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Productivity = Input Output = Value creation Cost optimization Amount of all resources used (input) = Amount Produced (output) Productivity is some relationship b/w input and out put of an enterprise. It is the quantitative relationship b/w what we produce and the resources used. A measure of performance. Definition of Productivity : Definition of Productivity Productivity is measure of how much input is required to produce a given output i.e. it is ratio of output to input . According to Peteer Drucker : “Prod.y means balance b/w all factors of prod’ n that will give d maximum output with the smallest effort”. Input : Input Input is the amount of recourses used in producing the goods and services Inputs: Labor Plant and equipment Raw material Energy Output : Output Output is the finish goods and services produced: Physical unit: No of T.V produced No of customer served Value unit : Gross Domestic product Added value Total sales value Factor AFFECTING productivity : Factor AFFECTING productivity All the factors, which r related to input and output components of a prod’n process, r likely to affect productivity and they r divided in two categories:- Category 1 primary factors r effort and working capacity of an individual. Org. factors r related to the design and transformational process required to produce some item, the nature of training and other skill imparted to workers etc. Conventional and traditions of d org. e.g. Activities of labour unions, medical facilities , workers and executives understanding etc. Categories 2: : Categories 2: Factors related to output :- research and development techniques, improvement in technology and efficient sales strategy of the or. will lead to improvement in output. Efficient use of input resources, better stores ctrl, prod’n ctrl policy, maintenance of ,machines etc. will minimize the cost of prod’n. Way of increasing productivity : Way of increasing productivity Better planning & training of employees, improved jobs and communication and effective mgt. through CPM/PERT methods. Use of time and mention studies to study and improve work performance. It enables to assess d quantum of work, which can be used for planning and ctrl. Better transportation and material handling system . Workers involvement in decision making and working of org’s. By providing work incentives and other benefits of workers. Improvement in technology of prod’n process and nature of raw-material and its quality. Simplification, Standardization and Specialization technique. Better and efficient utilization of resources at the disposal of d enterprise. Slide 11: Work Study Slide 12: “A generic term for those techniques, particularly method study and work measurement , which are used in the examination of human work in all its contexts, and which lead systematically to the investigation of all d factors which affect d efficiency and economy of d situation being reviewed, in order to improvement’” Work study Slide 13: “ Work study is the systematic study of an operation or process to ensure the best possible use of the human and material resources available. The application of work study to a department or company is made to improve d existing method of operation, as a result change will occur which will affect all personnel – irrespective of status”. Definition of Work study British standards Institution approved definition 3198: 1959: Slide 14: Objectives of work Study The object of applying work study is to obtain the optimum use of d human and material resources , which r available to it the benefits may stem from improvements in one more of the following: Increased production and productivity. Reduced cost- labour , material, overheads Improvement of conditions, which involve an element of excessive fatigue or danger Improvement quality Better control of costs. Measurement of work values. Efficient use of human efforts. Slide 15: Importance of work –study: Importance of work –study It is a mean of raising productivity of a factor by reorganization of the work involving little or no capital expenditure on plant and equipment. IT is systematic study where no factor of prod’n is overlooked. it is most accurate method of determining d stds of performance on which effective planning and ctrl depends. It results in savings and efficient use of resources by increasing o/p reducing scrap. Result in improved safety. Reduction in training time . It is a tool, which can be applied everywhere. Slide 16: Components of Work Study Method study Work measurement. Ergonomics. Job evaluation: Functional/ Non Functional Slide 17: Method Study Examination a job and finding more efficient method to perform him Time study Determining the times necessary to performance a job its elements High productivities Improvement planning Work Study Slide 18: Method study is the systematic Recording, Critical analysis, development and implementation/installation of new methods to perform job to reduce costs etc. with regard to existing/proposed jobs. it is some sort of MOTION STUDY. The function of d method analyst is to study d way in which something is being done with a view to develop a procedure which when adopted would increase the level of performance. “ the systematic recording and critical examination of existing and proposed ways of doing work, as a means of developing and applying easier and more effective methods and reducing costs” Method study BSI Slide 19: Step of Method study SELECT MAINTAIN RECORD EXAMIN INSTALL DEVELOP By regular checks. The work to be studied. All the relevant Facts. The facts critically. The most effective method. That method. Slide 20: work measurement is TIME STUDY, which determines the amt. of time reqd. to perform a job / task by a worker following a particular/ prescribed method. The application of techniques designed to establish the time for a qualified worker to carry out a specified job at a defined level of performance. A qualified worker is one who is accepted as having the necessary physical attributes, possessing the required intelligence and the education and having acquired the necessary skill and knowledge to carry out the work in hand to satisfactory standards of safety, quantity and quality. - ILO Work measurement Slide 21: selection Obtain all necessary information Divide the job into elements Time the element The number of the cycle to be timed Rating the operator Objective rating Step of Work Measurement Objective of Work Measurement : Objective of Work Measurement Target time for each job can be estimated and realistic and manpower requirements can be prepared. Useful incentive schemes can be generated by linking these with target times. Variance b/w actual time & target time can lead to apply better ctrl on the operations Forecasts for future manpower & related cost can be made. You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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