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More violent forms, such as femicide, acid attacks, ritual rapes and murders, gang rapes, abductions, defilement and forced early marriages, Military sexual slavery, rape as a weapon of war, trafficking in women and girls and ill-treatment of widows have become more widespread. Slide 4: In spite of treaties, (the Protocol to the the African Charter) conventions, legislation and policies against some cultural practices the situation of women in Africa continue to be vulnerable to harmful traditional practices and customs such as FGM and widow inheritance, which expose them to the risk of HIV and AIDS Slide 5: There is a palpable feeling that legislation alone is not enough to achieve equality in Africa, that it is not sufficient to change perceptions, or cultures of sexism – the types of cultures which are permissive to gendered violence happening. Even with an increasing number of women in parliament in some of the countries and increasing legislation to prevent discrimination and violence on the basis of gender, a culture of masculinity prevails. Why is that? Unequal power relationships continue EMPOWERMENT OF WOMENTO END VAW- WHAT CAN WE DO? : EMPOWERMENT OF WOMENTO END VAW- WHAT CAN WE DO? Obtaining data on violence against women – use these to show the economic and social cost of VAW as well as emotional and psychological impact on the affected person It is important that the extent, nature and root causes of such violence are well-documented. By analyzing such information, concrete steps can be taken, both legal and charitable, to reduce the occurrence of such violence and reduce its effects. Slide 7: Increase access to opportunities for women- empower women to avoid abusive relationships - empower women, free them to leave behind abusive relationships Build capabilities of women- including physical capabilities/ create awareness/ prevention programmes/ crisis counselling & support groups Slide 8: Make ending VAW every one’s concern; everyone’s business: The boys in your life need your time and energy. Your son, grandson, nephew, younger brother, your male colleague. The boys you teach, coach and mentor. All need you to help them grow into healthy men. The girls in your life what are you teaching them above all what do they see! Slide 9: THE UN has identified violence against women and girls "the most pervasive" human rights violation that we know today. Statistics from the world over, paint a clear picture of the social and health consequences of violence against women. According to the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), violence against women is a major cause of death and disability for women aged 16 to 44 years Slide 10: The economic costs are considerable. Such violence impoverishes not only individuals, but families, communities, and governments, and stalls economic development of each nation A POEM FOR YOUR REFLECTION: : A POEM FOR YOUR REFLECTION: We had our first argument last night, and he said a lot of cruel things that really hurt me. I know he is sorry and didn’t mean the things he said, because he sent me FLOWERS TODAY. Slide 12: I got FLOWERS TODAY. It wasn’t our anniversary or any other special day. Last night he threw me into a wall and started to choke me. It seemed like a nightmare, I couldn’t believe it was real. Slide 13: I woke up this morning sore and bruised all over. I know he must be sorry because he sent me FLOWERS TODAY. Slide 14: I GOT flowers today, and it wasn’t Mother’s Day or any other special day. Last night, he beat me up again, it was much worse than all the other times Slide 15: If I leave him what will I do? How will I take care of my kids? What about money? I am afraid of him and scared to leave. But I know he must be sorry because he sent me FLOWERS TODAY How do you help someone like this? How do you empower someone like this? : How do you empower someone like this? Paulo Freire speaks about conscientisation process: Identify the individual Engage in dialogue/ Reflection Lead to Action Is your Neighbour, your sister, your friend being abused? How do you engage to facilitate empowerment? Slide 17: The answer to ending violence against women is first and foremost based on unequal power relations…The answer to end violence lies with you as it is such a complex issue Faces of Indian Women : Faces of Indian Women “One of the most enduring cliches about India is that it is the country of contradictions. Like all cliches, this one too has a grain of truth in it. At the heart of the contradiction stand Indian women: for it is true to say that they are among the most oppressed in the world, and it is equally true to say that they are among the most liberated, the most articulate and perhaps even the most free. Can these two realities be simultaneously true?” Urvashi Butalia Outline of the presentation : Outline of the presentation Background: Facts about India Place of Women in Indian Society Indian Women in Modern Times Education Employment Empowerment Trivia: Famous Faces Indian Women Introspection Facts about India : Facts about India Largest democracy in the world Land boundaries with Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, China, Nepal and Pakistan Area: 3,287,590 sq.km (slightly more than one-third the size of US) Coastline: 7,000 k.m. Population: 1,065,070,607 (Growth rate of 1.44%)-second largest population in the world Sex ratio: 1.07 male (s)/female Life expectancy at birth: 63.25 years (male) and 64.77 years (female) Ethnic groups: Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3% Religions: Hindu (81.3%), Muslim (12%), Christian (2.3%), Sikh(1.9%), Others (2.5%) Languages: 18 major languages; 216 languages in total and several thousands dialects Literacy: 59.5% (total population); 70.2% (male); and 48.3% (female) Place of women in Indian society:A (cultural) historical perspective : Place of women in Indian society:A (cultural) historical perspective The Goddess (Devi) The mother The sister The wife The tawaif Indian Women in Modern Times : Indian Women in Modern Times Education Literacy Gender gaps: Differences across states (Kerala has highest female literacy; Rajasthan, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh have the lowest) Differences between rural and urban areas Parental preference for boys going to school Higher dropout rate among girls Indian Women in Modern Times : Indian Women in Modern Times Education Gender gaps in higher education About 1 percent of total women population has college education Women account for a third of the students at college/university level In engineering and business, the proportion of female students is much smaller In education, nearly half of the students are women Indian Women in Modern Times : Indian Women in Modern Times Barriers to Female Education Poverty: one-fourth of India’s population lives below the poverty line (2002) Social values and parental preferences Inadequate school facilities Shortage of female teachers: 29 percent at the primary level and 22 percent at the university level (1993) Gender bias in curriculum Indian Women in Modern Times : Indian Women in Modern Times Employment Difficult to get an overall picture of employment among women in India Most women work in the informal sector Women accounted for only 23 percent of the total workers in the formal sector in 1991 The number of female workers has increased faster than the number of male workers Female unemployment rates are similar to male unemployment rates Indian Women in Modern Times : Indian Women in Modern Times Barriers to Female Employment Cultural Restrictions Hierarchical society (caste system) Purdah system: the veiling and seclusion of women Discrimination at Workplace More prevalent in fields where male competition is high Less prevalent in fields where competition is low Lack of employment opportunities Indian Women in Modern Times : Indian Women in Modern Times Empowerment Social Empowerment Education There is no direct relationship between education and work force participation; but may affect their participation in household decision making Economic Independence: Economic independence does not imply significant improvement in social standing Culture and tradition play an important role A small fraction has opened up towards Western values Indian Women in Modern Times : Indian Women in Modern Times Economic Empowerment Property Rights Patriarchal society Economic Decision Making In the household In businesses Indian Women in Modern Times : Indian Women in Modern Times Political Empowerment Representation in democratic institutions Government reservations policy for women: the constitutional amendment of 1990s TRIVIA : TRIVIA Recognize Famous Faces Famous Faces : Famous Faces Indira Gandhi Mother Teresa Mira Nair Kalpana Chawla Gurinder Chadha Arundhati Roy Jhumpa Lahiri Aishwarya Rai Sushmita Sen Introspection : Introspection Faces of an Indian woman Wife Mother Sister Bread earner Compassionate member of the society Slide 34: “The origin of a child is a mother, a woman. ….she shows a man what sharing, caring, and loving is all about. That is the essence of a woman." Sushmita Sen, Miss Universe 1994 Slide 35: …but that is just a beginning…. Women and Legal Framework : Women and Legal Framework Women specific Legislations Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956 The Maternity Benefit Act 1961 The Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961 Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act, 1986 The Commission of Sati (Prevention)Act, 1987 Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005 Evolution of Indian Initiatives : Evolution of Indian Initiatives Seventh Plan : Seventh Plan 1985- Ministry of Human Resource Development set up Department for Women and Child Development constituted in HRD Ministry 27 major women specific schemes identified for monitoring to assess quantum of funds/benefits flowing to women Eighth Plan : Eighth Plan The Eighth Plan (1992-97) for the first time highlighted the need to ensure a definite flow of funds from general developmental sectors to women It commented: “ … special programmes on women should complement the general development programmes. The latter in turn should reflect greater gender sensitivity” Ninth Plan : Ninth Plan Women’s Component Plan- 30% of funds were sought to be ear-marked in all women related sectors – inter-sectoral review and multi-sector approach Special vigil to be kept on the flow of the earmarked funds/benefits Quantifies performance under Women’s Component Plan in Ninth Plan-Approach Paper Tenth Plan indicates 42.9% of gross budgetary support in 15 women related Ministries/Departments has gone to women Tenth Plan : Tenth Plan · Reinforces commitment to gender budgeting to establish its gender-differential impact and to translate gender commitments into budgetary commitments. Aims at initiating immediate action in tying up the two effective concepts of Women Component Plan (WCP) and Gender Budgeting to play a complementary role to each other, and thus ensure both preventive and post-facto action in enabling women to receive their rightful share from all the women-related general development sectors. Holistic approach to Empowerment : Holistic approach to Empowerment Health & Nut. Education Water & San. Skills Technology Credit Political Participation Marketing Asset base Action Areas : Action Areas Women availing services of public utilities like road transport, power, water and sanitation, telecommunication etc. Training of women as highly skilled workers- top end skills Research/Technology for women Women in the work force Asset ownership by women Women as Entrepreneurs Slide 44: Implementation of Laws like Equal remuneration Minimum Wages Factories Act Infrastructure for women like Water and sanitation at workplace Creches Working Women Hostels Transport services Security To Conclude : To Conclude “It is more important to create a general awareness’ and understanding of the problems of women’s employment in all the top policy and decision making and executive personnel. There is also the special problem facing women like the preference for male children for social and cultural reasons. This will require awareness, understanding and action. The best way to do so is to educate the children, orient the teachers, examine the text books and teaching-aids and ensure that the next generation grows up with new thinking.” (6th Five Year Plan ) Gender Inequality and Women’s Empowerment : Gender Inequality and Women’s Empowerment 2005-06 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) Gender Disparity in Media Exposure : Gender Disparity in Media Exposure Not only are fewer women than men literate but fewer are also regularly exposed to media Percentage of men and women age 15-19 regularly exposed to print media, TV, radio, or cinema Men 88% Women 71% Gender Disparity 19% The majority of employed women are engaged in agricultural work : The majority of employed women are engaged in agricultural work Control over Women’s Earnings as Reported by Currently Married Women and Men : Control over Women’s Earnings as Reported by Currently Married Women and Men Women’s report about their own earnings Men’s report about their wife’s earnings Mainly wife Husband & wife jointly Mainly husband Percent Are some women more likely than others to NOT participate in the use of their earnings? : Are some women more likely than others to NOT participate in the use of their earnings? Percent of currently married women Residence Wealth Index Education Age What are some of the other hurdles that prevent women from attaining gender equality? : What are some of the other hurdles that prevent women from attaining gender equality? Limited freedom of movement Gender norms that promote men’s control over women. Wife beating A husband’s right to have sex with his wife irrespective of his wife’s wishes Percentage of women age 15-49 who are allowed to go alone to: : Percentage of women age 15-49 who are allowed to go alone to: The majority of women have little freedom of movement. Only one-third go alone to all three destinations: the market, health facility and outside the village or community. Percentage who agree that a husband is justified in hitting or beating his wife if she: : Percentage who agree that a husband is justified in hitting or beating his wife if she: Key Findings : Key Findings Women are disadvantaged absolutely and relative to men in terms of access to education, media exposure, and employment for cash. The majority of married women do not have the final say on the use of their own earnings or all other household decisions asked about. Traditional gender norms, particularly those concerning wife beating, remain strongly entrenched. Slide 55: Thank You You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.