food hygiene

Category: Education

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INTRODUCTION Food is the potential source of infection and is liable to contamination by microorganisms,at any point during its journey from the producer to the implies hygiene in the production,handling,distribution & serving of all types of food.the primary aim of food hygiene is to prevent food poisoning and other food-borne illnesses.

Contd… : 

Contd… The most important international programme carrying out activities in the field of food hygiene is the JOINT FAO\WHO FOOD STANDARD PROGRAMME.

Milk hygiene : 

Milk hygiene Source of infection The dairy animal Human handler The environment,eg..contaminated vessels,polluted water,flies,dust etc

Milkborne diseases : 

Milkborne diseases A joint FAO\WHO expert committee(1970) on milk hygiene classified milkborne disease as under Infections of animals that can be transmitted to man Tuberculosis Streptococcal infections anthrax

Contd… : 

Contd… Infections primary to man that can be transmitted through milk Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers Cholera Enteropathogenic escherichi coli(eec)

Clean & safe milk : 

Clean & safe milk First essential is a healthy and clean animal Secondly,the premises where the animal is housed & milked should be sanitary Milk vessels must be sterile & kept covered Water supply should be bacteriologically safe

Contd… : 

Contd… Milk handler must be free from communicable diseases Milk should be cooled immediately to below 10deg.c after it is drawn to retard bacterial growth

Methylene blue reduction test : 

Methylene blue reduction test It is indirect method for detection of microorganisms in milk Test is carried out on the milk accepted for pasteurization Definite quantity of methylene blue is added to 10ml of milk & sample is held at a uniform temperature of 37 deg.c until the blue colour is disappeared

Slide 12: 

This test serves as confirmation of heavy contamination & compared with direct counts of bacteriae,it saves time and money.

Pasteurization of milk : 

Pasteurization of milk It may be defined as heating of milk to such temperatures and for such periods of time as are required to destroy any pathogens that may be present while causing minimal changes in the composition,flavour & nutritive value(WHO 1970).

Methods of pasteurization : 

Methods of pasteurization Holder (VAT) method-in this process milk is kept at 63-66 deg.c for at least 30min & then cooled to 5deg.c HTST method-milk is rapidly heated to a temperature of nearly 72deg.c is held at that temperature for not less than 15sec & is then rapidly cooled to 4deg.c

Contd… : 

Contd… UHT method-milk is rapidly heated usually in 2 stages to between 125deg.c for few seconds & then rapidly cooled and bottled as quickly as possible

Tests of pasteurized milk : 

Tests of pasteurized milk Phosphatase test-this test is used to check the efficiency of is based on the fact that raw milk contain an enzyme called phophatase which is destroyed on heating at 60 deg.c for 30min phophatase is completely destroyed.

Contd… : 

Contd… Standard plate count Coliform count-coliform organisms are usually destroyed by is an indication either of improper pasteurization or post pasteurization contamination.

Meat hygiene : 

Meat hygiene The diseases which may be transmitted by eating unwholesome meat are: Tapeworminfestations: tinea saginata trichinella spiralis fasciola hepatica

Contd… : 

Contd… Bacterial infections - actinomycosis tuberculosis food poisoning

Meat inspection : 

Meat inspection Animal intended for slaughter are subjected to proper antemortem & postmortem inspection by qualified veterinary staff.

Principal causes : 

Principal causes Antemortem rejection of animals Exhaustion Emaciation Pregnancy Sheep-pox Brucellosis diarrhoea

Principles causes contd… : 

Principles causes contd… Postmortem rejection of animals Absesses Sarcocystis Septicaemia Parasitic & nodular infections of liver and lungs

Characteristics of good meat : 

Characteristics of good meat It should be neither pale pink nor a deep purple tint Firm Elastic to touch Should not be slimy Have an agreeable odour

Slaughter houses : 

Slaughter houses They are places where animals,whose flesh is intended for human consumption are killed The hygiene of it is of paramount importance to prevent the contamination of meat during the process of dressing

Contd… : 

Contd… Storage of cooked food Storage of uncooked foodstuffs-perishable & non perishable articles are kept separately Furniture Disposal of refuse Water supply Washing facilities

Contd… : 

Contd… The following minimum standards for slaughter houses have been suggested under the MODEL PUBLIC HEALTH ACT(1955) IN INDIA- Location-preferably away from residential areas Structure-floors & walls up to 3 feet Disposal of wastes-blood,offal etc should be discharged into public sewers but should be collected separately

Contd… : 

Contd… Water supply-it should be independent,adequate & continuous Examination of animals-antemortem & postmortem examination are done Miscellaneous-animal other than slaughtered should not be allowed inside the shed

Contd… : 

Contd… Storage of meat-it should be stored in fly proof & rat proof rooms for overnight storage,the temperature of the room shall be maintained below 5deg.c Transportation of meat-it shall be transported in fly-proof covered vans

Fish : 

Fish Fish loses its freshness because of autolysis which sets in after death & also with bacteria with which they become infected.stale fish are condemned

Signs of fresh fish : 

Signs of fresh fish It is in state of stiffness or rigor mortis The gills are bright red The eyes are clear and prominent

Tinned fish : 

Tinned fish Following point should be noted while the inspection of tinned fish they are- The tin must be new & clean without leakages or rusting There should be no evidence of having been tampered with such as sealed openings On opening the tin,the contents should not blown out which indicates decomposition

Egg : 

Egg The majority of freshly laid eggs are sterile inside,the shells become contaminated by faecal matter from the hen.microorganism including pathogenic salmonella can penetrate a cracked shell and enter the egg

Fruits & vegetables : 

Fruits & vegetables This constitute another important source for the spread of pathogenic organisms,protozoans & helminths These infections are a serious menace to public health where sewage is used for growing vegetables Vegetables which are consumed raw in the form of salads pose a problem in food sanitation

Sanitation of eating places : 

Sanitation of eating places It is a challenging problem in food sanitation They are some minimum standards suggested for restaurants and eating houses in india under the MODEL PUBLIC HEALTH ACT(1955)

Contd… : 

Contd… They are- Location-shall not be near any accumulation of filth or open drain,manure pit & other source of nuisances Floors-should be higher than the adjoining land & made with impervious material

Contd… : 

Contd… Rooms Rooms where meals are served shall not be less than 100sq.ft Walls up to 3feet should be smooth,corners to be rounded Lighting and ventilation

Contd… : 

Contd… Kitchen Floor space minimum 60sq.ft Window opening to be 25per cent of floor area Floors to be smooth & easy to keep clean Ventilators 2 per cent of the floor area

Food handlers : 

Food handlers Food sanitation rests directly upon the state of personal hygiene & habits of the personnel working in the food establishments.proper handling of foods,utensils & dishes emphasis on good personal hygiene

Infections : 

Infections Diarrhoeas Dysenteries Typhoid Para-typhoid fevers Entero-viruses Viral hepatitis Protozoal cysts Eggs of helminths Strepto and staphylococcal infections salmonellosis

Education : 

Education In matter of personal hygiene,handling,utensils & rodent control etc Hands-it should be clean at all times Hair Overalls Habits-coughing & sneezing in the vicinity of food,licking the fingers before picking up an article of food,smoking on food premises are to be avoided

Summarization : 

Summarization Introduction Milk hygiene Milk borne diseases Clean & safe milk Pasteurization of milk Tests of pasteurized milk Meat hygiene Meat inspection Slaughter house

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Fish Signs of fresh fish Tinned fish Egg Fruits & vegetables Sanitation of eating places Food handlers Infections Education

Bibliography : 

Bibliography Swankar.k :community health nursing;n.r brothers;iind edition Park.k;preventive and social medicine;18th edition

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