IMMUNIZATION SCHEDULE AND COLD CHAIN

Views:
 
Category: Education
     
 

Presentation Description

No description available.

Comments

Presentation Transcript

IMMUNIZATION SCHEDULE AND COLD CHAIN :

IMMUNIZATION SCHEDULE AND COLD CHAIN kirandeep randhawa army college of nursing

INTRODUCTION:

INTRODUCTION A person is said to be immune when he possesses “specific protective antibodies” or cellular immunity as a result of previous infection or immunization .

IMMUNIZATION:

IMMUNIZATION It is a technique used to induce immune resistance to a specific disease in humans by exposing the individual to an antigen in order to raise antibody to that antigen.

VACCINATION:

VACCINATION It is the injection of a killed microbe in order to stimulate the immune system against the microbe, thereby preventing diseases.

HOW ARE VACCINES MADE:

HOW ARE VACCINES MADE Vaccines are produced from the same microorganisms or toxins that cause disease, but in either case are modified so as to be harmless to humans

CONT…:

CONT… . Three main substances are used for the production of vaccines: · LIVE microorganisms e.g , weakened measles and polio viruses or tuberculosis

CONT…:

CONT… KILLED microorganisms e.g , pertussis microorganisms used in DPT production; and · TOXOIDS, e.g, inactivated toxins such as tetanus toxoid and diphtheria toxoid .

CONT…:

CONT… In addition, some vaccines are produced using genetic engineering technologies e.g, recombinant DNA Hepatitis B vaccine

NATIONAL IMMUNIZATION SCHEDULE:

NATIONAL IMMUNIZATION SCHEDULE THE FIRST VISIT MAY BE MADE WHEN THE INFANT IS 6 WEEKS; THE SECOND AND THIRD VISIT, AT INTERVALS OF 1-2 MONTHS.

CONTD….:

CONTD…. ORAL AND POLIO VACCINE MAY BE GIVEN CONCURRENT LY WITH DPT, BCG CAN BE GIVEN WITH ANY OF THE THREE DOSES. THE SITE FOR INJECTION SHOULD BE DIFFERENT.

CONTD…:

CONTD… THE SCHEDULE ALSO COVERS IMMUNIZATION OF WOMEN DURING PREGNANCY AGAINST TETANUS.

NATIONAL IMMUNIZATION SCHEDULE:

NATIONAL IMMUNIZATION SCHEDULE FOR INFANTS AT BIRTH - BCG AND OPV 0 DOSE FOR INSTITUTIONAL DELIVERIES AT 6 WEEKS – BCG, DPT1, OPV1

CONT…:

CONT… AT 10 WEEKS – DPT 2 & OPV 2 AT 14 WEEKS – DPT 3 & OPV 3 AT 9 MONTHS – MEASLES

CONTD…:

CONTD… AT 16-24 MONTHS – DPT & OPV AT 5-6 YEARS – DT AT 10 & 16 YEARS - TT

IMPORTANT POINTS:

IMPORTANT POINTS INTERVAL BETWEEN 2 DOSES SHOULD NOT BE LESS THAN ONE MONTH. MINOR COUGH,COLD & MINOR FEVER ARE NOT A CONTRAINDICATION TO VACCINE.

CONTD… :

CONTD… IN SOME STATES, HEPATITES B VACCINE IS GIVEN AS ROUTINE IMMUNIZATION.

Contd…:

Contd… NO VACCINE IS 100 % EFFECTIVE; PLEASE CHECK THE EFFICACY OF INDIVDUAL VACCINES BEFORE IMMUNIZATION. MINOR UPPER RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS ARE NO CONTRAINDICATIONS OF IMMUNIZATIONS.

Contd…:

Contd… VACCINATION SCHEDULES DIFFER IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES ACCORDING TO THEIR NEEDS.

Cont…:

Cont… FOLLOW POST VACCINATION INSTRUCTIONS AS ADVISED, AND REPORT ADVERSE REACTIONS IF ANY, IMMEDIATELY.

Slide 23:

COLD CHAIN

COLD CHAIN:

COLD CHAIN THE COLD CHAIN IS A SYSTEM OF STORAGE AND TRANSPORT OF VACCINES AT LOW TEMPERATURE FROM THE MANUFACTURER TO THE ACTUAL VACCINATION SITE.

CONTD…:

CONTD… AMONG THE VACCINES POLIO IS THE MOST SENSITIVE TO HEAT, REQUIRING STORAGE AT MINUS 20 C. POLIO, MEASLES MUST BE STORED IN FREEZER. DPT, TT,DT,BCG,TYPHOID ARE STORED IN COLD PART NEVER IN FREEZER.

COLD CHAIN EQUIPMENT:

COLD CHAIN EQUIPMENT WALK IN COLD ROOMS. DEEP FREEZERS & ILR SMALL DEEP FREEZERS & ILR COLD BOXES VACCINE CARRIERS ICE PACKS

WALK IN COLD ROOMS :

WALK IN COLD ROOMS THEY ARE LOCATED AT REEGIONAL LEVEL, MEANT TO STORE VACCINES UPTO 3 MONTHES & SERVE 4-5 DISTRICTS.

DEEP FREEZERS {300L}&ILR{300/240L}:

DEEP FREEZERS {300L}&ILR{300/240L} SUPPLIED TO ALL DISTRICTS. DEEP FREEZERS ARE USED FOR MAKING ICE PACKS & TO STORE OPV & MEASLES.

SMALL DEEP FREEZERS &ILR {140}:

SMALL DEEP FREEZERS &ILR {140} THESE FREEZERS ARE TO PREPARE FROZEN ICE PACKS WHICH ARE USED IN COLD BOXES, VACCINE CARRIERS FOR TRANSPORTATION OF VACCINES.

COLD BOXES:

COLD BOXES COLD BOXES ARE SUPPLIED TO ALL PERIPHERAL CENTRES. THESE ARE USED MAINLY FOR TRANSPORTATION OF THE VACCINES.

CONTD…:

CONTD… BEFORE THE VACCINES ARE PLACED IN THE COLD BOXES, FULL FROZEN ICE PACKS ARE PLACED AT THE BOTTOM AND SIDES. THEN THE VACCINES ARE FIRST KEPT IN CARTONS OR POLYTHENE BAGS.

CONTD…:

CONTD… THE VIALS OF DPT, DT, TT VACCINES SHOULD NOT BE PLACED IN DIRECT CONTACT WITH THE FROZEN ICE PACKS.

VACCINE CARRIERS:

VACCINE CARRIERS VACCINE CARRIERS ARE USED TO CARRY SMALL QUANTITIES OF VACCINES (16-20) VIALS FOR THE OUT OF REACH SESSIONS , 4 FULLY FROZEN ICE PACKS ARE USED FOR LINING THE SIDES.

CONTD…:

CONTD… VIALS DPT, TT, DT SHOULD NOT BE PLACED IN DIRECT CONTACT WITH FROZEN ICE PACKS. THE CARRIERS SHOULD BE CLOSED TIGHTLY.

DAY CARRIERS:

DAY CARRIERS DAY CARRIERS ARE USED TO CARRY SMALL QUANTITIES OF VACCINES (6-8 VIALS) TO A NEARBY SESSION. TWO FULLY FROZEN PACKS ARE USED. IT IS USED ONLY FOR FEW HOURS PERIOD.

ICE PACKS:

ICE PACKS THE ICE PACKS CONTAIN WATER & NO SALT SHOULD BE ADDED TO IT. THE WATER SHOULD BE FILLED UPTO THE LEVEL MARKED ON THE SIDE.

DO’S FOR THE USE OF ILR:

DO’S FOR THE USE OF ILR KEEP THE EQUIPMENT IN COOL ROOM AWAY FROM DIRECT SUNLIGHT. FIX THE EQUIPMENT THROUGH VOLTAGE STABILIZER KEEP VACCINES NEATLY WITH SPACE BETWEEN THE STACKS FOR CIRCULATION OF AIR.

CONTD…:

CONTD… KEEP THE EQUIPMENT LOCKED & OPEN ONLY WHEN NECESSARY. DEFROST PERIODICALLY. SUPERVISE THE TEMPERATURE RECORD. IF THE VACCINES ARE KEPT IN CARTONS, MAKE HOLES IN THE SIDES FOR COLD AIR CIRCULATION.

DON’TS:

DON’TS DO NOT KEEP ANY OBJECT ON THESE EQUIPMENT. DO NOT STORE ANY OTHER DRUG. DO NOT KEEP DRINKING WATER & FOOD ON THEM. DO NOT KEEP MORE THAN ONE MONTH. DO NOT KEEP DATE EXPIRED VACCINES

National immunization schedule:

National immunization schedule

Indian medical association:

Indian medical association

Contd..:

Contd..

Other vaccines available:

Other vaccines available

On going vaccinations:

On going vaccinations

SUMMARIZATION:

SUMMARIZATION Immunization schedule Cold chain Cold chain equipment

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

BIBLIOGRAPHY Park.k , “preventive & social medicine” , 18 th ed,M/S banarsidas bhanot publishers , Pp: 95-100 . Swarnkar .k , “community health nursing” , 2 nd ed , N.R brothers publishers , Pp :401-404 . www. Goggle .com

Contd…:

Contd… www.imanational.com www.whoindia.oorg www.who . Int www.biology_online.org

Slide 48:

THANKS

authorStream Live Help