Beak and Feet adaptation in birds

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Describes the different types of beaks and feet modifications with illustrations

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BEAK AND FEET ADAPTATIONS IN BIRDS : 

BEAK AND FEET ADAPTATIONS IN BIRDS Mrs. Rani AshokLecturer (SS) in ZoologyLady Doak College, Madurai

BEAK ADAPTATIONS : 

BEAK ADAPTATIONS

Insectivorous : 

Insectivorous Small, wide and delicate for scooping or catching insects while on flight Eg. Swift, Swallow Swift Swallow

Wood chiseling : 

Wood chiseling Elongate, straight and chisel-like for drilling barks for food and nest construction. Eg. Woodpecker

Tearing and piercing : 

Tearing and piercing Short, pointed, sharp edged, powerful and hooked to tear the flesh of prey. Eg. Eagle, Kite Eagle Kite

Mud probing : 

Mud probing Long, slender for probing into water for larvae and worms Eg. Jacana, Sand piper. Sand piper Jacana

Water and mud straining : 

Water and mud straining Broad, flat, jaws with horny serrations and transverse lamellae that enable good catch of feed Eg. Goose.

Fish catching : 

Fish catching Long, powerful, pointed and spear-like for capturing fish, frogs and other food items Eg. Kingfisher, Heron. Kingfisher Heron

Spatulate : 

Spatulate Flattened, spatulate, spoon-like for searching worms, insects and small animals Eg. Spoonbill.

Pouched : 

Pouched Large gular pouches below lower jaw serves as fishing net Eg. Pelican.

Flower probing : 

Flower probing Long, pointed, probing beak that help in sucking honey and insects Eg. Humming bird

Seed eating : 

Seed eating Short, stout, conical, helping in piercing and cutting seeds and fruit stones. These are granivorous in nature feeing on grains Eg. Sparrow.

Cutting : 

Cutting Long, slender with cutting edge and has multipurpose use. Eg. Crow

Fruit eating : 

Fruit eating Sharp, massive, deeply hooked and strong for gnawing or breaking open of hard seeds Eg. Parrot

FEET ADAPTATIONS : 

FEET ADAPTATIONS

Raptorial : 

Raptorial Gripping organ (formed of spines) and taloned feet with well-developed claws Eg. Eagle, Kite, Vulture Eagle Kite Vulture

Clinging : 

Clinging Clinging organ formed by 4 forwardly pointed toes Eg. Swift, Humming bird Swift Humming bird

Climbing : 

Climbing Grasping organ formed by 2nd and 3rd toes facing forward and 1st and 4th toes facing backwards Eg. Parrot, Woodpecker Parrot Woodpecker

Swimming : 

Swimming Webbed legs. In coots, they have lobate feet with free toes. In ducks – anterior three toes are webbed. In pelicans – all 4 toes are webbed Eg. Coot, Duck, Pelican Coot Duck Pelican

Wading : 

Wading Wading organ. Walls over aquatic vegetation/ marshes; web is absent or if present, feebly developed Eg. Heron, Jacana Heron Jacana

Perching : 

Perching Fastening organ is formed by one posterior placed, strongly built opposable hallux toe Eg. Sparrow, Crow, Bulbul Sparrow Crow Bulbul

Scratching : 

Scratching Running and scratching is done with stout feet with strong claws. Males are provided with pointed bony spur for offence and defense Eg. Fowl, Pheasant Fowl Pheasant

Other modifications : 

Other modifications Pectinate claw is seen in Poorwill and helps in scratching. Fleshy fringe of skin on toes is present in Ruffled grouse that helps in walking on snow Eg. Poor will, Ruffled grouse Poor will Ruffled grouse Poor will

Slide 24: 

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