Education commission report

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Education commission report:

Education commission report Presented by- Kiran Randhawa

DEFINITION:

DEFINITION EDUCATION- “Education is the manifestation of divine perfection already exisiting in man.” “Education is the process of living through a continous reconstruction of experiences. It is the development of all those capacities in the individual which will enable him to control his environment and fulfill his possibilities.”

Education commission in independent india:

Education commission in independent india CENTRAL ADVISORY BOARD OF EDUCATION- In 1948,the central advisory board held its 14 th meeting, in which it reflected upon secondary education. It put forth suggestion for the appointment of a commission, whose main function would be to- Evaluate the existing secondary education in the country Give suggestions for problems relating to it

Contd……:

Contd …… This suggestion was implemented when a committee was appointed under the chairmanship of the then advisor on educational matters, Dr. Tara Chand . Its reports was considered in 15 th meeting of advisory board , and in consequence, the GOI was requested to appoint a commission for determining the objectives and purposes and suggesting solutions for problems of basic, secondary and university education. This requirement was then reiterated in 1951

Membership of education commission:

Membership of education commission The membership of EC since 1 January 1997 has been as follows: Chairman Vice-chairman Ex-officio members Members Secretary

Objectives of education commission:

Objectives of education commission The ECR7 seeks to achieve the following objectives: to enhance community appreciation of the need for quality school education; to inculcate a quality culture in the school system to contribute to the personal growth of students, and the pursuit of excellence; to provide a practical framework for key players in the school system to achieve the aims of education in an efficient, cost-effective and accountable manner;

Contd…….:

Contd ……. to recommend an integrated strategy for quality assurance and development; to provide incentives for quality performance; to assist and remedy under-performing schools to encourage initiatives and continuous improvement; and to recommend a framework for raising the professional standards of principals and teachers and enhancing their professional education and development.

University education commission,1948:

University education commission,1948 A university education commission was appointed in 1948 under the chairmanship of Dr. Radhakrishnan. The suggestions for the improvement of education at university level, are- Emphasis was placed upon teacher education and training. The curriculum was made comprehensive and diverse to accommodate the interests, abilities and talents of students. Research began to nourish.

Contd……:

Contd …… Religious and moral education came to be imparted. Importance was given to 3 - language formula for solving language problem. Many reforms in system of exam were carried out. In addition, many steps for student welfare, education of women and related issues were taken.

Contd…….:

Contd ……. The commission has defined 3 objectives of curriculum- To provide general education To provide a liberal education To provide professional education It has also stressed the need to develop objective testing techniques. In connection with the welfare of students, the commission has expressed the view that the prime functions of the university are imparting education to youth and searching for new truths.

Contd…….:

Contd ……. Students are not created for universities, instead universities are established for formation of student’s character. Hence, the university should seek, by every conceviable means to bring about the integral physical, mental and spiritual development of student’s powers.

jurisdiction:

jurisdiction The sphere of operation of this commission and the issues were stated as- Evaluation of every aspect of secondary education in India and throwing light upon it. Giving suggestions for the improvement and reorganization of secondary education.

Contd……:

Contd …… The commission considered the defects of secondary education and determined its objectives in the light of following needs- Development of qualities of character through education, propagation of nationalism and secularism. Increase in productive capacity so as to bring about an increase in national wealth. Improvement in education.

Objectives of education:

Objectives of education The various aims of education are the following- Development of democratic citizenship Training in art of living Development of personality Supply of professional skills Training of leadership Propagation of love of country

PowerPoint Presentation:

The secondary education commission determined the period of education at 7 years, intended for children between 11 and 17 years of age. It was divided into 2 parts- 3 years for middle education 4 years of higher secondary education provision was also made for 3 year degree course. the commission considered it important that technical schools and other kinds of schools should be established. It also provided for co-education.

PowerPoint Presentation:

It also viewed on the study languages, as follows- Hindi was given the rank of national language of the constitution. Then it became the language of exchange between the centre and states. It was considered that this will bring a growth of national unity. Then, the commission put forth views on the subject of English as- English is popular in country. It will bring about political unity. It has international importance.

Preface-education commission report:

Preface-education commission report The Report of the Education Commission, published in June 1956 , is perhaps a landmark in the history of education in India. The Report has teen widely commented upon by all concerned, and the Government of India, after examining it in all its aspects, propose to present a statement on the National Policy on Education to Parliament for its approval.

Reports on educational commissions:

Reports on educational commissions The various reports on education commission are- Radhakrishna’s report on university education Secondary education commission or mudaliar commission (1953) National education commission or kothari commission (1964-66)

Radhakrishna’s report on university education :

Radhakrishna’s report on university education Interuniversity board of education and central advisory board of education recommended to GOI that an all- India commission on education should be appointed. This commission should inquire into the requirements of higher education in India and put forward recommendations for re-organization of university.

Appointment of commission:

Appointment of commission The GOI accepted the suggestion and on Nov. 1948, University Education Commission was appointed. Dr. Saravapalli Radhakrishnan, the eminent educationalist was appointed the chairman of commission. And on his name it is known as “ Radhakrishnan Commission”. There were 10 members of this commission.

Aims of appointment:

Aims of appointment The commission was appointed ‘to report on Indian University Education’ and suggests improvements and extensions that may be desirable to suit present and future requirements of the country.

The term of reference:

The term of reference The term of reference of the commission was very wide and vast. The commission was appointed to go into various aspects of the university education in India and suggests ways and means of improvement and re-organization of university education, research and other standards of university education, problems of teachers, curriculum, medium of instruction and problem of discipline.

Aims of university education:

Aims of university education The various aims of university education are- University has to provide leadership in politics, administrations provisions, industries and commerce. The university should be organized centres of civilization to train people. University education should produce intellectual adventures. University should produce wise persons who may make democracy successful.

Contd…….:

Contd ……. To bring about the spiritual development of students. It should preserve the culture and civilization of a country. To discover the innate qualities of an indiviual and to develop them through training As a sound mind is fused in healthy body, so the university should be paid for the mental and physical development of students.

Recommendations in regard to teachers:

Recommendations in regard to teachers The university was well aware of the fact that no education could succeed without properly equipped and efficient teachers. Therefore, the commission has made following recommendations- The commission was of the view that teachers should have better facilities of provident fund. The age of retirement should be enhanced to 64 years, in case of proficiency. There should be provision for study leave.

Contd……..:

Contd …….. Improve the salary scale of teachers. Promotion from one category to another should be solely on grounds of merit.

Suggestions for improvement in standards of teaching (admission, teaching and facilities):

Suggestions for improvement in standards of teaching (admission, teaching and facilities) The standards of admission to university courses correspond to that of present intermediate examination. It has suggested that a large number of well-equipped and well-staffed intermediate colleges should be established in each and every province. It has suggested ways and means to check overcrowding in university and colleges. There should be 180 working days in a session in a university or a degree college excluding the days of exams.

contd……..:

contd …….. The division of session into 3 terms, each of 11 weeks duration. Lectures should be carefully planned and supplimented by tutorial, library work and written exercises. Evening colleges are to be opened for working people. Buildings, laboratories, fittings, equipments, etc. of institution should be improved.

Curriculum or courses of study:

Curriculum or courses of study The commission was of the view that “courses of study are essential expedients of formal education”. Hence, it is suggested the reorganization of courses of study in such a way that students may realize the unity of knowledge and experience.

Post-graduate training and research-recommendations:

Post-graduate training and research-recommendations For MA or MSc, training, the commission has suggested that there should be standardization of courses in various universities of country. A candidate of post-graduation should show a high degree of scholarship and achievement in exam. The commission was also very concerned with research in different universities. The PhD educant should be examined by 3 examiners-2 external and 1 internal. There should always be a viva-voce, which should test his general knowledge in field of subject and his thesis.

Recommendations regarding professional education:

Recommendations regarding professional education Radhakrishnan Commission was very particular about professional education. It is the process by which men and women prepare for exacting responsible services in professional spirit.

conclusion:

conclusion The Radhakrishnan Commission (1948) recommended that in order to direct the students to vocations at the end of Class X, a large number of intermediate colleges should be opened. "The aim of these colleges would be to meet a variety of needs of our young men and women by giving a vocational bias to their courses by retaining at the same time their value in a system of general education as preparation for university courses". Here again the stress was on preparation for higher studies rather than making some of them terminal.

Secondary education commission or mudaliar commission (1953):

Secondary education commission or mudaliar commission (1953) After the achievement of independence in India, it was needed to change the pattern of education to cope up with the changes. With this view, the central advisory board of education in 1947 made some recommendations to GOI. The GOI accepted the recommendations and on 20 th sept,1952 , secondary education commission was appointed under chairmanship of Dr. Swami Mudaliar , the Vice-Chancellor of Madras University.

Aims and terms of reference:

Aims and terms of reference To enquire into and report on present position of secondary education in India, in all its aspects. To suggest measures for its re-organization and improvement with particular reference to- Aims organization and content of secondary education Its relationship to primary task and higher education The interrelation of secondary schools of different types Other allied problems so that a sound system of secondary education suited to our needs and resources may be provided to whole country.

Inquiry and suggestions:

Inquiry and suggestions The commission prepared a questionnaire dealing with various aspects of secondary education and send it out to various educational experts, teachers and educational institutions in India. On the other hand, the members of commission took an extensive tour and collected information about various problems facing secondary education in country, on the basis of this information, the commission presented a report running in 250 pages and was presented on 29 th august, 1953.

Aims of secondary education:

Aims of secondary education Secondary education has to meet the requirement of democratic setup. Development of democratic citizenship Development of personality Education for leadership Improvement of vocational capability and efficiency The concept of world citizenship

Reorganization of secondary education:

Reorganization of secondary education Mudaliar commission suggested that the pattern of secondary education in country should be reorganized. It made following suggestions- Age limit & time limit Division of period Abolition of intermediate classes Diversification of course Emphasis on agricultural education Techenical schools Public and day schools Education of girls

Contd…….:

Contd ……. Study of 3 languages Medium of instruction Place of Hindi Place of English

Recommendations for improvement of curriculum:

Recommendations for improvement of curriculum The curriculum should touch the life of students in every way for development of balanced personality. It should have enough of variety and elasticity. It should be related to community life. It should also train students to work for leisure. The curriculum should not be split up into number of isolated, un-coordinated subjects.

Curriculum of middle schools:

Curriculum of middle schools The commission has recommended the inclusion of following subjects- English Social science General science Mathematics Art and music Craft and Physical education

Contd……..:

Contd …….. The commission suggested the diversification of course at secondary and higher secondary levels. It will help the students to develop their abilities and interests. With this view, the curriculum have been divided into- Course subjects Optional subjects

Method of teaching:

Method of teaching The commission has suggested that it should be dynamic and thoroughly rationalized. It has made following recommendations- The method of teaching should not only aim at imparting education but it should aim at inculcating desirable values and aims. It should try to create in students a desire to do work as efficiently and honestly as possible. The method should provide opportunities for students to learn actively and apply mechanically the knowledge acquired in classroom.

Contd….....:

Contd …..... Clear thinking and expression, both in work and speech should be stressed upon all subjects. The students should be trained to acquire the qualities of group-life and co-operative work.

Examination system:

Examination system In this regard, the commission has made following recommendations- Introducing objective tests should reduce the number of external examiners. School records should be maintained indicating the progress of each pupil from time to time. For the final evaluation of pupil, due credit should be given to internal tests and progress records.

conclusion:

conclusion The Mudaliar Commission (1952) reiterated that "the secondary education is a complete unit by itself and not merely a preparatory stage, that at the end of this period the student should be in a position, if he wishes, to enter into responsibilities of life and take up some vocations". It also recommended diversification of the courses at the secondary stage. This resulted in the Creation of multipurpose schools, Unfortunately, for various reasons including lack of proper appreciation of the scheme, inadequate preparation in terms of infrastructure and teaching staff , the multipurpose schools were reduced to shadows of what were intended to develop.

National education commission or kothari commission (1964-66):

National education commission or kothari commission (1964-66) The purpose of appointment of this commission was to evaluate different stages of education and to evaluate a National system of education. This system was appointed under the provisions of a resolution of GOI setting up education commission, dated July 14,1964. The commission began its work on October 2, 1964. The Chairman of this commission was Dr. DS Kothari , Chairman, university grants commission, New Delhi and The member secretary was Prof. JP Naik , HOD Dept. of educational planning

Aims of appointment:

Aims of appointment Kothari commission was appointed with the objective of evolving a national pattern of education. To evolve national system of education keeping in view the values and traditions of India. Creation of new social order based on freedom, equality and justice. Qualitative improvement in education at all levels. Giving place to education as the key of national prosperity and welfare and as productive investment.

Contd……..:

Contd …….. Survey the entire field of education and recommend the ways and means for looking at education as a whole and not fragmented into parts and stages. Benefiting from the experiences of other countries of the world. The commission studied the problem of education and submitted its 1600 pages report to education minister of India on june 29 th ,1966 .

recommendations:

recommendations Education and national objectives the commission expressed the view that education should be related to the life and needs of persons so that national objectives may be achieved. A 5-point programe - Increase in production Social and national integration Consolidation of democracy Speeding the process of modernization To build the character through development of social, moral and spiritual values.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Educational structure and standards- General education should last for a period of 10 years. The theme of higher secondary education should be fixed to 2 years and after this, degree course should be of 3 years. Teacher status- It is necessary to improve economic, social and professional status of teachers. For training of teachers, summer institutions should be organized and there should be provision of their education through correspondence courses.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Teacher’s education- A state board of teacher’s education should be established in each state and it should be the responsibility of this board to make proper provision of teacher education at all stages. For the training of teachers, summer institutions should be organized and there should be provision of education through correspondence courses.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Equalization of educational opportunities Expansion of school education- Primary education centres should be opened in each district and state. School curriculum- In order to remove the defects of prevalent curriculum of schools, the commission recommended following curriculum for different classes. Lower primary class Higher primary class

PowerPoint Presentation:

Lower secondary Higher secondary School administration- the work of supervision should be conducted by the education department in secondary schools. The state board of schools should be established in each and a national board of education should be established in ministry of education in order to advise govt. in regard to school education.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Higher education- the University Grants Commission should develop 6 universities among existing universities into major one wherein best type of graduation, training, and research work should be performed. Clusters of advance courses should be started in major university. Vocational, technical and engineering education- the students having completed school education should be provided facilities of short courses, correspondence courses and short extensive courses.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Education of science- study centres should be established for higher education of science and mathematics and number of students taking such subjects should be increased . Adult education- the commission suggests that illiteracy should be ended in all corners of India within a period of 20 years. Especially more efforts should be made in rural areas to end illiteracy. for organizing, administration of adult education, a national board of adult education should be established.

bibliography:

bibliography Neerja KP.Historical Perspectives in Education.Textbook of Nursing Education. 1 st ed. New Delhi.Jaypee Publication:2003,99-118 Raghunath Sataya.Shaida B.D.Development of Education.4 th ed.j alandhar Dhanpat Rai and Sons Publicaion:1968,107-110

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