poison apparatus and snake bite

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Poisono apparatus and Snake bite:

Poisono apparatus and Snake bite Mrs. Rani Ashok Asst. Prof. of Zoology Lady Doak College, Madurai Email: eaarani@rediffmail.com

SNAKES …:

ectothermic reptiles belong to the suborder Serpentes bears well formed biting apparatus coupled with toxic venoms, products by the poison gland less than 300 species may be harmful to human SNAKES …

POISON APPARATUS IN SNAKES … Poison Glands …:

Poison glands - modified superior labial or parotid glands. situated on the either side of the upper jaw Sac-like structure thickly encapsulated with fibrous tissue narrow duct from the anterior end of the poison sacs and passes forward along the side of the upper jaw and loops over itself just in front of the fang. capsule supports vascular fibrous septa that separate the glandular substances into secretory pockets. POISON APPARATUS IN SNAKES … Poison Glands …

POISON APPARATUS IN SNAKES … Fangs …:

Fangs - Snakes eject venoms by their two hollow maxillary teeth called fangs Fangs are long sharply pointed and hook like, being extremely hard and calcified with a superficial enamel layer POISON APPARATUS IN SNAKES … Fangs …

POISON APPARATUS IN SNAKES … Fangs …:

POISON APPARATUS IN SNAKES … Fangs … According to the position, the poison fang may be According to the structural differences poison fangs Opisthoglyphodont : fangs lie at the back of the maxilla and are of open category. Proteroglypodont : fangs are situated at the front end of the maxilla and are at closed category. Open type : furrowed by a groove for the conduction of the venom. Closed type : Fang becomes almost or totally tubular, hypodermic syringe like structure due to approximation of the groove tips.

POISON APPARATUS IN SNAKES … :

Poison glands - modified superior labial or parotid glands. situated on the either side of the upper jaw Sac-like structure thickly encapsulated with fibrous tissue narrow duct from the anterior end of the poison sacs and passes forward along the side of the upper jaw and loops over itself just in front of the fang. capsule supports vascular fibrous septa that separate the glandular substances into secretory pockets. POISON APPARATUS IN SNAKES …

POISON APPARATUS IN SNAKES … :

Muscles - Digastric muscle; sphenoterygoid ; anterior and posterior temporalis POISON APPARATUS IN SNAKES …

Mechanism of snake bite:

Opening of mouth by contraction of digastric muscle Rotation of maxilla bone Fangs become erect and press the victim Mouth closes by the action o temporalis muscles Injection of poison is completed Mechanism of snake bite

Snake venom …:

Snake venom … Highly complex chemical mixtures that “may contain many proteins, mainly particular enzymes, and strongly basic polypeptides The chemical compositions of venoms are known to vary intra-specifically for a number of reasons

Snake venom …:

Snake venom … The geographic variation in venom - closely related to diet and thus reasoned that natural selection had directed venom composition to make the venoms most effective against the specific prey types that snakes in separate areas would encounter As a general rule, venoms seem to be either highly toxic (to bring about rapid prey death) or highly proteolytic (presumably to help with chemical digestion)

Snake venom …:

Snake venom … Neurotoxic … Haemotoxic … produce paralysis and death by respiratory shock rich in basic amino acids act at the molecular level by disrupting neuromuscular junctions and hence limit muscle activity Low molecular weight – fast diffusion process have hemorrhagic effects often cause tissue destruction in other body systems - attributed to proteins and digestive enzymes such as phospholipase A2 Higher molecular weight – slow diffusion process

First aid for snake bite …:

Call medical help immediately if possible. Remain calm, remember most snake bites are not fatal. Minimise movement if possible. If you are hiking alone you may have to hike out for help. First aid for snake bite …

First aid for snake bite …:

If you are bitten on the arm or finger remove any rings, bracelets or watches. Loosen any tight clothing in case swelling occurs. Apply a pressure bandage to the bitten limb. If the bite is to the trunk, head or neck, apply firm pressure to the bitten area. Do not restrict chest movement as breathing will be affected by this. First aid for snake bite …

First aid for snake bite …:

Splint or use a sling on the bitten limb to restrict movement. If there is no bandage or equivalent to apply a pressure bandage make note of any inflammation by tracing the edge of the swelling with a pen or the like near/around the bite and mark the time clearly next to it. If it progresses make a new tracing noting the time of each new mark beside that new tracing. This will give valuable information to medical help as to the development of the swelling. First aid for snake bite …

First aid for snake bite …:

If possible, lie down and keep the bitten extremity at body level. Raising it can cause venom to travel through the body quicker. Holding it down, can increase swelling. When possible arrange for transport to the nearest hospital emergency room, where anti-venom for snakes common to the area will often be available and given if required. First aid for snake bite …

Some definite No No's for Snake Bite First Aid:

NO aspirin or other pain relievers. NO tourniquets. This cuts blood flow completely and may result in loss of the affected limb. DO NOT try to suck the venom out of the wound or cut into the bite with a knife. Such measures have not been proven useful and may cause further injury (see below explanation). DO NOT apply a cold compress or ice on the bite. Research has shown this to be potentially harmful. DO NOT raise the wound above the heart. Raising it can cause venom to travel into the body. Holding it down, can increase swelling. Some definite No No's for Snake Bite First Aid

Some definite No No's for Snake Bite First Aid:

DO NOT use electric shock or a stun gun on the bite area. This method is under study and has yet to be proven effective. It could harm the victim. DO NOT wash the snake bite area - Australian recommendations for snake bite treatment strongly recommend against cleaning the wound. Traces of venom left on the skin/bandages from the strike can be used in combination with a snake bite identification kit to identify the species of snake. This speeds determination of which anti-venom to administer in the emergency room. DO NOT try and capture the snake. If it's safe you can try to take a photo with a camera or with your phone. This is the best way in aiding snake identification. Some definite No No's for Snake Bite First Aid

Effects of envenomation …:

Effects of envenomation …

PowerPoint Presentation:

The above photos were taken from 'Snakebite Management in Asia and Africa- A guide to snakebite in the key areas for mortality and morbidity' Produced by the Pakistan Medical Research Council http://www.usavri.org/Consequences%20of%20Snakebite.html

PowerPoint Presentation:

The above photos were taken from 'Snakebite Management in Asia and Africa- A guide to snakebite in the key areas for mortality and morbidity' Produced by the Pakistan Medical Research Council http://www.usavri.org/Consequences%20of%20Snakebite.html

PowerPoint Presentation:

The above photos were taken from 'Snakebite Management in Asia and Africa- A guide to snakebite in the key areas for mortality and morbidity' Produced by the Pakistan Medical Research Council http://www.usavri.org/Consequences%20of%20Snakebite.html

PowerPoint Presentation:

The above photos were taken from 'Snakebite Management in Asia and Africa- A guide to snakebite in the key areas for mortality and morbidity' Produced by the Pakistan Medical Research Council http://www.usavri.org/Consequences%20of%20Snakebite.html

PowerPoint Presentation:

The above photos were taken from 'Snakebite Management in Asia and Africa- A guide to snakebite in the key areas for mortality and morbidity' Produced by the Pakistan Medical Research Council http://www.usavri.org/Consequences%20of%20Snakebite.html

PowerPoint Presentation:

The above photos were taken from 'Snakebite Management in Asia and Africa- A guide to snakebite in the key areas for mortality and morbidity' Produced by the Pakistan Medical Research Council http://www.usavri.org/Consequences%20of%20Snakebite.html

Thank You:

Thank You