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RATHEESH , K. K Assistant Professor, OCTE, Calicut. , 9847508646, Ratheesh k k “Thapasya “, Thrissur-679 106 9847554355 ratheesh thapasya thrissur 1 welcome

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Development of self concept, ways of interacting with the others and attitude towards world. ratheesh thapasya, thrissur 3 Psycho Social Development

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Eric H.Erikson (1902 – 1994) Born in Germany in 1902 Greatly influenced by Anna Freud Studied Psycho Analysis Professor in various universities Died in 1994 at Harwich ratheesh thapasya, thriss ur 4

Major Works:

Major Works Young man Luther. Identity youth & crisis, Adulthood. Gandhi’s truth (Pulitzer Prize ) ratheesh thapasya thrissur 5

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ERIKSON’S THEORY Development of an individual is the result of his interaction with social environment Conceptualized development as psycho social Individual moves through eight stages of psycho social development. Based on epigenetic principle. In each stage there is a specific crisis or conflict between competing tendencies. ratheesh thapasya thrissur 6

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Resolution of a stage lays the foundation for negotiating the challenges of the next. Emphasis on society, relationships and interaction with people ratheesh thapasya thrissur 7

Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development. :

E rikson’s S tages of P sychosocial D evelopment. ratheesh thapasya thrissur 8

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ratheesh thapasya thrissur 9

Stage 1:

Stage 1 Approximate age : Birth to 18 months (infancy) Psychological crisis : Trust /mistrust Significant relationship: Maternal Person. ratheesh thapasya thrissur 10

Main Features:

Main Features Mother is the important Person and the infant depends on her for food & affection. Ego strength - hope If the basic needs are not met, an attitude of mistrust toward the world is the result ratheesh thapasya thrissur 11


Implications Parents should ensure a trusting relationship with the child. Satisfying the needs develops trust. Anxiousness and anger develops mistrust . ratheesh thapasya thrissur 12

Stage 2:

Stage 2 Approximate age : 18 months to 3 year (toddlerhood) Psychological crisis : Self autonomy/doubt. Significant relationship : Parental persons. ratheesh thapasya thrissur 13

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Children try to do things Independently. Growing mobility Language acquisition Ego-strength - will If the freedom and exploration are encouraged, toddler develops autonomy, if they are overly restricted, they experience shame, self doubt Main Feature. ratheesh thapasya thrissur 14


Implications Arrange for each child to have something which are his own and with which he can identify. Values the things the child makes Development of early trust is necessary ratheesh thapasya thrissur 15

Stage 3:

Stage 3 Approximate age : 3 to 6 year (preschooler) Psychological crisis : Initiative / guilt. Significant relationship : Basic Family . ratheesh thapasya thrissur 16

Main Feature:

Main Feature Resolution of Oedipus or electra Complex Ego strength- Purpose. Takes initiative in interacting with the environment, if this tendency is censored, through criticism or control, develop a sense of guilt ratheesh thapasya thrissur 17


Implications Do not punish children for their initiativeness . Create a playful atmosphere Value children's play and talk to them about their play. ratheesh thapasya thrissur 18

Stage 4:

Stage 4 Approximate age : 6 to 12 year (elementary school age) Psychological crisis : Industry/inferiority Significant relationship : Neighbourhood /school ratheesh thapasya thrissur 19

Main Feature :

Main Feature Peers become important and the child tries to measure and evaluate himself with peers. Children seek to establish a clear identity Children learn various skills, develops a sense of pride in his competencies Ego strength- Competence. ratheesh thapasya thrissur 20


Implications Assign roles for them and appreciate for their effort. Make confidence in them by giving opportunities to express their abilities Praise them for doing their best and encourage to finish task Strengthen the school environment ratheesh thapasya thrissur 21

Stage 5:

Stage 5 Approximate age : 12 to 18 year(adolescence) Psychological crisis : Identity / role confusion Significant relationship :peer groups / models of leadership ratheesh thapasya thrissur 22

Main Feature:

Main Feature Children seek to establish a clear self identity (understands his own unique traits) Begins with puberty Role confusion Ego strength- Fidelity and loyalty Failure to discover self identity, results in identity crisis and role confusion. ratheesh thapasya thrissur 23


Implications Help the students to identify their roles that are socially acceptable. Give reinforcement towards positive roles. Prevent them from unlimited imaginations Assign duties and responsibilities ratheesh thapasya thrissur 24

Stage 6:

Stage 6 Approximate age : 20 to 40 (young adulthood) Psychological crisis : Intimacy / Isolation Significant relationship : Partners in Friendship, sex, co-operation. ratheesh thapasya thrissur 25

Main Feature:

Main Feature ratheesh thapasya thrissur 26 Selection of a mate Establishment of an occupational pattern Harmonious relationships with others Intimacy- “finding oneself, but losing oneself in another person” Erickson. Ego-strength- Love Avoiding intimacy, fearing commitment lead to isolation, loneliness even depression


Implications Develop harmonious relationship Develop the habit- To love and to work ratheesh thapasya thrissur 27

Stage 7:

Stage 7 Approximate age : 40-65 (middle adulthood ) Psychological crisis : Generativity /self absorption(stagnation). Significant relationship : Divided labor & shared household ratheesh thapasya thrissur 28

Main Feature:

Main Feature Interest in establishing and guiding the next generation. Focus on career and family Involve in creative pursuits – voluntary works art science, edn etc. By failing to achieve these objectives,one become staganant (disinterested in others, concerned only with self Ego strengh – care ratheesh thapasya thrissur 29


Implications Be active in home and community ratheesh thapasya thrissur 30

Stage 8:

Stage 8 Approximate age : 60 + (Late adulthood) Psychological crisis : Integrity/ Despair Significant relationship : “Mankind” ratheesh thapasya thrissur 31

Main Feature:

Main Feature Time of introspection Acceptance of accomplishments, failures and ultimate limitation Accept the finality of death Ego-strength- Wisdom If feels his life as unproductive, feel guilty about past, becomes dissatisfied with life and develop despair ratheesh thapasya thrissur 32


Implications Introspection is necessary Listen to elderly people. ratheesh thapasya thrissur 33

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T h a n k y o u ratheesh thapasya thrissur 34 Ratheesh K K , “thapasya” Thrissur -679106

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