Slide 2: sequence of presentation I. OBJECTIVES
II. DEFINITION OF TERMS
III. IMPORTANCE OF FIRST AID
IV. RESCUE BREATHING
V. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION
VI. BLEEDING/ HEMMORHAGE
VII. FRACTURE To be familiar with the different medical terms generally used in the topic.To understand the importance of the subject, the basic life saving steps.To be able to apply first aid treatment to possible cases one will encounter in the future. : To be familiar with the different medical terms generally used in the topic.To understand the importance of the subject, the basic life saving steps.To be able to apply first aid treatment to possible cases one will encounter in the future. I. OBJECTIVES : FIRST AID II. DEFINITION OF TERMS:FIRST AID – an IMMEDIATE care given to an injured or ill person before a definitive treatment can be given by a medically trained personnel.SELF- AID – A care give to oneself.FIRST AIDER – A person who give first aid.
HEMORRHAGE – An escape of large quantities of blood from the blood vessels. Slide 5: WOUND- a break in the continuity of the skin, mucous membrane and tissue.
FRACTURE- a break in the continuity of the bone.
SPLINT- any flat-like material, ready-made or improvised, use to hold fracture.
DRESSING- is a sterile pad, a compressed sponge or any other material that is clean and directly applied to cover the wound.
SHOCK – A state or condition wherein there is no enough or adequate blood supplies to the vital tissues and organs. DEFINITION OF TERMS: Slide 6: DEFINITION OF TERMS:
BASIC LIFE SUPPORT- advance giving of life support needed by a casualty. ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION – Is a procedure causing the air to flow into and out of the lungs of a person when is normal or natural breathing is inadequate or has ceases. CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION- is a procedure done through direct chest compression with good recoil time to sustain ceasing blood supply to the vital organs. FIRST AID III. : III. SAVES LIFE
PREVENT PERMANENT DISABILITY
REDUCED PROLONG HOSPITALIZATION IMPORTANCE OF FIRST AID 1. Do not get excited2. Examine the patient where he lay with head level3. Examine the patient for: hemorrhage, stop bleeding and injury 4. Treat for shock5. Give the patient comfort 6. Assure the patient that his condition can be taken care of7. Handle the patient gently8. Never give anything by mouth to unconscious person : 1. Do not get excited2. Examine the patient where he lay with head level3. Examine the patient for: hemorrhage, stop bleeding and injury 4. Treat for shock5. Give the patient comfort 6. Assure the patient that his condition can be taken care of7. Handle the patient gently8. Never give anything by mouth to unconscious person General Procedure in Case Of Injury : WOUNDS Slide 10: WOUND is a break in the continuity of the skin.
an opening that allows blood to escape from the body.
if not managed properly will cause hemorrhage, shock and eventually … death. Slide 11: TYPES OF
WOUNDS Slide 12: WOUNDS INCISED WOUND – Caused by sharp bladed
object and presents a clean cut. Slide 13: WOUNDS PUNCTURED WOUND –Usually caused by
sharp pointed object. Slide 14: WOUNDS AVULSION – A kind of wound that involves a forcible separation or tearing of tissue from the victims body. (Avulsed Wound) Slide 15: WOUNDS LACERATED WOUND – Caused by any hard or blunt
object. Slide 16: WOUNDS ABRASION – A wound resulting from scraping
rough surfaces. Slide 17: WOUNDS AMPUTATION – A wound resulting from
a forcible separation of any body part. Slide 18: CLEAN THE WOUND
Almost any bleeding can be stopped by applying a thick pad made of the cleanest cloth available
Place the dressing on the wound and apply firm pressure.
Position the patient so that the wound is above the level of the heart. In the case of a head or neck wound, elevate the head and shoulders. FIRST AID TREATMENTS FOR WOUNDS 1 2 3 Slide 19: PRESSURE POINTS
If bleeding continues, the artery must be compressed against the bone above the wound.
>On The Arm
Halfway between the armpit and the elbow.
>For The Leg
In the fold between the torso and the thigh, not on the leg itself. FIRST AID TREATMENTS FOR WOUNDS Slide 20: PRESSURE POINTS Slide 21: FIRST AID TREATMENTS FOR WOUNDS Take a short, sturdy stick or similar object and lay it across the half-knot in the strip of cloth. Now tie the two ends over the stick.
Twist the stick to tighten the tourniquet. Keep twisting until the bleeding stops.
Tie a second strip of cloth to the end of the stick and secure it around the limb to keep the tourniquet tightly in place. TOURNIQUET Slide 22: FIRST AID TREATMENTS FOR WOUNDS TOURNIQUET Ideal Tourniquet Improvised Tourniquet Slide 23: FIRST AID TREATMENTS FOR WOUNDS Improvised Tourniquets CRAVAT BANDAGE WITH A STICK Slide 24: FIRST AID TREATMENTS FOR WOUNDS Improvised Tourniquets BP Cuff Riffle sling Slide 25: FIRST AID TREATMENTS FOR WOUNDS WARNING! USE TOURNIQUETS ONLY
AS A LAST RESORT! First Aid Measures for Wounds are: : First Aid Measures for Wounds are: DIRECT PRESSURE – pressing a sterile dressing firmly over the bleeding part.
ELEVATION – raising the injured part above the heart level.
DIGITAL PRESSURE/PRESSURE POINTS – finger pressure applied directly over the bleeding part.
TORNIQUET – a constricting band placed around the arm or leg to control bleeding. Slide 27: DRESSING AND BANDAGING Slide 28: PURPOSES OF A DRESSING
A dressing covers the wound.
Absorbs blood and wound drainage.
It prevents infection from entering
It helps in the blood clotting process.
Protect the wound from further injury. DRESSING GENERAL RULES FOR APPLYING DRESSING : GENERAL RULES FOR APPLYING DRESSING The dressing should always go beyond the wound’s edges.
Place dressing directly over the wound.
If blood seeps through a dressing, do not remove it instead, apply another dressing on top of it.
If there is only one sterile dressing, use this directly over the wound and the clean one on top of it. Slide 30: Bandages are used to :
Hold a dressing in place over an open wound.
Apply direct pressure over a dressing to control bleeding
Prevent or reduced swelling
Provide support or stability for an extremity or joint. BANDAGING OTHER TYPES OF BANDAGES : OTHER TYPES OF BANDAGES LEG BANDAGE – Used in injuries of the lower and upper portions of the legs
KNEE BANDAGE – Used in injuries at the calf of the knees.
FOOT BANDAGE – Used in injuries of the ankle, foot and toes. Slide 32: SPRAIN,
DISLOCATION Slide 33: SPRAIN – Injury in which ligaments are stretched or partially torn, commonly associated with joint injuries.
DISLOCATION – an injury wherein a bone is moved out from its normal position.
FRACTURES – a break in the bone continuity. SPRAINS : SPRAINS NORMAL PLACEMENT OF LIGAMENTS TYPE I - SPRAIN : TYPE I - SPRAIN LIGAMENTS ARE STRETCHED TO ITS LIMITS.
PAIN ON MOBILIZATION IS NOTED.
SLIGHT SWELLING ON SITE TYPE II SPRAINS : TYPE II SPRAINS LIGAMENTS ARE TORN SLIGHTLY.
MODERATE SWELLING ON SITE.
PAIN EVEN AT REST IS NOTED. TYPE III SPRAIN : TYPE III SPRAIN LIGAMENTS ARE TORN COMPLETELY
SEVERE PAIN AND SWELLING ON SITE Slide 38: FIRST AID TREATMENT - SPRAINS R - Rest
I - Ice
C - Compress area with elastic bandage
E - Elevate affected part above the level of the heart DISLOCATIONS : DISLOCATIONS DISLOCATION – an injury wherein a bone is moved out from its normal position. Slide 40: R – Rest
I - Ice (every 2-3 hours)
C - Compress area with elastic bandage
E - Elevate affected part above the
level of the heart
S - Stretch gently or apply mild
pressure. FIRST AID TREATMENT - DISLOCATION FRACTURES : FRACTURES FRACTURES – a break in the bone continuity. FRACTURES : FRACTURES FRACTURES : FRACTURES Signs and Symptoms of Fractured Arm or Leg : Signs and Symptoms of Fractured Arm or Leg Bone sticking through the skin
Pain, tenderness, swelling, and/or bruising at a particular location
Arm or leg appears to be shorter or is in abnormal position (looks deformed) Signs and Symptoms of Fractured Arm or Leg : Signs and Symptoms of Fractured Arm or Leg Difficulty moving the limb
"Snapping" sound heard at the time of injury
Caution: Do not have casualty attempt to move injured limb. Rely on what the casualty tells you. PRE-TREATMENT PROCEDURES : PRE-TREATMENT PROCEDURES Reassure the casualty
Locate the site of fracture
Check the circulation below the fracture
Loosen clothing PRE-TREATMENT PROCEDURES : PRE-TREATMENT PROCEDURES Evaluate the casualty.
Locate site of fracture.
Gather splinting materials.
Pad the splints.
Check circulation below the site of injury.
Apply splint in place.
Check the splint for tightness. SPLINTING, BANDAGING AND IMMOBILIZATION TECHNIQUE : SPLINTING, BANDAGING AND IMMOBILIZATION TECHNIQUE Splints – a hard material used to support immobilization of affected limb.
Padding – Any soft material used to cushion affected limb.
Slings – a bandage or an improvised material used to support a fractured upper extremity .
Swatches – are bands used to further immobilized splinted fracture. CLAVICULAR FRACTURE : CLAVICULAR FRACTURE In applying slings, splints and swathes, always check for circulation : In applying slings, splints and swathes, always check for circulation Slide 54: IMPROVISED SLINGS Splinting Principles : Splinting Principles 1. Dress any open wounds (including burns) on injured limb before applying a splint.
2. Use whatever materials are available SPLINTING PRINCIPLES : SPLINTING PRINCIPLES Remove any restrictive clothing or jewelry.
Check pulse below the fracture site before and after splinting. No pulse, evacuate ASAP.
Splint fracture as it lies.
4. Elevate the limb after splinting to reduce swelling. Slide 57: QUESTIONS??? Slide 58: OPEN CHEST
WOUNDS OPEN CHEST WOUND SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS : OPEN CHEST WOUND SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Obvious Penetration of the Chest Wall OPEN CHEST WOUND SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS : OPEN CHEST WOUND SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Sucking Sounds coming from the wound OPEN CHEST WOUND SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS : OPEN CHEST WOUND SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Frothy Blood from the wound, and/or mouth and nose Hemothorax: Blood in Chest Cavity OPEN CHEST WOUND SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS : OPEN CHEST WOUND SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Shortness of Breath /
Difficulty Breathing OPEN CHEST WOUND SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS : OPEN CHEST WOUND SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Chest not rising normally (unequal/paradoxical) Slide 64: S 27CBCB-CH/D-64 0597 OPEN CHEST WOUND SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS: : OPEN CHEST WOUND SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS: 6. Pain in shoulder or chest which increases with breathing OPEN CHEST WOUND SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS: : OPEN CHEST WOUND SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS: 7. Cyanosis (blue)
8. Rapid and weak heartbeat OPEN CHEST WOUND : OPEN CHEST WOUND Locate and Expose the Wound:
(Do not expose wound in NBC environment)
1. Check for entry and exit wounds
2. Expose area around the wound
3. Look for pools of blood under the casualty's back;feel for wounds
4. If more than one wound, treat the worst one first. OPEN CHEST WOUND : OPEN CHEST WOUND Dress the Wound:
1. Seal with plastic that will extend 2 inches or more beyond the wound edges in all directions. Flutter Valve : S 27CBCB-CH/D-69 0597 Flutter Valve OPEN CHEST WOUND: : OPEN CHEST WOUND: OPEN CHEST WOUND:
Tell the casualty to completely exhale and hold his breath. If possible, the casualty should hold his breath until sealing material has been secured. OPEN CHEST WOUND: : OPEN CHEST WOUND: OPEN CHEST WOUND:
Tape down three edges of the plastic. OPEN CHEST WOUND: : OPEN CHEST WOUND: Casualty Sitting Up OPEN CHEST WOUND: : OPEN CHEST WOUND: Casualty Lying Down Flutter Valve : S 27CBCB-CH/D-74 0597 Flutter Valve As the casualty breathes in, the plastic is sucked against the wound and prevents air from entering the chest cavity. When the casualty exhales, the open edge of the plastic allows air to exit. OPEN CHEST WOUND: : OPEN CHEST WOUND: Dress the Wound:
2. Apply field dressing. OPEN CHEST WOUND: : OPEN CHEST WOUND: Dress the Wound:
Tie Field Dressing on Top of Wound
3.Dress less severe wounds
4.Apply manual pressure OPEN CHEST WOUND: : OPEN CHEST WOUND: Position and Monitor the Casualty
1. If lying down, casualty should lie on injured side OPEN CHEST WOUND: : OPEN CHEST WOUND: 2. If Casualty can breath easier sitting up, prop the casualty against a tree and place an alice pack between the legs for support A shift of accumulating air/fluid may relieve difficulty breathing OPEN CHEST WOUND: : OPEN CHEST WOUND: 3. Monitor the casualty. Evacuate as soon as possible. Slide 81: ABDOMINAL WOUND Apply a Dressing to an Open Abdominal Wound : Apply a Dressing to an Open Abdominal Wound Slide 83: Open Abdominal Wound Position a Casualty with Open Abdominal Wound : Position a Casualty with Open Abdominal Wound Position casualty on his back with knees up (flexed) Position a Casualty with Open Abdominal Wound : Position a Casualty with Open Abdominal Wound Helps prevent further exposure of the abdominal organs
Helps control shock
Relieves pressure on the abdominal area by allowing the abdominal muscles to relax Position a Casualty with Open Abdominal Wound : Position a Casualty with Open Abdominal Wound Dress an Open Abdominal Wound : Dress an Open Abdominal Wound Check for entry and exit wounds
Treat the more serious wound first
Expose the wound
If clothing is stuck to wound, do not try to remove it. Cut around stuck clothing
Do not try to probe, clean, or remove foreign objects from the wound Slide 88: REMOVING AN OBJECT WHICH IS PROTRUDING FROM THE ABDOMEN COULD LEAD TO SEVERE HEMORRHAGE DANGER Impaled Object : Impaled Object Position Dislodged Organs : Position Dislodged Organs Do not try to push organ back inside the body
Do not touch exposed organ with your bare hands
If organ is lying on the ground, use clean, dry material to gently pick up the organ and place the organ on top of the casualty’s abdomen near the wound Position Dislodged Organs : Position Dislodged Organs Dress an Open Abdominal Wound : Dress an Open Abdominal Wound If field dressing is too small to cover the wound and any protruding organs, use clean material to cover WARNING : WARNING If a foreign object is protruding from the wound, do not attempt to remove the object. Improvise bulky dressings from the cleanest material available and build up the area around the object in order to stabilize the object. Secure the dressing with improvised bandages. CAUTION : CAUTION The bandages should be tight enough to keep the dressing from slipping, but should not be tight enough to place pressure on the wound. You should be able to insert two fingers between the knot and the dressing. CAUTION : CAUTION The primary purpose of the dressing is to protect the wound from further contamination, not to control the bleeding through pressure. Pressure could cause additional damage to the organs or the abdominal cavity. Caution : Caution Do not tie any knots over the wound site. Reinforce Dressings : Reinforce Dressings Monitor Casualty : Monitor Casualty Knees up position
Get medical help ASAP.
Administer mouth-to-mouth resuscitation if the casualty stops breathing
If you must leave the casualty, tell him to stay on his back and keep his knees up. Caution : Caution Do not give the casualty anything to eat or drink. If the casualty complains of thirst, moisten his lips with a damp cloth. Slide 100: BLEEDING
SHOCK AND Slide 101: If someone is losing a lot of blood, you need to act. Blood carries oxygen to every body part – without it the body dies. HEMORRHAGE / BLEEDING Slide 102: HEMORRAGE AND SHOCK Normal adult blood volume is 5 liters Slide 103: HEMORRAGE AND SHOCK IF THE BODY LOSSES OF BLOOD. IT IS ALREADY IN A DANGEROUS STATE OF HAVING A HYPOVOLEMIC SHOCK. SO, YOU NEED TO ACT FAST! 1.5 LITERS Slide 104: pale, cold clammy skin fast, shallow
breathing fast, shallow
breathing restlessness thirst feels weak and dizzy blueness around lips or ear lobes how to spot shock HOW TO RECOGNIZE CLINICAL SHOCK Slide 105: Prevention from heat exposure
Loosen the clothing
Replacement of Fluids
Control of pain
Prevent the casualty from chilling or overheating
Elevate the casualty’s feet higher that the level of the heart.
NPO to unconscious patient. FIRST AID MEASURES OF SHOCK Slide 106: MEDICAL TREATMENTS
FOR WOUNDS AND BLEEDINGS HEAMEOSTATIC AGENTS (BLOOD CLOTTING AGENTS) Quick Clot Chitosan Dressing (KI – TO – SAN) Slide 107: MEDICAL TREATMENTS
FOR WOUNDS AND BLEEDINGS INTRAVENOUS INFUSIONS
AND BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS Slide 108: MEDICAL TREATMENTS
FOR WOUNDS AND BLEEDINGS SURGICAL INTERVENTION : Internal bleeding can also lead to shock. Both problems are caused by a lack of blood flowing to the vital organs. INTERNAL BLEEDING Slide 110: > Help casualty to lie down.
> Raise casualty’s legs above heart level, so the blood runs to the vital organs where it is most needed.
> Loosen casualty’s clothing.
> Call for an ambulance medical help at once.
> Keep casualty warm – lie them on a blanket or coat and cover them with another one.
> Do not let casualty eat, drink or smoke. First Treatments for internal bleeding Slide 111: GOOD DAY & MABUHAY !