ecological succession

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Describes the various process in ecological succession in detail.

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Ecological succession presentation by Jhansirani.R AP/ECE: 

Ecological succession presentation by Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

Ecological succession: 

Ecological succession Ecosystem is not static It changes its structure & function with time These changes are in order and can be predicted One type of community is totally replaced by another type of community over a period of time Thus causing several changes. This process is called ecological succession. Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

Definition : 

Definition Ecological succession is defined as the progressive replacement of one community by another through natural processes over time till the development of stable community called climax is reached. Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

Stages of Ecological succession: 

Stages of Ecological succession Pioneer community : The community (group of organism) establishing first in the area is called pioneer community. Seres (or) seral stage : The whole sequence of community which are transitory. (or) The various developmental stages of a community is called seres. Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

Types of ecological succession: 

Types of ecological succession Primary Succession: The process of creating life in an area where no life previously existed. Secondary Succession: The process of re-stabilization that follows a disturbance in an area where life has formed an ecosystem. Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

Primary Succession: 

Primary Succession Soil starts to form as lichens and the forces of weather and erosion help break down rocks into smaller pieces When lichens die, they decompose, adding small amounts of organic matter to the rock to make soil Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

PowerPoint Presentation: 

Jhansirani.R AP/ECE Lichens on Rock

Primary Succession: 

Primary Succession Simple plants like mosses and ferns can grow in the new soil Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

Primary Succession: 

Primary Succession The simple plants die, adding more organic material The soil layer thickens, and grasses, wildflowers, and other plants begin to take over Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

Primary Succession: 

Primary Succession These plants die, and they add more nutrients to the soil Shrubs and tress can survive now Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

Primary Succession: 

Primary Succession Insects, small birds, and mammals have begun to move in What was once bare rock now supports a variety of life Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

Primary Succession: 

6/5/03 M-DCC / PCB 2340C 13 Primary Succession

PowerPoint Presentation: 

Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

PowerPoint Presentation: 

Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

PowerPoint Presentation: 

Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

Secondary Succession: 

Secondary Succession Begins in a place that already has soil and was once the home of living organisms Occurs faster and has different pioneer species than primary succession Example: after forest fires Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

Climax Community: 

Climax Community A stable group of plants and animals that is the end result of the succession process Does not always mean big trees Grasses in prairies Cacti in deserts Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

These are Climax Communities: 

These are Climax Communities

Ecological succession in different areas: 

Ecological succession in different areas Depending on the substratum and climate, a seral community can be one of the following: Hydrosere Community in water Mesasere community in area of adequate moisture Lithosere Community on rock Psammosere Community on sand Xerosere Community in dry area Halosere Community in saline body (e.g. a marsh) Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

Process of succession: 

Process of succession Nudation: It is the development of a bare area without any life form. Bare are may be caused due to Topographic factor Landslides Volcanic eruption (ii) Climatic factor Drought Glaciers Frost (iii) Biotic factors Overgrazing Disease outbreak Agriculture/industrial activities Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

Process of succession: 

Process of succession Invasion: It is the establishment of one or more species on a bare area through dispersal or migration followed by establishment Dispersal of seeds, spore etc.., Dispersal is brought by Wind Water Insects Birds Establishment : seeds germinate and establish their pioneer community Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

Process of succession: 

Process of succession Competition and coaction: As the number of individuals grows there is competition, both inter specific (b/w different species) and intra specific (with in same species) for space, water, and nutrition. They influence each other in a number of ways, known as coaction. Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

Process of succession: 

Process of succession Reaction: The living organisms grow, use water and nutrients from the substratum, and in turn, they have a strong influence on the environment which is modified to a large extent and this is known as reaction. The modifications are unsuitable for the existing species and favor some new species, which replace the existing species. This leads to seral communities. Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

Process of succession: 

Process of succession Stabilization: succession leads to stable community called climax which is in equilibrium with the environment. Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

Hydrosere/Hydrarch: 

Hydrosere/Hydrarch The pioneer community consist of phytoplankton's like floating algae, diatoms etc., They are replaced by rooted submerged plants followed by rooted floating plants. Growth of these plants adds organic matter to substratum by death and decay. Thus a layer of soil builds up and shallowing of water takes place. Then reed swamp stage follows in which the plants are partly in water and partly on land This is followed by sedge meadow stage of grass Then by wood land consisting of shrubs and trees Finally by a forest acting as climax. Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

PowerPoint Presentation: 

Jhansirani.R AP/ECE PHYTOPLANKTONS DIATOMS

PowerPoint Presentation: 

ROOTED SUBMERGED & FLOATING PLANTS

PowerPoint Presentation: 

REED SWAMP

PowerPoint Presentation: 

Jhansirani.R AP/ECE SEDGE MEADOW

PowerPoint Presentation: 

Jhansirani.R AP/ECE WOODLAND

PowerPoint Presentation: 

FOREST