ENDANGERED & EXTINCT SPECIES: ENDANGERED & EXTINCT SPECIES Presentation By Jhansirani.R AP/ECE ENDANGERED SPECIES OF INDIA: ENDANGERED SPECIES OF INDIA Extinct species : When it is not seen in the wild for 50 years at a stretch. Eg., Dodo, passenger pigeon. Endangered species : When its number has been reduced to a critical level or whose habitats are drastically reduced and if such a species is not protected and conserved, its in immediate danger of extinction. Jhansirani.R AP/ECE PowerPoint Presentation: Vulnerable species : If a population of a species is facing continuous decline due to overexploitation or habitual destruction. Rare species : Species which are not endangered or vulnerable at present but at a risk. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources ( IUCN ) publishes Red Data Book (list of endangered species of plants and animals). PowerPoint Presentation: Nearly 450 plant species have been identified as categories of endangered, threatened or rare. 150 species of mammals 150 species of birds Unknown number of species of insects Jhansirani.R AP/ECE PowerPoint Presentation: Few species of endangered reptiles, birds, mammals and plants Reptiles : Gharial Green sea turtle Tortoise Python Jhansirani.R AP/ECE PowerPoint Presentation: Birds : Great Indian bustard Peacock Pelican Great Indian Hornbill Siberian White Crane PowerPoint Presentation: Great Indian hornbill Siberian White crane PowerPoint Presentation: Carnivorous : Indian wolf red fox sloth bear red panda PowerPoint Presentation: Red panda PowerPoint Presentation: Mammals : Golden cat Desert cat PowerPoint Presentation: Primates : Golden monkey, Capped monkey Plants : Orchids Rhododendrons Sandal wood tree Few Extinct species: Few Extinct species DODO Passenger pigeon: Passenger pigeon PowerPoint Presentation: Mammoth PowerPoint Presentation: Saber Toothed Tiger Endemic Species of India: Endemic Species of India Species which are restricted only to a particular area are known as endemic. Out of 47,000 species of plants in our country 7,000 are endemic. Indian subcontinent has about 62% endemic flora, restricted namely to Himalayas, Khasi Hills and Western Ghats. Endemic Flora : Sapria Himalayana, Pitcher plants and Orchids Jhansirani.R AP/ECE Endemic Species of India: Endemic Species of India Out of 81,000 animal species – large number of species are described to be endemic Western Ghats: 62% amphibians, 50% Lizards are endemic Endemic species : reticulated python, Indian Salamander and Viviparous toad. PowerPoint Presentation: Tiger Salamander Eastern Mud Salamander Super tiger Reticulated Python 1 2 3 Conservation of Biodiversity: Conservation of Biodiversity In situ conservation (within habitat ) : achieved by protection of wild flora and fauna in nature itself. Eg. Biosphere reserves, National Parks, Sanctuaries, Reserve forests etc. Ex-situ conservation (outside habitats) : done by establishment of gene banks, seed banks, zoos, botanical gardens, culture collections. Jhansirani.R AP/ECE PowerPoint Presentation: In Situ Conservation 7 major biosphere reserves, 80 national parks, 420 wild-life sanctuaries, 120 Botanical gardens In our country covering 4% of geographic area. Biosphere serves : conserve some representative ecosystems as a whole for long-term in situ conservation. Jhansirani.R AP/ECE PowerPoint Presentation: In India, we have biosphere reserves at Nanda Devi(U.P.), Nokrek (Meghalaya), Manas (Assam), Sunderbans (West Bengal), Gulf of Mannar (T.N.), Nilgiri (Karnataka, Kerala,T.N.), Great Nicobars, Similipal (Orissa) Within the biosphere reserves, 1 or more National parks Avl. Ex: Nilgiri Biosphere reserve has 2 National parks Bandipur National park Nagarhole National park. PowerPoint Presentation: National Park : area dedicated for the conservation of wildlife along with its environment. Its meant for enjoyment through tourism. Grazing of domestic animals, all private rights, forestry activities are prohibited within a National Park. Each national park aims at conservation of some specific species of wildlife along with others. Jhansirani.R AP/ECE Some important national parks in India: Some important national parks in India PowerPoint Presentation: Wildlife Sanctuaries : Protected areas where killing, hunting, shooting or capturing of wildlife are prohibited except under the control of highest authority. Plants : gene sanctuary for Citrus, one for pitcher plant in North east India. Specific projects to conserve animals : Project Tiger Gir Lion Project Crocodile Breeding Project Project Elephant Snow Leopard Project. Jhansirani.R AP/ECE Some important wildlife sanctuaries in India: Some important wildlife sanctuaries in India Ex-situ Conservation: Ex-situ Conservation Conservation of crop varieties, wild relatives of crops and all local varieties (conserve total genetic variability of crop species for future crop improvement) or afforestation Programmes. We have some Important Gene bank/Seed bank facilities Jhansirani.R AP/ECE PowerPoint Presentation: National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR) : located in New Delhi. Agricultural, horticultural crops, their wild relatives are preserved by cryo-preservation of seeds, pollen etc by using liquid nitrogen at a temp as low as -196 0 c. Varieties of rice, pearl millet, Brassica, turnip, radish, tomato, onion, carrot, chilli, tobacco, poppy etc : preserved in liquid nitrogen for several years without losing seed viability. Jhansirani.R AP/ECE PowerPoint Presentation: National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources (NBAGR) : located at Karnal, Haryana. It Preserves semen of domesticated bovine animals. National Facility for plant tissue culture repository (NFPTCR) : Development of facility of conservation of varieties of crop plants/trees by tissue culture.