Professional organizations

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Introduction :

Introduction Professional organizations provide a mean through which own professional development can be carried with authority because of their representatives characters. It provides an oppurtunity to express view point,develop leadership qualities & abilities of professional trends. All qualified nurses must participate in their professional state & national organizationsfor new development & upgrading the profession.

Definition:

Definition Professional nursing organizations function as groups composed of organizational members to promote the quality of health care for all & support the needs of nurses. The effectiveness of professional nursing organizations is related to the commitment & effectiveness of their members.

NATIONAL PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATIONS:

NATIONAL PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATIONS Indian nursing council: The Indian Nursing Council is a statutory body constituted under the Indian Nursing Council Act, 1947. It was established in 1949. The council is responsible for regulation and Maintenance of a uniform standard of training for nurses, Midwives, Auxiliary Nurses Midwives and Health visitors.

OBJECTIVES OF INDIAN NURSING COUNCIL:

OBJECTIVES OF INDIAN NURSING COUNCIL The Council is responsible for regulation and maintenance of a uniform standard of training for Nurses, Midwives, Auxiliary Nurse-Midwives and Health Visitors. Prescribes the standard curricula for the training of nurses, midwives and health visitors; and for training courses for teachers of nurses, midwives and health visitors, and for training in nursing administration; Prescribes conditions for admission to above courses Prescribes standard of examination and other requirements to be satisfied for securing recognization.

Indian Nursing Council Act, 1947:

Indian Nursing Council Act, 1947 Indian Nursing Council Act, 1947, provides for constitution and composition of the Council consisting of the following: One nurse enrolled in a state register elected by each State Council; Two members elected from among themselves by the heads of institutions recognized by the Council for the purpose of this clause in which training is given: - For obtaining a University degree in Nursing; or In respect of a post-certificate course in teaching of nursing and in nursing administration; One member elected from among themselves by the heads of institutions in which health visitors are trained;

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One member elected by the Medical Council of India. One member elected by the Central Council of the Indian Medical Association. One member elected by the Council of the Trained Nurses Association of India.

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One midwife or auxiliary nurse-midwife enrolled in a State Register, elected by each of the State Councils in the four groups of State mentioned below, each group of States being taken in rotation in the following order namely: - Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Haryana. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra and Rajasthan. Karnataka, Punjab and West Bengal. Assam, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and Orissa ; The Director General of Health Services, ex-officio;

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The Chief Principal Matron, Medical Directorate, Army Headquarters. The Chief Nursing Superintendent, Office of the Director General of Health Services. The Director of Maternity and Child Welfare, Indian Red Cross Society. The Chief Administrative Medical Officer (by whatever name called) of each State other than a Union Territory. Four members nominated by the Central Government, of whom at least two shall be nurses, midwives or health visitors enrolled in a State register and one shall be an experienced educationalist .

Amendments in I.N.C. Act 1947:

Amendments in I.N.C. Act 1947 The Act was amended in November 1957 to provide for the following things: Foreign Qualification A citizen of India holding a qualification which entitles him or her to be registered with any registering body may, by the approval of the council, be enrolled in any state register. A person not being citizen of India, who is employed as a Nurse, Midwife, ANM, Teacher or Administrator in any hospital or institution in any state, by the approval of President of Council, is enrolled temporarily in state register. In such cases foreign qualifications are recognized temporarily for a period of 5 years. If one continues to practice in India, an extension of recognition should be sort from INC.

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Indian Nurses Register The council shall cause to be maintained in the prescribed manner a Register of Nurses, midwives, ANM & Health visitors to be known as the Indian Nurses Register, which shall contain the names of all persons who are for the time being enrolled on any state register. Such register shall be deemed to be a public document within the meaning of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872.

Organisation Chart:

Organisation Chart

COMMITTEES:

COMMITTEES Executive Committee of the Council to deliberate on the issues related to maintenance of standards of nursing programs The Nursing Education Committee - The committee is constituted to deliberate on the issues concerned mainly with nursing education and policy matters concerning the nursing education. Equivalence Committee – to deliberate on the issues of recognition of foreign qualifications which is essential for the purpose of registration of the Indian Nursing Council Act, 1947, as amended? Finance Committee - This is another important Sub-Committee of the Council which decides upon the matters pertaining to finance of the Council in terms of budget, expenditure, implementation of Central Govt. orders with respect to service conditions etc.

Functions of INC:

Functions of INC To establish and monitor a uniform standard of nursing education for nurses, midwives, auxiliary nurse Midwives and health visitors by doing inspections of the institutions. To recognize the qualifications for the purpose of registration and employment in India and abroad. To give approval for registration of Indian and Foreign nurses possessing foreign qualification. To proscribe the syllabus and regulation for nursing programme. Power to withdraw the recognition of qualification standards, that an institution recognized by a state council for the training of nurses, midwives, auxiliary nurse midwives or health visitors does not satisfy the requirements of council. To advise the state Nursing Councils, examination board, state government and central government in various important items regarding nursing education in country.

TRAINED NURSES ASSOCIATION OF INDIA::

TRAINED NURSES ASSOCIATION OF INDIA: The trained nurses association of India is the national professional organization of India. The association of nursing superitendents founded at Lucknow in 1905, first of its President was Miss Allen & first secretary was Miss Burn.

Objectives: :

Objectives: Uphold the dignity & honour of the nursing profession. Promote a sense of espirit de corps among all nurses & Enabling members to take counsel together on matters relating to their profession. To promote high standards of health care and nursing practice. To advance professional, educational, economic and general welfare of nurses.

Membership::

Membership: Membership in TNAI is obtained by submission of a copy of own state registration certificate. Membership can also be transferred from SNA by transferring a certificate from the institution within 6 months of completing the courses. It consists of full members, those who are fully qualified. Associate member are health visitors,midwives, ANM, student nurses and members of affliated organization. The membership of TNAI with ICN offers many opportunities of extending our professional horizon to newer ideas. ICN opens up many possibities for nurses of India. Its nursing abroad programmes assists Indian nurses as those in other parts of the world in their or study outside their countries

Activities performed by TNAI::

Activities performed by TNAI: Conferences : The TNAI holds its national conferences biannually. It was planned in 1972 to hold these conferences quadernnially, but was felt in 1980 that the 4 year gap between conferences was too long and again back to biannually. Continuing education programme Publications Socioeconomic welfare Nursing regulation project: The objective of the association is to raise the standards of nursing education and practice through necessary legislation. Scholarship

Functions::

Functions: To establish functions,standards and qualifications for nursing practice. To enunciates standards of nursing education and implement these through appropriate channels. To enunciates standard of nursing services and inplement these through appropriate channel. To establish c code of ethical conduct for practitioners. To stimulate and promote research designed to increase the knowledge on which the practice of nursing is based. To prommte legislation and to speak for nurses in regard to legislative action. To promote and protect the economic welfare for nurses. To provide professional counselling and placement services. To promote the general health and welfare of the public through all association program relationship and activities.

Benefits ::

Benefits : Feeling of belongingness. Different conferences and workship are held which may be held at the national level and state level. Continuing educational programme and upgrade knowldege on relevant topics at regular interval. Wwelfare funds are the annual given to state branches to sustain activity. Railway concession is given 25% to the members. Scholarship given to the TNAI and SNA members. Guest room facilities for guest and headquarter in Delhi and some other state.

Achievements ::

Achievements : Raising the standard of nursing training of both general and midwives. Estblishment of colleges of nursing in New Delhi. Establishment of nurses registration council in many states. Promotion of health.

INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS: :

INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS: These agencies are for the improvement of nursing education and profession and include Red cross society, WHO, UNICEF. These are voluntary organization. These have helped in the promotion of health, prevention of illness and disabilities and promote education of medical and nursing professional.

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION::

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION: WHO is a specialized, non political international health agency of the United Nations. Its head quarters is in Geneva, Switzerland. The constitution of WHO came into force on 7 th April,1948 which is celebrated every year as”World health day”

Objective: :

Objective: The objective of WHO is “ the attainment by all peoples of the highest level of health.” Health is defined as ,”a state of complete physical, mental, social well being and not being merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” The enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every huma being without distinction of race, religion, political belief, economic and social condition. The main social target of WHO was attainment by all citizens of the world by the year 2000 of a level of health that will permit them to lead a socially and economically productive life.

Structure::

Structure: The world health assembly: This is the supreme governing body of the WHO. It is composed of delegates representing each member state. The world health assembly meets once a year approves the budget and health politics. The executive board: The executive board consists of 31 members, all technically qualified. One third of the membership is renewed every year. The executive board meets twicw a year. The main work of the board is to give effects to the decisions and policies approved by the world health assembly. The board has also power to take action in emergencies like epidemics.

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The WHO secretariate: The WHO secretariate is in Geneva. It is headed by the Director General, WHO. The secretariate has 14 divisions: South east asia region: The WHO has established 6 regions. India is a member of the South East Asia Region whose headquarter is located at New delhi. The members of the south east region are: India Indonesia Malsive island Myanmar Sri lanka Korea Bhutan Nepal Thailand Bangladesh

Membership ::

Membership : Membership in WHO is open to all countries. In 1948, there were 56 members by 1996, the membership rose to 190. Each member state contributes yearly to the funds of the WHO , and each obtains the services and aids according to its needs which the organization can provide.

Functions::

Functions: The WHO is the world’s directing and co-ordinating authority on all international health work. Through the WHO, the nations help each other in raising health standards. The WHO’s most important function is to help countries strengthen and improve their own health services. The WHO provides advisory services. The WHO provide central technical services. These are : Epidemic warning and disease surveillance . Administration of international health regulations. Health statistics on a global scale. Technical publications, publication of experts committee reports, monthly journals, periodicals and magazines. Supporting research on health problem.

Health contribution in India::

Health contribution in India: The control of communicable diseases such as smallpox, leprosy, cholera, malaria, tuberculosis. Assist in biomedical research programme in India, including research in family planning methods. Education and training of all professional and auxillary health worker e.g post certificates programme at college of nursing chennai and at chandigarh were initiated by WHO. Strengthening the public health adminstration. Improving environmental sanitation.

UNICEF (UNITED NATIONS INTERNATIONAL CHILDREN EMERGENCY FUND): :

UNICEF (UNITED NATIONS INTERNATIONAL CHILDREN EMERGENCY FUND): UNICEF is one of the specialized agencies of the United Nations. It was established in 1946. Formerly known as UNICEF & now it is called U.N Children Fund. The head quarter of UNICEF is in New york ; it has a regional office in New Delhi. UNICEF works in close collaboration with WHO, and other specialized agencies of United Nations. The main concern of UNICEF is to improve the health of mothers and children and to assist programme which would directly or indirectly benefits child health.

UNICEF in India::

UNICEF in India: UNICEF is giving aid to India for programme benefiting children in the following spheres: 1) education 2) health 3 ) nutrition 4) water supply and 5) social welfare.

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GOBI Strategy: currently UNICEF engagged in affecting child health revolution through GOBI compaign: G – growth monitoring O – oral rehydration therapy B – breast feeding I – universal immunization. In recent years UNICEF has provided leadership in the following campaigns: Primary health care. Health for all. Universal child immunization Promotion of growth charts. Breast feeding

UNESCO ( UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CUTURAL ORGANIZATION) :

UNESCO ( UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CUTURAL ORGANIZATION) It is united nations educational scientific and cultural organization. It contributes to peace and security by promoting collaboration among nations through education, science and culture. It is sometimes believed to have originated from the international institution of intellectual cooperation. 1 st Aug, 1945, the govt of britian.

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It is an inter governmental organization with membership of 158 countries and is associates members. The first session of the general conference was first concieved as UNESCO without the “s”. The first person who successfully promoted “S” was the US poet Archibal Macleish. It took possession of its new head quarter at a place de fontenoy in paris in a Sept 1958. As against only 26 members in 1946, the membership at present and at 158 nations , this has mean considerable increase in the responsibility and resources of the organization on 4 th nv. 1986. Unesco completed 40 years of its existence.

Activities ::

Activities : Broad health education Natural sciences Social sciences Culture Community Cooperation with non governmental organization and publications. Standardization of documents and procedures. Assistance to the non governmental organization and publications. Establishment of international agreement

Indian national commission for co-operation with UNESCO: :

Indian national commission for co-operation with UNESCO: The main function are to serve with UNESCO especially in the field of education, science and culture to advise the govt of India and to promote understanding of the aims and policies of UNESCO among the people of India.

USAID (UNITED STATES AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT) :

USAID (UNITED STATES AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT) It was started in 1961.It provide grants and loans for a number of projects. These are designed to improve the health of the people.

USAID on health education in India::

USAID on health education in India: Malaria eraddication programme Medical education Nursing education Water supply and sanitation Control of communicable diseases Health education Nutrition Family planning

UNDP (UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME): :

UNDP (UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME): It was established in 1966 contributes toward increasing the pace of development in developing countries.it support socioeconomic development including agriculture, industries, education, health and social welfare. It is main source of funds for technical assistance. The basic objective is to help portions develop their human and natural resources.

FAO( FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION)::

FAO( FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION): It was found formed in 1945 with head quarters in Rome. The first agency created to wlook after several areas of world co-operation. Its primary aim to increase agriculture production to keep pace with growing population in the world..

The chief aims are::

The chief aims are: To increase the efficency of farming, fisheries & forestery. To help nations raise their living standard. To better the conditions of rural people. To ensure that the food is consumed by the people who need it is sufficient quantities and in right proportions. To develop and maintain a better state of nutrition throghout the world.

Objectives: :

Objectives: It has organized a World Freedom from Hunger Campaign ( FFHC) in 1960. The primary objective is toward ensuring that the food is consumed by the people who need it in sufficient quantities and in right proportions to develop and maintain a better state of nutrition throughout the world.

CARE ( CO-OPERATIVE FOR AMERICAN RELIEF EVERYWHERE): :

CARE ( CO-OPERATIVE FOR AMERICAN RELIEF EVERYWHERE): It is non governmental organization which was started in 1946. It began working in India 1950. It was found in North America in the wake of the second world war in the year 1945. It is one of the world’s largest independent, non profit, non sectarian, international relief and development organization.

Objective of care in India: :

Objective of care in India: India was to provide supplimentary food for children in the age group of 6-11 years. From mid 1980’s CARE India focused its food support in the ICDS programme and in development of programme in the areas of health.

CARE –India and projects;:

CARE –India and projects; ICDS Better health and nutrition projects. Anemia control project. Improving women’s health project. Improved health care for adolescent girl project. Child survival projects. Improving women’s reproductive health and family spacing project. It has been helping with the school mid day meal scheme. It also provides help in the field of medicine literacy,vocational training and agriculture.

ROCKFELLER’S FOUNDATION::

ROCKFELLER’S FOUNDATION: It was started in 1913 by Mr. John D. Rockfeller. Its purpose is to promote the well being . it is non governmental agency started functioning in India from 1920 for implementation of public health programmes and advancement of social and agricultural sciences. The main area of interest was in medical education and research. Activities: Training of competent training and research workers. Sponsoring of visits of a large number of medical specialists from the USA. Providing grants in aid to select the institutions. Development of medical colleges libraries. Population studies. Assistance to research projects and institutions.

FORD FOUNDATION: :

FORD FOUNDATION: It was started as a comtemporary of the Rockfeller foundation. It is an organization which is dedicated to the field of rural health services and family planning. Activities: It provides helps in short term training programme in community health. Pilot project of health services. RCA projects and research programme in family planning. The ford foundation has provided help in the in the water supply and draining of sewage system in Kolkatta and the establishment of National Health and Family welfare institute in Delhi.

COLOMBO PLAN::

COLOMBO PLAN: It is a cooperative unique kind plan was inagurated in 1950 by 20 governmental of common wealth countries to provide economic development in South and South East Asian countries e.g Australia, Candana, Japan, Newzealand, Brilain, America are its members. Objectives: It is attempt to raise the living standard by co-operating and reviewing the development programme. It is attempting to raise the living standard, aims at preparing a model of development plan together. It help in providing for industrial & agricultural development, but some spport given to health promotion through fellowship. AIIMS, New Delhi was made under this plan with financial support from Newzealand.

WORLD BANK::

WORLD BANK: It is a specialized agency of the united nations. It was established with purpose helping less developed countries & to raise their living standard. It provides finanicial and technical support for projects of economics development. Objectives: World health bank’s primary objective to help in raising the standards of living in comparatively poor or under developed countries Functions: World bank collaborates with WHO in supporting public health programme on water supply. Good production and population control. AIDS control. Generally concerned with projects involving energy, transport, railway, industries, education, agricultural, family planning, health and environment etc.

NATIONAL SOCIAL AND HEALTH VOLUNTARY AGENCIES: :

NATIONAL SOCIAL AND HEALTH VOLUNTARY AGENCIES: Matru seva sangh: This institution was established in 1921. This instutition specially works for the women who need to self supportive. Hind khust nivaran sangh: This agency provides financial help to leprosy programmes. It was established in 1950 and its head quarter is at Delhi. Bharat sevak samaj: This organization established in 1952 aim to help people to attain health through own efforts. Kasturba mamorial fund: It was created in 194 after her death to improve the welfare of women. The central social welfare board: It was founded in 1953. Aims of vocial training & social welfare activities. All India women’s conferences: It started in 1926, services for MCH , teaching mother craft, balwadi’s adult education. All india blind relief society: Welfare of blind organizes camps for eye relief & other facilities.

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