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Premium member Presentation Transcript ECOSYSTEM: ECOSYSTEM A PRESENTATION BY JHANSIRANI.R AP/ECEPowerPoint Presentation: JHANSIRANI.R AP/ECEDefinition : Definition A group of organisms interacting among themselves and with environment is know as ecosystem. Thus, an ecosystem is a community of different species interacting with one another and with the non living environment for exchange of energy and matter. JHANSIRANI.R AP/ECEFresh water ecosystem: Fresh water ecosystem JHANSIRANI.R AP/ECEEcology : Ecology Branch of biology that attempts to understand the relationship between living organisms and their environment , and the associated energy-flows Environment consist of both biotic and abiotic components Ecology is the study of ecosystem. JHANSIRANI.R AP/ECETypes of ecosystem: Types of ecosystem ECOSYSTEM NATURAL ARTIFICIAL TERRESTIAL AQUATIC MARINE FRESH WATER LOTIC LENTIC Stream, river etc., Lake, pond, pools, etc., Cropland, dams, etc., JHANSIRANI.R AP/ECEEcosystem characteristics : Ecosystem characteristics Ecosystem show large variations in their Size Structure Composition etc., All the ecosystem are characterized by certain basic structural and functional features which are common. JHANSIRANI.R AP/ECEStructure of ecosystem: Structure of ecosystem Composition and organization of biological communities and abiotic components constitute the structure of an ecosystem Biotic structure abiotic structure Producers physical factors Consumers chemical factors Herbivores Carnivores Omnivores Detritivores Decomposers JHANSIRANI.R AP/ECEBiotic structure: The plants, animals and microorganisms present in an ecosystem form the biotic component. These organism have different nutritional behavior and status in the ecosystems and are accordingly known as producers or consumers, based on how do they get their food. Biotic structure JHANSIRANI.R AP/ECEproducers: producers Producer - all autotrophs (plants), they trap energy from the sun,co 2, Chlorophyll through photosynthesis. Chemo-autotrophs: microorganism which can produce organic matter through oxidation of certain chemicals in absence of sunlight. Bottom of the food chain JHANSIRANI.R AP/ECEConsumer: Consumer all heterotrophs: they get their organic food by feeding on other organisms. Herbivores Carnivores Omnivores Detritivores JHANSIRANI.R AP/ECEHerbivores : Herbivores Eat plants Primary consumers Prey animals Eg: rabbit, insect, man JHANSIRANI.R AP/ECEConsumer-Carnivores: Consumer-Carnivores eat meat Predators Hunt prey animals for food. If they feed on herbivores They are secondary consumers Eg: frog If they feed on other carnivores they are tertiary consumers Eg: snake, big fish etc., JHANSIRANI.R AP/ECEConsumer- Omnivores: Consumer- Omnivores eat both plants and animals Eg: fox, many birds, humans. JHANSIRANI.R AP/ECEConsumer- detritivores: Consumer- detritivores Saprotrophs: they feed on parts of dead organisms, waste of living organism, and partially decomposed matter Eg: beetles, termites, ants, earthworms etc., JHANSIRANI.R AP/ECEDecomposers : Decomposers Breakdown the complex compounds of dead and decaying plants and animals into simpler molecules that can be absorbed Eg: bacteria, fungi JHANSIRANI.R AP/ECEAbiotic structure: Abiotic structure Physical and chemical components of ecosystem constitute its abiotic structure. It includes Climatic factors Edaphic factors Geographical factors Energy Nutrients Toxic substance. JHANSIRANI.R AP/ECEPhysical factors: Physical factors The sunlight & shade Intensity of solar flux Duration of sun hours Average temperature Maximum & minimum temperature Annual rainfall Wind Latitude Altitude Soil type Water availability these features have strong influence on ecosystem. JHANSIRANI.R AP/ECEChemical factors: Chemical factors Availability of essential nutrients like Carbon Nitrogen Phosphorus Potassium Hydrogen Oxygen Sulphur Level of toxic substance Salts causing salinity Organic substance present in soil or water influences the functioning of ecosystem. JHANSIRANI.RFunctional Attributes: Functional Attributes Ecosystem performs under natural conditions in a systematic way. Energy, various nutrients and water are required for life processes which are exchanged by biotic components within themselves and with abiotic components .PowerPoint Presentation: The major functional attributes of an ecosystem are as follows Food chain, Food webs, trophic structure Energy flow Cycling of nutrients(Biogeochemical cycles) Primary & Secondary production Ecosystem development & regulation JHANSIRANI.R AP/ECETrophic Structure: Trophic Structure The structure and function of ecosystem are closely related so, they need to be studied together. The flow of energy is mediated through a series of feeding relationships in definite sequence known as food chain. JHANSIRANI.R AP/ECEPowerPoint Presentation: The producers and consumers are arranged in ecosystem in a definite manner and they interaction along with population size are expressed together as trophic structure. Each food level is known as trophic level and the amount of living matter at each trophic level at a given time is known as standing crop or standing biomass. JHANSIRANI.R AP/ECETrophic Levels: Trophic Levels Producers- Autotrophs Primary consumers- Herbivores Secondary consumers-small carnivores Tertiary consumers- top carnivores E N E R G Y JHANSIRANI.R AP/ECEPowerPoint Presentation: JHANSIRANI.R AP/ECEFood Chain: Food Chain The sequence of eating and being eaten in an ecosystem is known as food chain. All organisms, living or dead, are potential food for some other organism and thus there is essentially no waste in the functioning of natural ecosystem. e.g., grass-> grass hopper-> frog-> snake-> hawk(grass land ecosystem) JHANSIRANI.R AP/ECEPowerPoint Presentation: JHANSIRANI.R AP/ECETypes of food chains: Types of food chains Two major types of food chains Grazing food chain It starts with green plants and culminates in carnivores. Eg: grass-> rabbit-> fox. Detritus food chain it starts with dead organic matter which the detritivores and decomposers consume Eg: leaf litter-> algae-> crabs-> small fish-> large fish. JHANSIRANI.R AP/ECEFood Web: Food Web Food web is a network of food chains where different types of organisms are connected at different trophic levels, so that there are a No: of options for eating and being eaten at each trophic level. the ecosystems are much more complex, they have rich species diversity and therefore food webs are much more complex. JHANSIRANI.R AP/ECEPowerPoint Presentation: Food chain Food web ( just 1 path of energy ) (all possible energy paths) JHANSIRANI.R AP/ECEPowerPoint Presentation: JHANSIRANI.R AP/ECEPowerPoint Presentation: JHANSIRANI.RPowerPoint Presentation: JHANSIRANI.R AP/ECEWhy food web instead of Food chain : Why food web instead of Food chain Food webs give greater stability to the ecosystem. In food chain if one species becomes extinct or one species suffers then the subsequent species in trophic level also affected. In food web, there are No: of options available at each trophic level so if one species is affected it does not affect other trophic level. JHANSIRANI.R AP/ECESignificant of food chain and food web: Significant of food chain and food web Food chain & food web play a significant role in ecosystem because, the important functions of energy flow & nutrient cycling takes place through them. Food chains help in maintainindg and regulating the population size of different animals and thus maintains the ecological balance. JHANSIRANI.R AP/ECEPowerPoint Presentation: Food chains show a unique property of biological magnification of some chemicals There are several pesticides, heavy metals and other chemicals which are non-biodegradable in nature. Such chemicals are not decomposed by micro organisms & they keep on passing from one trophic level to another. And, at each successive trophic level they keep on increasing in concentration. This phenomenon is called Biomagnifications or Biological magnification JHANSIRANI.R AP/ECE You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.