Intrroduction to Environmental studies

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UNIT I ENVIRONMENT, ECOSYSTEM & BIODIVERSITY Definition, scope and importance of environment Need for public awareness Concept of an ecosystem Structure and function of ecosystem Producers, consumers and decomposers Energy flow in the ecosystem Ecological succession Food chains, food webs and ecological pyramids Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

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Introduction, types, characteristics features, structure and function of the (a) forest ecosystem (b) grassland ecosystem (c) desert ecosystem (d) aquatic ecosystem (ponds, streams, lakes, rivers, oceans, estuaries) Introduction to bio diversity definition. Genetic, species and ecosystem diversity Biogeographical classification of India Value of biodiversity: consumptive use, productive use, social ethical, aesthetic and option values. Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

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Bio diversity at global, national and local levels India as a mega diversity nation Hot spots of biodiversity Threats to biodiversity: habitat loss, poaching of wildlife, man wildlife conflicts Endangered and endemic species of India Conversation of biodiversity: In-situ and ex-situ conservation of biodiversity. Field study of common plants, insects, birds Field study of simple ecosystem pond, river, hill slopes, etc.., Jhansirani.R AP/ECE


INTRODUCTION Environment means “ to encircle or surroundings” All the biological and non-biological entities around us is called as environment DEFINITION Environment is defined as “sum total of water, air and land and the inter-relationships that exist among them and with the human beings, other living organisms and materials” Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

Environmental science:

Environmental science It is the study of the environment, its biotic and abiotic components and their interrelationship. Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

Environmental engineering:

Environmental engineering It is the application of engineering principles to the protection and enhancement of the quality of the environment and to the enhancement and protection of public health and welfare. Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

Environmental studies or Environmental education:

Environmental studies or Environmental education The process of educating the people for preserving quality environment. Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

Types of environment:

Types of environment Natural environment Man made environment Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

Natural environment:

Natural environment Natural environment is characterized by natural components. All biotic (living) and abiotic components (non living) are created through natural process. Eg: soil, water, air, trees, radiations, etc., Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

Man made environment:

Man made environment Man modifies the environment using modern technologies according to his needs to a great extent. Eg: house, road, schools, railway lines, parks, etc., Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

Multidisciplinary nature of environmental studies:

Multidisciplinary nature of environmental studies ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES Life sciences Biology, Biochemistry, Microbiology, Bio-tech, etc., Mathematics, statistics, Computer science, etc., Physical sciences Physics, chemistry, earth science, atmospheric science, oceanography, geography, etc., Civil engg, chemical engg, hydraulics, nano technology, etc., Economics, sociology, law, education, management, mass communication, etc., Basic and applied studies Modeling Management and awareness Technology Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

Multidisciplinary nature of environmental studies:

Multidisciplinary nature of environmental studies Life science : Botany Zoology Microbiology Genetics Biochemistry Helps in understanding biotic components & its interactions. Genetics Bio-technology Used for finding solutions to environmental problems. Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

Multidisciplinary nature of environmental studies:

Multidisciplinary nature of environmental studies Physical sciences : Physics Chemistry Geology Atmospheric science Oceanography Geography Used to understand the physical and chemical structure of abiotic components of environment along with mass and energy transfer. Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

Multidisciplinary nature of environmental studies:

Multidisciplinary nature of environmental studies Maths Statistics Computer science used as a effective tool in environmental modeling. Economics Management Sociology for dealing socio-economic aspects associated with various development activities. Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

Multidisciplinary nature of environmental studies:

Laws provides guidelines and legal measures for effective management and protection of environment. Civil engineering Hydraulics Chemical engineering Nano technology provides technical solutions to environmental pollution control and waste treatment for protection of environment. Multidisciplinary nature of environmental studies Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

Multidisciplinary nature of environmental studies:

Environmental education Mass communication used in disseminating environmental awareness. Multidisciplinary nature of environmental studies Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

Scope :

Scope EVS has wide scope in large number of areas and aspects which may be summarized as follows Natural resources their conservation & management Ecology & Biodiversity Environmental pollution and control Social issue in relation to development and environment Human population and environment These aspects of environmental studies have direct relevance to every section of the society. Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

Scope :

Scope Many career options have emerged in this field that are broadly categorized as Research & development (R&D) in environment Green advocacy Green marketing Green media Environment consultancy Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

Research & development in environment:

Research & development in environment Environmental scientists Examines environmental problems in a scientific manner Carry out R&D activities for developing cleaner technology and promoting sustainable development. Trained manpower is needed to deal with environmental issues Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

Research & development in environment:

Research & development in environment Environmental management & environmental engineering are emerging as new career for environmental protection & management Pollution control laws being more stringent, industries are finding it difficult to dispose waste To avoid litigation companies are trying to adopt green technologies which would reduce pollution Cleaning up of the wastes produced is another potential market Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

Green advocacy:

Green advocacy Increasing emphasis on implementing various acts and laws related to environment, need for environmental lawyers has emerged who should be able to plead the cases related to Water pollution Air pollution Forest Wildlife etc., Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

Green marketing:

Green marketing Quality of the product is ensured with ISO mark Marketing goods that are eco friendly has ecomark or ISO 14000 certification. Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

Green media:

Green media Environmental awareness can be spread amongst masses through mass media like Television Radio Newspaper Magazines Hoardings Advertisements etc., Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

Environment consultancy:

Environment consultancy Many non-government organizations (NGO), industries and government bodies are engaging environmental consultants for systematically studying and tackling environment related problems. Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

Importance of environment:

Importance of environment Any person will be affected by environment and also he will affect the environment by his deeds Air, water, food, and land are all contaminated by the industrial activities, because of the lack of self discipline Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

Global Vs local nature of environment:

Global Vs local nature of environment Environment is global as well as local in nature Global issues Global warming Depletion of ozone layer Dwindling forests Energy resources Loss of global biodiversity etc., Affects the mankind globally for that we have to think and plan globally. Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

Global Vs local nature of environment:

Global Vs local nature of environment Local issues Impact of mining or hydro-electric project in an area Problems of disposal and management of solid waste River or lake pollution Soil erosion Water logging Salinization of soil Fluorosis problem in local population Arsenic pollution of ground water etc., for this we need to think and act locally. * It is very important to make everyone environmentally educated. Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

Individualistic nature of environment:

Individualistic nature of environment Environment studies is very important since it deals with most important problems of life where each individual matters like, Safe and clean drinking water Hygienic living conditions Clean and fresh air Fertile land Healthy food Sustainable development If we want to live in a clean, healthy, aesthetically beautiful, safe and secure environment for a long time and wish to hand over a clean and safe earth to our future it is most essential to understand the basics of environment. Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

Need for public awareness:

Need for public awareness Goal of sustainable development cannot be achieved by any government until the public has a participatory role in it. Public participation is possible only when the public is aware about the ecological and environmental issues. E.g.: A drive by the government to ban the littering of polythene cannot be successful until the public understands the environmental implications of the same. Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

Need for public awareness:

Need for public awareness The public has to be made aware that by littering polythene, we are not only damaging the environment, but posing serious threat to our health. A Chinese proverb “ If you plan for one year, plant rice, if you plan for 10 years, plant trees and if you plan for 100 years, educate people” Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

Contemporary Indian environmentalists:

Contemporary Indian environmentalists Justice – Kuldeep Singh – Green judge M.C. Mehta – Green advocate Contributed to environment In 1991, supreme court of our country issued directives to make all curriculum environment oriented. This directive was, in fact, in response to a public interest litigation (PIL) filed by M.C. Mehta Vs union of India (1998) that prompted the apex court to give a mandate for creating environmental awareness among all citizens of India. Based on the judgment, environmental studies is being taught as a compulsory course to all students . Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

Concept of Eco mark:

Concept of Eco mark In order to increase consumer awareness about environment, the government of India has introduced a scheme of eco-labeling of consumer products as ‘ eco mark’ in 1991. Earthen pitcher is a symbol of eco friendly and our traditional heritage. Eco mark is awarded to the product that is made, used and disposed off in a harmless manner. To disseminate environmental awareness Eco clubs for children's Eco task force for army men Have been launched by the government. Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

Slide 34:

To sum up, it is essential to create environmental awareness because: Environment belongs to all and participation of masses is a must for successful implementation of environmental protection plans. Living in a technologically developing society, our lifestyles and attitudes have become self oriented. Environmental awareness is needed to change the mindset of modern society for an earth oriented approach There is a need to make the public environmentally aware of the serious health impacts of environmental pollution and their right to live in a clean and healthy environment. Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

Slide 35:

There is a urgent need to create awareness among people that we have no other option but to follow sustainability principles. Only then life of mankind on this earth would be secure and our future generation would be safe. “ what’s the use of a beautiful house if you don’t have a decent planet to put it on?” Even if we begin today, the restoration is expected in the next 40-50 years. Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

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