first aid

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By: nguyenduyen (16 month(s) ago)

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Presentation Transcript

Slide 2: 

sequence of presentation I. OBJECTIVES II. DEFINITION OF TERMS III. IMPORTANCE OF FIRST AID IV. RESCUE BREATHING V. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION VI. BLEEDING/ HEMMORHAGE VII. FRACTURE

To be familiar with the different medical terms generally used in the topic.To understand the importance of the subject, the basic life saving steps.To be able to apply first aid treatment to possible cases one will encounter in the future. : 

To be familiar with the different medical terms generally used in the topic.To understand the importance of the subject, the basic life saving steps.To be able to apply first aid treatment to possible cases one will encounter in the future. I. OBJECTIVES

FIRST AID II. DEFINITION OF TERMS:FIRST AID – an IMMEDIATE care given to an injured or ill person before a definitive treatment can be given by a medically trained personnel.SELF- AID – A care give to oneself.FIRST AIDER – A person who give first aid. HEMORRHAGE – An escape of large quantities of blood from the blood vessels.

Slide 5: 

WOUND- a break in the continuity of the skin, mucous membrane and tissue. FRACTURE- a break in the continuity of the bone. SPLINT- any flat-like material, ready-made or improvised, use to hold fracture. DRESSING- is a sterile pad, a compressed sponge or any other material that is clean and directly applied to cover the wound. SHOCK – A state or condition wherein there is no enough or adequate blood supplies to the vital tissues and organs. DEFINITION OF TERMS:

Slide 6: 

DEFINITION OF TERMS: BASIC LIFE SUPPORT- advance giving of life support needed by a casualty. ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION – Is a procedure causing the air to flow into and out of the lungs of a person when is normal or natural breathing is inadequate or has ceases. CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION- is a procedure done through direct chest compression with good recoil time to sustain ceasing blood supply to the vital organs. FIRST AID

III. : 

III. SAVES LIFE PREVENT PERMANENT DISABILITY REDUCED PROLONG HOSPITALIZATION IMPORTANCE OF FIRST AID

1. Do not get excited2. Examine the patient where he lay with head level3. Examine the patient for: hemorrhage, stop bleeding and injury 4. Treat for shock5. Give the patient comfort 6. Assure the patient that his condition can be taken care of7. Handle the patient gently8. Never give anything by mouth to unconscious person : 

1. Do not get excited2. Examine the patient where he lay with head level3. Examine the patient for: hemorrhage, stop bleeding and injury 4. Treat for shock5. Give the patient comfort 6. Assure the patient that his condition can be taken care of7. Handle the patient gently8. Never give anything by mouth to unconscious person General Procedure in Case Of Injury

WOUNDS

Slide 10: 

WOUND is a break in the continuity of the skin. an opening that allows blood to escape from the body. if not managed properly will cause hemorrhage, shock and eventually … death.

Slide 11: 

TYPES OF WOUNDS

Slide 12: 

WOUNDS INCISED WOUND – Caused by sharp bladed object and presents a clean cut.

Slide 13: 

WOUNDS PUNCTURED WOUND –Usually caused by sharp pointed object.

Slide 14: 

WOUNDS AVULSION – A kind of wound that involves a forcible separation or tearing of tissue from the victims body. (Avulsed Wound)

Slide 15: 

WOUNDS LACERATED WOUND – Caused by any hard or blunt object.

Slide 16: 

WOUNDS ABRASION – A wound resulting from scraping rough surfaces.

Slide 17: 

WOUNDS AMPUTATION – A wound resulting from a forcible separation of any body part.

Slide 18: 

CLEAN THE WOUND DIRECT PRESURE Almost any bleeding can be stopped by applying a thick pad made of the cleanest cloth available Place the dressing on the wound and apply firm pressure. ELEVATION Position the patient so that the wound is above the level of the heart. In the case of a head or neck wound, elevate the head and shoulders. FIRST AID TREATMENTS FOR WOUNDS 1 2 3

Slide 19: 

PRESSURE POINTS If bleeding continues, the artery must be compressed against the bone above the wound. >On The Arm Halfway between the armpit and the elbow. >For The Leg In the fold between the torso and the thigh, not on the leg itself. FIRST AID TREATMENTS FOR WOUNDS

Slide 20: 

PRESSURE POINTS

Slide 21: 

FIRST AID TREATMENTS FOR WOUNDS Take a short, sturdy stick or similar object and lay it across the half-knot in the strip of cloth. Now tie the two ends over the stick. Twist the stick to tighten the tourniquet. Keep twisting until the bleeding stops. Tie a second strip of cloth to the end of the stick and secure it around the limb to keep the tourniquet tightly in place. TOURNIQUET

Slide 22: 

FIRST AID TREATMENTS FOR WOUNDS TOURNIQUET Ideal Tourniquet Improvised Tourniquet

Slide 23: 

FIRST AID TREATMENTS FOR WOUNDS Improvised Tourniquets CRAVAT BANDAGE WITH A STICK

Slide 24: 

FIRST AID TREATMENTS FOR WOUNDS Improvised Tourniquets BP Cuff Riffle sling

Slide 25: 

FIRST AID TREATMENTS FOR WOUNDS WARNING! USE TOURNIQUETS ONLY AS A LAST RESORT!

First Aid Measures for Wounds are: : 

First Aid Measures for Wounds are: DIRECT PRESSURE – pressing a sterile dressing firmly over the bleeding part. ELEVATION – raising the injured part above the heart level. DIGITAL PRESSURE/PRESSURE POINTS – finger pressure applied directly over the bleeding part. TORNIQUET – a constricting band placed around the arm or leg to control bleeding.

Slide 27: 

DRESSING AND BANDAGING

Slide 28: 

PURPOSES OF A DRESSING A dressing covers the wound. Absorbs blood and wound drainage. It prevents infection from entering wound It helps in the blood clotting process. Protect the wound from further injury. DRESSING

GENERAL RULES FOR APPLYING DRESSING : 

GENERAL RULES FOR APPLYING DRESSING The dressing should always go beyond the wound’s edges. Place dressing directly over the wound. If blood seeps through a dressing, do not remove it instead, apply another dressing on top of it. If there is only one sterile dressing, use this directly over the wound and the clean one on top of it.

Slide 30: 

Bandages are used to : Hold a dressing in place over an open wound. Apply direct pressure over a dressing to control bleeding Prevent or reduced swelling Provide support or stability for an extremity or joint. BANDAGING

OTHER TYPES OF BANDAGES : 

OTHER TYPES OF BANDAGES LEG BANDAGE – Used in injuries of the lower and upper portions of the legs KNEE BANDAGE – Used in injuries at the calf of the knees. FOOT BANDAGE – Used in injuries of the ankle, foot and toes.

Slide 32: 

SPRAIN, FRACTURE AND DISLOCATION

Slide 33: 

SPRAIN – Injury in which ligaments are stretched or partially torn, commonly associated with joint injuries. DISLOCATION – an injury wherein a bone is moved out from its normal position. FRACTURES – a break in the bone continuity.

SPRAINS : 

SPRAINS NORMAL PLACEMENT OF LIGAMENTS

TYPE I - SPRAIN : 

TYPE I - SPRAIN LIGAMENTS ARE STRETCHED TO ITS LIMITS. PAIN ON MOBILIZATION IS NOTED. SLIGHT SWELLING ON SITE

TYPE II SPRAINS : 

TYPE II SPRAINS LIGAMENTS ARE TORN SLIGHTLY. MODERATE SWELLING ON SITE. PAIN EVEN AT REST IS NOTED.

TYPE III SPRAIN : 

TYPE III SPRAIN LIGAMENTS ARE TORN COMPLETELY SEVERE PAIN AND SWELLING ON SITE

Slide 38: 

FIRST AID TREATMENT - SPRAINS R - Rest I - Ice (every 2-3hours) C - Compress area with elastic bandage E - Elevate affected part above the level of the heart

DISLOCATIONS : 

DISLOCATIONS DISLOCATION – an injury wherein a bone is moved out from its normal position.

Slide 40: 

R – Rest I - Ice (every 2-3 hours) C - Compress area with elastic bandage E - Elevate affected part above the level of the heart S - Stretch gently or apply mild pressure. FIRST AID TREATMENT - DISLOCATION

FRACTURES : 

FRACTURES FRACTURES – a break in the bone continuity.

FRACTURES : 

FRACTURES

FRACTURES : 

FRACTURES

Signs and Symptoms of Fractured Arm or Leg : 

Signs and Symptoms of Fractured Arm or Leg Bone sticking through the skin Pain, tenderness, swelling, and/or bruising at a particular location Arm or leg appears to be shorter or is in abnormal position (looks deformed)

Signs and Symptoms of Fractured Arm or Leg : 

Signs and Symptoms of Fractured Arm or Leg Difficulty moving the limb "Snapping" sound heard at the time of injury Caution: Do not have casualty attempt to move injured limb. Rely on what the casualty tells you.

PRE-TREATMENT PROCEDURES : 

PRE-TREATMENT PROCEDURES Reassure the casualty Locate the site of fracture Check the circulation below the fracture Loosen clothing

PRE-TREATMENT PROCEDURES : 

PRE-TREATMENT PROCEDURES Evaluate the casualty. Locate site of fracture. Gather splinting materials. Pad the splints. Check circulation below the site of injury. Apply splint in place. Check the splint for tightness.

SPLINTING, BANDAGING AND IMMOBILIZATION TECHNIQUE : 

SPLINTING, BANDAGING AND IMMOBILIZATION TECHNIQUE Splints – a hard material used to support immobilization of affected limb. Padding – Any soft material used to cushion affected limb. Slings – a bandage or an improvised material used to support a fractured upper extremity . Swatches – are bands used to further immobilized splinted fracture.

CLAVICULAR FRACTURE : 

CLAVICULAR FRACTURE

In applying slings, splints and swathes, always check for circulation : 

In applying slings, splints and swathes, always check for circulation

Slide 54: 

IMPROVISED SLINGS

Splinting Principles : 

Splinting Principles 1. Dress any open wounds (including burns) on injured limb before applying a splint. 2. Use whatever materials are available

SPLINTING PRINCIPLES : 

SPLINTING PRINCIPLES Remove any restrictive clothing or jewelry. Check pulse below the fracture site before and after splinting. No pulse, evacuate ASAP. Splint fracture as it lies. 4. Elevate the limb after splinting to reduce swelling.

Slide 57: 

QUESTIONS???

Slide 58: 

OPEN CHEST WOUNDS

OPEN CHEST WOUND SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS : 

OPEN CHEST WOUND SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Obvious Penetration of the Chest Wall

OPEN CHEST WOUND SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS : 

OPEN CHEST WOUND SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Sucking Sounds coming from the wound

OPEN CHEST WOUND SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS : 

OPEN CHEST WOUND SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Frothy Blood from the wound, and/or mouth and nose Hemothorax: Blood in Chest Cavity

OPEN CHEST WOUND SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS : 

OPEN CHEST WOUND SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Shortness of Breath / Difficulty Breathing

OPEN CHEST WOUND SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS : 

OPEN CHEST WOUND SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Chest not rising normally (unequal/paradoxical)

Slide 64: 

S 27CBCB-CH/D-64 0597

OPEN CHEST WOUND SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS: : 

OPEN CHEST WOUND SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS: 6. Pain in shoulder or chest which increases with breathing

OPEN CHEST WOUND SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS: : 

OPEN CHEST WOUND SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS: 7. Cyanosis (blue) 8. Rapid and weak heartbeat

OPEN CHEST WOUND : 

OPEN CHEST WOUND Locate and Expose the Wound: (Do not expose wound in NBC environment) 1. Check for entry and exit wounds 2. Expose area around the wound 3. Look for pools of blood under the casualty's back;feel for wounds 4. If more than one wound, treat the worst one first.

OPEN CHEST WOUND : 

OPEN CHEST WOUND Dress the Wound: 1. Seal with plastic that will extend 2 inches or more beyond the wound edges in all directions.

Flutter Valve : 

S 27CBCB-CH/D-69 0597 Flutter Valve

OPEN CHEST WOUND: : 

OPEN CHEST WOUND: OPEN CHEST WOUND: Flutter Valve: Tell the casualty to completely exhale and hold his breath. If possible, the casualty should hold his breath until sealing material has been secured.

OPEN CHEST WOUND: : 

OPEN CHEST WOUND: OPEN CHEST WOUND: Flutter Valve: Tape down three edges of the plastic.

OPEN CHEST WOUND: : 

OPEN CHEST WOUND: Casualty Sitting Up

OPEN CHEST WOUND: : 

OPEN CHEST WOUND: Casualty Lying Down

Flutter Valve : 

S 27CBCB-CH/D-74 0597 Flutter Valve As the casualty breathes in, the plastic is sucked against the wound and prevents air from entering the chest cavity. When the casualty exhales, the open edge of the plastic allows air to exit.

OPEN CHEST WOUND: : 

OPEN CHEST WOUND: Dress the Wound: 2. Apply field dressing.

OPEN CHEST WOUND: : 

OPEN CHEST WOUND: Dress the Wound: Tie Field Dressing on Top of Wound 3.Dress less severe wounds 4.Apply manual pressure

OPEN CHEST WOUND: : 

OPEN CHEST WOUND: Position and Monitor the Casualty 1. If lying down, casualty should lie on injured side

OPEN CHEST WOUND: : 

OPEN CHEST WOUND: 2. If Casualty can breath easier sitting up, prop the casualty against a tree and place an alice pack between the legs for support A shift of accumulating air/fluid may relieve difficulty breathing

OPEN CHEST WOUND: : 

OPEN CHEST WOUND: 3. Monitor the casualty. Evacuate as soon as possible.

Slide 81: 

ABDOMINAL WOUND

Apply a Dressing to an Open Abdominal Wound : 

Apply a Dressing to an Open Abdominal Wound

Slide 83: 

Open Abdominal Wound

Position a Casualty with Open Abdominal Wound : 

Position a Casualty with Open Abdominal Wound Position casualty on his back with knees up (flexed)

Position a Casualty with Open Abdominal Wound : 

Position a Casualty with Open Abdominal Wound Helps prevent further exposure of the abdominal organs Lessens pain Helps control shock Relieves pressure on the abdominal area by allowing the abdominal muscles to relax

Position a Casualty with Open Abdominal Wound : 

Position a Casualty with Open Abdominal Wound

Dress an Open Abdominal Wound : 

Dress an Open Abdominal Wound Check for entry and exit wounds Treat the more serious wound first Expose the wound If clothing is stuck to wound, do not try to remove it. Cut around stuck clothing Do not try to probe, clean, or remove foreign objects from the wound

Slide 88: 

REMOVING AN OBJECT WHICH IS PROTRUDING FROM THE ABDOMEN COULD LEAD TO SEVERE HEMORRHAGE DANGER

Impaled Object : 

Impaled Object

Position Dislodged Organs : 

Position Dislodged Organs Do not try to push organ back inside the body Do not touch exposed organ with your bare hands If organ is lying on the ground, use clean, dry material to gently pick up the organ and place the organ on top of the casualty’s abdomen near the wound

Position Dislodged Organs : 

Position Dislodged Organs

Dress an Open Abdominal Wound : 

Dress an Open Abdominal Wound If field dressing is too small to cover the wound and any protruding organs, use clean material to cover

WARNING : 

WARNING If a foreign object is protruding from the wound, do not attempt to remove the object. Improvise bulky dressings from the cleanest material available and build up the area around the object in order to stabilize the object. Secure the dressing with improvised bandages.

CAUTION : 

CAUTION The bandages should be tight enough to keep the dressing from slipping, but should not be tight enough to place pressure on the wound. You should be able to insert two fingers between the knot and the dressing.

CAUTION : 

CAUTION The primary purpose of the dressing is to protect the wound from further contamination, not to control the bleeding through pressure. Pressure could cause additional damage to the organs or the abdominal cavity.

Caution : 

Caution Do not tie any knots over the wound site.

Reinforce Dressings : 

Reinforce Dressings

Monitor Casualty : 

Monitor Casualty Knees up position Get medical help ASAP. Administer mouth-to-mouth resuscitation if the casualty stops breathing If you must leave the casualty, tell him to stay on his back and keep his knees up.

Caution : 

Caution Do not give the casualty anything to eat or drink. If the casualty complains of thirst, moisten his lips with a damp cloth.

Slide 100: 

BLEEDING SHOCK AND

Slide 101: 

If someone is losing a lot of blood, you need to act. Blood carries oxygen to every body part – without it the body dies. HEMORRHAGE / BLEEDING

Slide 102: 

HEMORRAGE AND SHOCK Normal adult blood volume is 5 liters

Slide 103: 

HEMORRAGE AND SHOCK IF THE BODY LOSSES OF BLOOD. IT IS ALREADY IN A DANGEROUS STATE OF HAVING A HYPOVOLEMIC SHOCK. SO, YOU NEED TO ACT FAST! 1.5 LITERS

Slide 104: 

pale, cold clammy skin fast, shallow breathing fast, shallow breathing restlessness thirst feels weak and dizzy blueness around lips or ear lobes how to spot shock HOW TO RECOGNIZE CLINICAL SHOCK

Slide 105: 

Prevention from heat exposure Loosen the clothing Control bleeding Replacement of Fluids Control of pain Prevent the casualty from chilling or overheating Elevate the casualty’s feet higher that the level of the heart. NPO to unconscious patient. FIRST AID MEASURES OF SHOCK

Slide 106: 

MEDICAL TREATMENTS FOR WOUNDS AND BLEEDINGS HEAMEOSTATIC AGENTS (BLOOD CLOTTING AGENTS) Quick Clot Chitosan Dressing (KI – TO – SAN)

Slide 107: 

MEDICAL TREATMENTS FOR WOUNDS AND BLEEDINGS INTRAVENOUS INFUSIONS AND BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS

Slide 108: 

MEDICAL TREATMENTS FOR WOUNDS AND BLEEDINGS SURGICAL INTERVENTION

Internal bleeding can also lead to shock. Both problems are caused by a lack of blood flowing to the vital organs. INTERNAL BLEEDING

Slide 110: 

> Help casualty to lie down. > Raise casualty’s legs above heart level, so the blood runs to the vital organs where it is most needed. > Loosen casualty’s clothing. > Call for an ambulance medical help at once. > Keep casualty warm – lie them on a blanket or coat and cover them with another one. > Do not let casualty eat, drink or smoke. First Treatments for internal bleeding

Slide 111: 

GOOD DAY & MABUHAY !