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Lord B uddha

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Gautam Buddha Siddhārtha Gautama (Sanskrit: सिद्धार्थ गौतम; Pali: Siddhattha Gotama ) was aspiritual teacher from ancient India who founded Buddhism In most Buddhist traditions, he is regarded as the Supreme Buddha (P. sammāsambuddha , S. samyaksaṃbuddha ) of our age, "Buddha" meaning "awakened one" or "the enlightened one."  The time of his birth and death are uncertain: most early 20th-century historians dated his lifetime as c.563 BCE to 483 BCE, but more recent opinion dates his death to between to between 486 and 483 BCE or, according to some, between 411 and 400 BCE Gautama, also known as Śākyamuni ("Sage of the Śākyas"), is the primary figure in Buddhism, and accounts of his life, discourses, and monastic rules are believed by Buddhists to have been summarized after his death and memorized by his followers. Various collections of teachings attributed to him were passed down by oral tradition and first committed to writing about 400 years later. He is also regarded as a god or prophet in other religions such as Hinduism, theAhmadiyya Muslim Community and the Bahá'í faith.

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GAUTAM BUDDHa BELONGED TO SAKYA GANA & WAS A KSHATRIYA

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Early Life & Marriage Siddhartha was brought up by his mother's younger sister, Maha Pajapati . By tradition, he is said to have been destined by birth to the life of a prince, and had three palaces (for seasonal occupation) built for him. Although more recent scholarship doubts this status, his father, said to be King Śuddhodana, wishing for his son to be a great king, is said to have shielded him from religious teachings and from knowledge of human suffering. When he reached the age of 16, his father reputedly arranged his marriage to a cousin of the same age named Yaśodharā (Pāli: Yasodharā). According to the traditional account, she gave birth to a son, named Rahula . Siddhartha is then said to have spent 29 years as a prince in Kapilavastu . Although his father ensured that Siddhartha was provided with everything he could want or need, Buddhist scriptures say that the future Buddha felt that material wealth was not life's ultimate goal.

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At the age of 29, the popular biography continues, Siddhartha left his palace to meet his subjects. Despite his father's efforts to hide from him the sick, aged and suffering, Siddhartha was said to have seen an old man. When his charioteer Channa explained to him that all people grew old, the prince went on further trips beyond the palace. On these he encountered a diseased man, a decaying corpse, and an ascetic. These depressed him, and he initially strived to overcome ageing, sickness, and death by living the life of an ascetic. Departure &Ascetic life

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ENLIGHTENMENT According to the early Buddhist texts, after realizing that meditative jhana was the right path to awakening, but that extreme asceticism didn't work, Gautama discovered what Buddhists call the Middle Way—a path of moderation away from the extremes of self-indulgence and self-mortification. In a famous incident, after becoming starved and weakened, he is said to have accepted milk and rice pudding from a village girl named Sujata. Such was his emaciated appearance that she wrongly believed him to be a spirit that had granted her a wish . Following this incident, Gautama was famously seated under a pipal tree - now known as the Bodhi tree - in Bodh Gaya, India, when he vowed never to arise until he had found the truth Kaundinya and four other companions, believing that he had abandoned his search and become undisciplined, left. After a reputed 49 days of meditation, at the age of 35, he is said to have attained Enlightenment. According to some traditions, this occurred in approximately the fifth lunar month, while, according to others, it was in the twelfth month. From that time, Gautama was known to his followers as the Buddha or "Awakened One." ("Buddha" is also sometimes translated as "The Enlightened One.") He is often referred to in Buddhism as Shakyamuni Buddha, or "The Awakened One of the Shakya Clan."

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FORMATION OF SANGHA After his awakening, the Buddha met two merchants, named Tapussa and Bhallika, who became his first lay disciples. They were apparently each given hairs from his head, which are now claimed to be enshrined as relics in the Shwe Dagon Temple in Rangoon, Burma. The Buddha intended to visit Asita, and his former teachers, Alara Kalama and Uddaka Ramaputta, to explain his findings, but they had already died. He then travelled to the Deer Park near Vārāṇasī (Benares) in northern India, where he set in motion what Buddhists call the Wheel of Dharma by delivering his first sermon to the five companions with whom he had sought enlightenment. Together with him, they formed the first saṅgha: the company of Buddhist monks. All five become arahants, and within the first two months, with the conversion of Yasa and fifty four of his friends, the number of such arahants is said to have grown to 60. The conversion of three brothers named Kassapa followed, with their reputed 200, 300 and 500 disciples, respectively. This swelled the sangha to more than 1000.

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Assassination Attempts According to colorful legends, even during the Buddha's life the sangha was not free of dissent and discord. For example, Devadatta , a cousin of Gautama who became a monk but not an arahant , more than once tried to kill him. Initially, Devadatta is alleged to have often tried to undermine the Buddha. In one instance, according to stories, Devadatta even asked the Buddha to stand aside and let him lead the sangha . When this failed, he is accused of having three times tried to kill his teacher. The first attempt is said to have involved him hiring a group of archers to shoot the awakened one. But, upon meeting the Buddha, they laid down their bows and instead became followers. A second attempt is said to have involved Devadatta rolling a boulder down a hill. But this hit another rock and splintered, only grazing the Buddha's foot. In the third attempt, Devadatta is said to have got an elephant drunk and set it loose. This ruse also failed. After his lack of success at homicide, Devadatta is said to have tried to create a schism in the sangha , by proposing extra restrictions on the vinaya . When the Buddha again prevailed, Devadatta started a breakaway order. At first, he managed to convert some of the bhikkhus , but Sariputta and Mahamoggallana are said to have expounded the dharma so effectively that they were won back.

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For the remaining 45 years of his life, the Buddha is said to have traveled in the Gangetic Plain, in what is now Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and southern Nepal, teaching a diverse range of people: from nobles to outcastestreet sweepers, murderers such as Angulimala , and cannibals such as Alavaka . From the outset, Buddhism was equally open to all races and classes, and had no caste structure, as was the rule in Hinduism. Although the Buddha's language remains unknown, it's likely that he taught in one or more of a variety of closely related Middle Indo-Aryan dialects, of which Pali may be a standardization.The sangha traveled through the subcontinent, expounding the dharma. This continued throughout the year, except during the four months of the vassana rainy season when ascetics of all religions rarely traveled. One reason was that it was more difficult to do so without causing harm to animal life. At this time of year, the sangha would retreat to monasteries, public parks or forests, where people would come to them.The first vassana was spent at Varanasi when the sangha was formed. After this, the Buddha kept a promise to travel to Rajagaha , capital of Magadha, to visit King Bimbisara . During this visit, Sariputta and Mahamoggallana were converted by Assaji , one of the first five disciples, after which they were to become the Buddha's two foremost followers. The Buddha spent the next three seasons at Veluvana Bamboo Grove monastery in Rajagaha , capital of Magadha.Upon hearing of his son's awakening, Suddhodana sent, over a period, ten delegations to ask him to return to Kapilavastu . On the first nine occasions, the delegates failed to deliver the message, and instead joined the sangha to become arahants . The tenth delegation, led by Kaludayi , a childhood friend of Gautama's (who also became an arahant ), however, delivered the message.Now two years after his awakening, the Buddha agreed to return, and made a two-month journey by foot to Kapilavastu , teaching the dharma as he went. At his return, the royal palace prepared a midday meal, but the sangha was making an alms round in Kapilavastu . Hearing this, Suddhodana approached his son, the Buddha, saying:"Ours is the warrior lineage of Mahamassata , and not a single warrior has gone seeking alms"The Buddha is said to have replied:"That is not the custom of your royal lineage. But it is the custom of my Buddha lineage. Several thousands of Buddhas have gone by seeking alms"Buddhist texts say that Suddhodana invited the sangha into the palace for the meal, followed by a dharma talk. After this he is said to have become a sotapanna . During the visit, many members of the royal family joined the sangha . The Buddha's cousins Ananda and Anuruddha became two of his five chief disciples. At the age of seven, his son Rahula also joined, and became one of his ten chief disciples. His half-brother Nanda also joined and became an arahant.Of the Buddha's disciples, Sariputta,Mahamoggallana , Mahakasyapa , Ananda and Anuruddha are believed to have been the five closest to him. His ten foremost disciples were reputedly completed by the quintet of Upali , Subhoti , Rahula , Mahakaccana and Punna.In the fifth vassana , the Buddha was staying at Mahavana near Vesali when he heard news of the impending death of his father. He is said to have gone to Suddhodana and taught the dharma, after which his father became an arahant.The king's death and cremation was to inspire the creation of an order of nuns. Buddhist texts record that the Buddha was reluctant to ordain women. His foster mother Maha Pajapati , for example, approached him, asking to join the sangha , but he refused. Maha Pajapati , however, was so intent on the path of awakening that she led a group of royal Sakyan and Koliyan ladies, which followed the sangha on a long journey to Rajagaha . In time, after Ananda championed their cause, the Buddha is said to have reconsidered and, five years after the formation of the sangha , agreed to the ordination of women as nuns. He reasoned that males and females had an equal capacity for awakening. But he gave women additional rules ( Vinaya ) to follow. T ravel & Teachings

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Some Related Questions Q.2 Q.1 Q.4 Q.3 Who was Gautam Buddha ? What is meant by Enlightenment ? Write in brief about Buddha’s early life . Name the Varna to which Buddha belonged ?

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THANK YOU Made By- MOHIT RATHI 6 th -C

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