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Premium member Presentation Transcript Slide 1: WELCOMEDISPOSAL OF REFUSE & EXCRETA PRESENTED BY- KIRANDEEP RANDHAWA : DISPOSAL OF REFUSE & EXCRETA PRESENTED BY- KIRANDEEP RANDHAWASlide 3: DISPOSAL OF REFUSEDEFINITION: DEFINITION “Refuse” is the unwanted leftover substance that have been discarded or thrown away.SOURCES OF REFUSE: SOURCES OF REFUSE Street refuse Market refuse Industrial refuse Domestic refuse Stable litter Biomedical refuseCOLLECTION &REMOVAL OF REFUSE: COLLECTION &REMOVAL OF REFUSE All type of refuse should be properly collected in sanitary dustbins. The public refuse should be removed daily or at least on alternative days.METHODS OF DISPOSAL: METHODS OF DISPOSAL DUMPING Easy method of disposal of dry refuse. As a result of bacterial action, refuse converted into humus.CONT….: CONT…. CONTROLLED TIPPING It is the method of refuse disposal where suitable land is available. It include three methods The trench method The ramp method The area methodCONT…: CONT… INCINERATION Refuse can be disposed of hygienically by burning , it is the method of choice where suitable land is not available.CONT….: CONT…. COMPOSITING it is method of combined disposal of refuse & nightsoil IT INCLUDE TWO METHODS- Bangalore method Mechanical compositingCONT…: CONT… MANURE PITS BURIAL A trench 1.5 wide & 2cm deep is evacuated ,& at the end of each day the refuse is covered with 20 to30cm of earth.PUBLIC EDUCATION: PUBLIC EDUCATION Refuse disposal cannot be solved without public education. By various methods we can educate the people like pamphlets,newspaper, broadcasting, films etc.Slide 14: Disposal Of ExcretaDEFINITION: DEFINITION Human “excreta” means all the excretory discharges such as urine & stool from human bodies.HOW DISEASE IS CARRIED FROM EXCRETA: HOW DISEASE IS CARRIED FROM EXCRETA it is the main source of infection & it is transmitted to a new host through various channels- Water,fingers, flies,soil&food.Method of excreta disposal : Method of excreta disposal Excreta disposal in unsewered areas Excreta disposal in sewered areasExcreta disposal in unsewered area: Excreta disposal in unsewered area Service type - The collection &removal of nightsoil from bucket or pail latrines by human agency is the service type. Non service type- Bore hole latrine - it consists of a circular hole 30 to 40cm in diameter,dug depth of 4 to 8m.CONT….: CONT…. Dug well latrine -a circular pit about 75cm in diameter& 3 to 3.5m deep is dug into the ground for the reception of nightsoil.CONT….: CONT…. Water seal latrines -it is hand flushed “water seal” type of latrines, here the squatting plate is fitted with a water seal.Like RCA type,P.R.A.I type, sulabh shauchalaya.CONT….: CONT…. Septic tank -it is the satisfactory means of disposing excreta & liquid waste from individuals dwellings, houses & institutions.CONT….: CONT…. Main features of a septic tank - Capacity- 500 gallons Length Depth-1.5-2m Liquid depth-1.2m Air space-30cm Inlet &outletCONT…..: CONT….. Aqua privy -It functions like septic tank &it consist of water tight chamber filled with water.The shape may be circular & rectangular. A capacity of one cubic meter is recommended for small family.CONT….: CONT…. Latrines suitable for camps & latrines - Shallow trench latrines -the trench is 30cm wide &90-150cm deep. Length- 3-3.5m are necessary for 100 people.CONT….: CONT …. Deep trench latrines - trench is 1.8-2.5m deep & 75-90cm wide .Excreta disposal in sewered area: Excreta disposal in sewered area Sewage treatment plant method- Primary treatment Secondary treatment Disposals of remaindersCONT….: CONT …. Primary treatment- Screening Grit chamber Primary sedimentation Secondary treatment Trickling filter method Activated sludge methodCONT…: CONT … Disposal of remainders Sludge method Disposal of effluentCONT…: CONT… Sea out flow -Here sewage is directly discharged into the sea Land treatment -The sewage is released toward the land through pipes&this method of using effluents for irrigation is known as land treatmentCONT…: CONT … Oxidation pond - This is ancient method of sewage purification, that is used today.the things required for oxidation pond are- Sunlight Presence of algae in the pond Specific bacteriaHealth hazards of waste on human health: Health hazards of waste on human health refuse and waste causes various health problems: Increase in the number of disease carrying animals. Air pollution&foul smell in the environment Pollution of waste resourcesCONT…: CONT … Destroys the aestheticsSUMMARIZATION: REFUSE DEFINITION SOURCES COLLECTION & REMOVAL OF REFUSE METHOD OF DISPOSAL SUMMARIZATIONCONT….: CONT…. EXCRETA DEFINITION METHOD OF DISPOSAL HEALTH HAZARDSBIBLIOGRAPHY: BIBLIOGRAPHY PARK K, “ESSENTIALS OF COMMUNITY HEALTH NURSING” ,2 ND EDITION, BANARSIDAS PUBLISHER,PP-561-575. BASVANTHAPPA B.T, “ COMMUNITY HEALTH NURSING”,4 TH EDITION,LORDSON PUBLISHERS,PP-161-182.CONT…: CONT… SWARNKAR KESHAR , “COMMUNITY HEALTH NURSING”,2 ND EDITION,N.R BRUFNERS PUBLISHERS,PP-170-178.Slide 44: THANKS You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.