Al- Nile… The immortal River : Al- Nile… The immortal River Introduction : Introduction The present Nile is at least the fifth river that has flowed north from the Ethiopian Highlands. Satellite imagery was used to identify dry watercourses in the desert to the west of the Nile. An Eonile canyon, now filled by surface drift, represents an ancestral Nile called the Eonile that flowed during the later Miocene (23-5.3 million years before the present). The Eonile transported classic sediments to the Mediterranean, where several gas fields have been discovered within these sediments.
During the late-Miocene Messenia Salinity Crisis, when the Mediterranean Sea was a closed basin and evaporated empty or nearly so, the Nile cut its course down to the new base level until it was several hundred feet below world ocean level at Aswan and 8,000 feet (2,400 m) below Cairo. This huge canyon is now full of later sediment. Flow and mouth : Flow and mouth The northern section of the river flows almost entirely through desert, from Sudan into Egypt, a country whose civilization has depended on the river since ancient times.
The Nile flows from the mountains in the south to the Mediterranean in the north. Egyptians traveling to other lands would comment on the "wrong" flow of other rivers. For example, a text of Tuthmosis I in Nubia describes the great Euphrates river as the "inverted water that goes downstream in going upstream."
Three rivers flowed into the Nile from the south and thus served as its sources: the Blue Nile, the White Nile and the Atbara.
the southern section between Aswan and Khartoum, land which was called Nubia, the River passes through formations of hard igneous rock, resulting in a series of rapids, or cataracts, which form a natural boundary to the south. Between the first and second cataracts lay Lower Nubia, and between the second and sixth cataracts lay upper Nubian. Topography of the Nile river : Topography of the Nile river The Nile has two major tributaries, the White Nile and Blue Nile, the latter being the source of most of the Nile's water and fertile soil, but the former being the longer of the two. The White Nile rises in the Great Lakes region of central Africa, with the most distant source in southern. The Blue Nile Falls fed by Lake Tana near the city of Bahar Dar, Ethiopia forms the upstream of the Blue Nile. It is also known as Tis Issat Falls after the name of the nearby village. * White Nile : * White Nile The source of the Nile is sometimes considered to be Lake Victoria, but the lake itself has feeder rivers of considerable size. The most distant stream emerges from Nyungwe Forest in Rwanda, via the Rukarara, Mwogo, Nyabarongo and Kagera rivers, before flowing into Lake Victoria in Tanzania near the town of Bukoba.
The Nile leaves Lake Victoria at Ripon Falls near Jinja, Uganda, as the Victoria Nile. It flows for approximately 500 kilometers (300 mi) farther, through Lake Kyoga, until it reaches Lake Albert. After leaving Lake Albert. The river is known as the Albert Nile. It then flows into Sudan, where it becomes known as the Bahr al Jabal ("River of the Mountain"). The Bahr al Ghazal, itself 716 kilometers (445 mi) long, joins the Bahr al Jabal at a small lagoon called Lake No, after which the Nile becomes known as the Bahr al Abyad, or the White Nile, from the whitish clay suspended in its waters. When the Nile flooded it left this rich material named silt. : The river is known as the Albert Nile. It then flows into Sudan, where it becomes known as the Bahr al Jabal ("River of the Mountain"). The Bahr al Ghazal, itself 716 kilometers (445 mi) long, joins the Bahr al Jabal at a small lagoon called Lake No, after which the Nile becomes known as the Bahr al Abyad, or the White Nile, from the whitish clay suspended in its waters. When the Nile flooded it left this rich material named silt. the White Nile The Blue Nile (Black A bay) to Ethiopians; Bahr al Azraq to Sudanese) springs from Lake Tana in the Ethiopian Highlands. The Blue Nile flows about 1,400 kilometers (870 mi) to Khartoum, where the Blue Nile and White Nile join to form the "Nile proper". 90% of the water and 96% of the transported sediment carried by the Nile originates in Ethiopia, with 59% of the water from the Blue Nile alone. : The Blue Nile (Black A bay) to Ethiopians; Bahr al Azraq to Sudanese) springs from Lake Tana in the Ethiopian Highlands. The Blue Nile flows about 1,400 kilometers (870 mi) to Khartoum, where the Blue Nile and White Nile join to form the "Nile proper". 90% of the water and 96% of the transported sediment carried by the Nile originates in Ethiopia, with 59% of the water from the Blue Nile alone. * Blue Nile The Blue Nile Slide 8: TRIBUTARIE S OF The Nile River Tributaries and distributaries : Tributaries and distributaries The drainage basin of the Nile covers 3,254,555 square kilometers (1,256,591 sq mi), about 10% of the area of Africa.
There are two great tributaries of the Nile, joining at Khartoum: the White Nile, starting in equatorial East Africa, and the Blue Nile, beginning in Ethiopia. Both branches are on the western flanks of the East African Rift, the southern part.
The course of the Nile in Sudan is distinctive. It flows over 6 groups of cataracts, from the first at Aswan to the sixth at Sabaloka (just north of Khartoum) and then turns to flow southward for a good portion of its course, before again returning to flow north to the sea. The integrated Nile : The integrated Nile There are two theories in relation to the age of the integrated Nile. The first one is that the integrated drainage of the Nile is of young age, that the Nile basin was formerly broken into series of separate basins, only the most northerly (the Proto Nile basin) feeding a river following the present course of the Nile in Egypt and in the far north of the Sudan. stresses the fact that Egypt itself supplied most of the waters of the Nile during the early part of its history.
The other theory is that the drainage from Ethiopia via rivers equivalent to the Blue Nile and the Atbara/Takazze flowed to the Mediterranean via the Egyptian Nile since well back into Tertiary times General Problems of the Coastal Zone of Egypt : General Problems of the Coastal Zone of Egypt • Highly populated economic centers.
• Increasing human activities and Pollution.
• Increasing human activities and Pollution.
• Land subsidence, erosion and accretion.
• Loss of resources, habitats and biodiversity.
• Salt water intrusion, water logging and water bogging.
• Salt water intrusion, water logging and water bogging.
• Shortage of fresh water resources.
• Unplanned and uncontrolled urban development and lack of awareness.
• Impact of climate change and risk of sea level rise.
• Many bad practices. The problem : The problem • Large part of the Nile Basin lies in arid and water scarce zones of Africa, where surface water resources is scarce and groundwater resources is non-renewable.
• Key regional issue of managing water scarcity in the Nile basin is the temporal and spatial variability.
• The quality of available resources.
• Occurrence of rain in an extreme short period of the year (two to three months) resulted in high degree of water shortage. The project to build in Nile river : The project to build in Nile river Aswan Bridge, Aswan
• Luxor Bridge, Luxor
• 1st Ring Road Bridge (Moneeb Crossing), Cairo
• Abbas Bridge, Cairo
• University Bridge, Cairo
• Qasr El Nile Bridge, Cairo
• Port Sudan and the North. Some north-south roads that serve the oil fields of central/south Sudan have been built.
• Significant finds were made in the Upper Nile region and commercial quantities of oil began to be exported in October 2000, reducing Sudan's outflow of foreign exchange for imported petroleum products.
• Project of the Merowe dam In Sudan. The Struggle of the problem of the water in middle east : The Struggle of the problem of the water in middle east The area of Middle East belongs to those Tran boundary water resource areas where the problem of water scarcity and sharing developed into a water conflict, pointed out that the Middle East is the site of both severe water shortage and intense, often violent, political conflict. Because water scarcity and political tensions have been shown to be inextricably linked in the arid and volatile region, it is crucial to understand the political consequences of hydrological action as well as the hydrological ramifications of political decision-making. The table displays data describing Middle Eastern countries population, growth rate and the annual water budget. The population, growth rate, and the minimum water requirement (MWR) for the Middle Eastern countries estimates for 2000 and 2020 (Isaac& Shovel 1994 modified by Asheesh June, 2000). : The population, growth rate, and the minimum water requirement (MWR) for the Middle Eastern countries estimates for 2000 and 2020 (Isaac& Shovel 1994 modified by Asheesh June, 2000). : Alternatives considered For a short term transporting water from the neighboring countries like Turkey could be one solution but not in the long run (Barker 2000). Desalination of sea water is one available option in the long run, Long tern planning and looking for secure water supply and new water resources is an alternative for secure future..
The study carried implies the inequality in distribution of water in the area. The Israelis are using about 80% of the available West Bank underground water, which is supplying the northern and western part of Israel known as Samaria area, while the remaining 20% is used by Palestinians. To achieve a balance for both sides the Palestinians and the Israelis including the Jewish settlements inside the West Bank, the water demand is expected to grow to be twofold of the water consumption in the area. Slide 17: • Transfer of information and joint research and development in water-related subjects.
• There have been various proposals made to increase the water potential in the Middle East. Transporting water from the neighboring countries like Turkey, however, can be one solution of water shortage in the Middle East for in the short run but not in the long run.
• Desalination of sea water is one of the options available in the long run.
• Prevention of contamination of water resources
• Mutual assistance in the alleviation of water shortages.
Identify the administrative measures to import food rather than water; in case of the Middle East in general and particularly the Jordan River riparian countries encourage the efficiency of the industrial action so that water demands between the three countries are reduced.
Development of existing and new water resources The future of The Nile River : The future of The Nile River The perceptions of the Northern industrialized governments and the international donor agencies which they support are important because they play a pivotal role in constructing the knowledge on what is appropriate, efficient and economically feasible in managing international river systems and the Nile in particular.
The eight upstream states of the Nile Basin have not been able to mobilize resources to develop their water resources, neither from internal resources nor from international community. The counter interests of imperial powers up to the 1960s and since then by the international regime of the Cold War era reinforced by the principles embedded in the World Bank Operating Directive. billion cubic meters of water, which it negotiated with the Sudan in 1959. Valley with water saved from ending the raising of water intensive sugar cane and rice. By more than fully utilizing the Nile waters available to it, Egypt will have to be negotiated out of its Nile waters utilization. The Egyptian announcement of the southern New Valley project in 1997 was a strong signal to Ethiopia that any savings that Egypt might achieve by adopting water use efficiency measures would not be shared with upstream riparian’s. : billion cubic meters of water, which it negotiated with the Sudan in 1959. Valley with water saved from ending the raising of water intensive sugar cane and rice. By more than fully utilizing the Nile waters available to it, Egypt will have to be negotiated out of its Nile waters utilization. The Egyptian announcement of the southern New Valley project in 1997 was a strong signal to Ethiopia that any savings that Egypt might achieve by adopting water use efficiency measures would not be shared with upstream riparian’s. Uses In medical : Uses In medical Neel was interested in disease as a stressor for human populations precisely because it was and continues to be a stressor on human populations and it is responsible as a selective agent in genetic variation. field Neel discusses in the virgin-soil article (1970) and in his autobiography (1994) that the belief of most people at the time was that there was a constitutional difference between populations as to susceptibility to epidemic diseases. There was some limited opposition to this view from individuals who lived with indigenous populations undergoing epidemics during the 19th century.
Neel was actually working against the view that different populations or races have genetically different levels of susceptibility. He felt instead that survival depended on collateral support from other individuals in the group. Climate : Climate Climate change predictions for tropical latitudes are strong, but highly uncertain. Concurrently, lowland tropical forests dominate the terrestrial cycle. Thus, an educated understanding of these systems are likely to respond to climate change is critical for predicting the ability of tropical forests to mitigate change. Slide 22: the style of wine an area can produce.
Maturity groupings give an indication of the span of potential ripening period for different varieties based on phenology requirements.
Each variety is generally grown in specific regions and narrow climatic zones for optimum quality and production. Epilogue : Epilogue Many modern travelers to Egypt today take a Nile cruise as part of their package. And why not? For to see the land as its people do, one must journey on the river. A felucca is often the water vehicle of choice.
The Nile River Cruises are available all year round, but in mid April, locks on the Nile are shut because of water levels. The best time to go on a cruise on the Nile is October to March when all the locks are open and the weather is nice and cool.
Likewise, the Egyptian government claimed victory over Israel in the October War of 1973 - and even built a museum dedicated to this fantasy. One Egyptian diplomat acknowledges, "I never knew we lost the war until I was 26." As his experience.