Sera & Antisera : Sera & Antisera Mr. Ratan J. Lihite
M. Pharm (Pharmacy Practice)
NIPER-Guwahati Sera (plural of serum) : Sera (plural of serum) An amber-colored, protein-rich liquid that separates out when blood coagulates.
The blood serum of an animal, used esp. to provide immunity to a pathogen or toxin by inoculation or as a diagnostic agent. Slide 3: antilymphocyte serum (ALS) antiserum derived from animals that have been immunized against human lymphocytes, a powerful nonspecific immunosuppressive agent that causes destruction of circulating lymphocytes.
antirabies serum obtained from the blood serum or plasma of animals immunized with rabies vaccine; used for postexposure prophylaxis against rabies if rabies immune globulin is unavailable. antisera : antisera the serum of an animal or human containing antibodies against a specific disease, used to confer passive immunity to that disease. Antisera do not provoke the production of antibodies.
There are two types of antisera: antitoxin neutralizes the toxin produced by specific bacteria but does not kill the bacteria, and antimicrobial serum acts to destroy bacteria by making them more susceptible to leukocytic action.
Polyvalent antiserum acts on more than one antigenic determinant; monovalent antiserum acts on only one. Antibiotic drugs have largely replaced antimicrobial antisera. Caution must always be used in the administration of all antisera, since hepatitis or hypersensitivity reactions can result. Slide 5: Blood serum from persons or animals whose bodies have built up antibodies is called antiserum or immune serum. Inoculation with such an antiserum provides temporary, or passive, immunity against the disease, and is used when a person has already been exposed to or has contracted the disease. Diseases in which passive immunization is sometimes used include diphtheria, tetanus, botulism, and gas gangrene. How antiserum works : How antiserum works Antibodies in the antiserum bind the infectious agent or antigen. The immune system then recognizes foreign agents bound to antibodies and triggers a more robust immune response. The use of antiserum is particularly effective against pathogens which are capable of evading the immune system in the unstimulated state but which are not robust enough to evade the stimulated immune system.
The existence of antibodies to the agent therefore depends on an initial "lucky survivor" whose immune system by chance discovered a counteragent to the pathogen, or a "host species" which carries the virus but does not suffer from its effects. Further stocks of antiserum can then be produced from the initial donor or from a donor organism that is inoculated with the pathogen and cured by some stock of preexisting antiserum ANTISNAKE VENOM SERUM : ANTISNAKE VENOM SERUM Antivenom (or antivenin or antivenene) is a biological product used in the treatment of venomous bites or stings.
Antivenom is created by injecting a small amount of the targeted venom into an animal such as a horse,sheep, goat, or rabbit, the subject animal will undergo an immune response to the venom, producing antibodies against the venom's active molecule which can then be harvested from the animal's blood and used to treat envenomation.
Internationally, antivenoms must conform to the standards of Pharmacopoeia and the World Health Organization (WHO) Antiserum : Antiserum Vials of scorpion venom antiserum : Vials of scorpion venom antiserum Slide 10: Thank you