers with high variety seeking scores might also be attracted to brands that claim to have novel or multiple uses or applications.
Marketers, up to a point, benefit from thinking in terms of offering additional options to consumers seeking more product variety.
Ultimately, marketers must walk the fine line between offering consumers too little and too much choice.
The stream of research examined here indicates that the consumer innovator differs from the non-innovator in terms of personality orientation. Cognitive Personality Factors : Cognitive Personality Factors Consumers who prefer visual information and products that stress the visual.
Consumers who prefer written or verbal information and products that stress the verbal.
Helps marketers know whether to stress visual or written elements in their ads. Measure person’s interest in rational thinking.
High NC more interested in ad rich in product-related information & description.
low NC more attracted to the background or peripheral aspects of an ad.
They are also more responsive to cool colors. Consumer : Consumer Consumer Materialism
people feel possessions essential to their identity.
acquiring and showing off possessions
self-centered and selfish,
seek lifestyles full of possessions In the realm of abnormal behavior.
Consumers who are compulsive have an addiction, are out of control,
Their actions may
damage them and those
around them. Slide 23: Consumer Ethnocentrism: Responses to Foreign-Made Products : Consumer Ethnocentrism: Responses to Foreign-Made Products To identify consumer segments receptive to foreign-made products, researchers have developed and tested the consumer ethnocentrism scale—CETSCALE.
CETSCALE results identify consumers with a predisposition to reject or accept foreign-made products.
Consumers who are highly ethnocentric feel that it is wrong to purchase foreign-made products because it would hurt the domestic economy.
Non-ethnocentric consumers tend to evaluate foreign-made products more objectively.