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INDICATORS OF STRESS/ FACTORS INFLUENCING SEVERITY OF STRESS:

INDICATORS OF STRESS/ FACTORS INFLUENCING SEVERITY OF STRESS PRESENTED BY: Ms.KIRAN RANDHAWA

INTRODUCTION:

INTRODUCTION Stress is a universal phenomenon. It is an unavoidable part of life. Stress is an internal state which can be caused by physical demands on body (e.g. extreme temperature, illness, exercise etc) or by environmental and social situations, which are evaluated as potentially harmful, uncontrollable or exceeding our resources for coping.

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INDICATORS OF STRESS

INDICATORS OF STRESS:

INDICATORS OF STRESS Indicator is defined as a pointer or index that indicates something. By Indicators of stress , we mean the signs/symptoms that point towards the presence of stress.

INDICATORS OF STRESS:

INDICATORS OF STRESS Physiological signs/symptoms. Psychological signs/symptoms. Cognitive signs/symptoms.

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PHYSIOLOGICAL SIGNS/SYMPTOMS

PHYSIOLOGICAL SIGNS/SYMPTOMS:

PHYSIOLOGICAL SIGNS/SYMPTOMS Dilated Pupils Diaphoresis Increased heart rate Increased sodium & water retention Hyperventilation Skin pallor

PHYSIOLOGICAL SIGNS/SYMPTOMS:

PHYSIOLOGICAL SIGNS/SYMPTOMS Decreased urinary output Dry mouth Decreased peristalsis, resulting in flatus and constipation. Improved mental alertness Increased muscle tension Increased blood sugar.

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PSYCHOLOGICAL SIGNS/SYMPTOMS

PSYCHOLOGICAL SIGNS/SYMPTOMS:

PSYCHOLOGICAL SIGNS/SYMPTOMS Anxiety (ranging from mild anxiety to panic) Fear Anger Depression Unconscious ego defense mechanisms. Denial Displacement Projection

PSYCHOLOGICAL SIGNS/SYMPTOMS:

PSYCHOLOGICAL SIGNS/SYMPTOMS Rationalization Regression Sublimation.

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COGNITIVE SIGNS/SYMPTOMS

COGNITIVE SIGNS/SYMPTOMS:

COGNITIVE SIGNS/SYMPTOMS Problem Solving Structuring Self- control (Discipline) Suppression Fantasy and Day dreaming.

INDICATORS OF JOB STRESS :

INDICATORS OF JOB STRESS

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BURN OUT: Burnout is a state of emotional, mental, and physical exhaustion caused by excessive and prolonged stress. The signs/symptoms include: Feeling overwhelmed and unable to meet constant demands. Loss of interest or motivation that led you to take on a certain role in the first place. INDICATORS OF JOB STRESS

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Decreased energy to do work. Decreased productivity. Feeling helpless, hopeless and resentful. Feeling bored, overloaded or unappreciated. Frequent headaches, back pain and muscle aches. Change in appetite or sleep habits. INDICATORS OF JOB STRESS Eating like this isn't the right way to reduce stress!

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Sense of failure and self doubt. Decreased satisfaction and sense of accomplishment. Withdrawing from responsibilities. Isolating from others Procrastinating, taking longer to get things done. INDICATORS OF JOB STRESS

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Taking out the frustration on others. Skipping work or coming in late and leaving early. INDICATORS OF JOB STRESS

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STRESS VS BURNOUT STRESS BURNOUT Characterized by over engagement. Characterized by under engagement. Emotions are over reactive Emotions are blunted Produces urgency and hyperactivity. Produces helplessness and hopelessness. Loss of energy. Loss of motivation, ideals and hope. Leads to anxiety disorders Leads to detachment and depression. Primary damage is physical. Primary damage is emotional.

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INDICATORS OF STRESS IN CHILDREN

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Short term behavioral changes such as mood swings, acting out, changes in sleep patterns, or bed wetting. Physical effects, including stomach aches, headaches. Trouble concentrating or completing school work. Becoming withdrawn or spending a lot of time alone. INDICATORS OF STRESS IN CHILDREN

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Younger children may pick up new habits like thumb sucking, hair twirling, or nose picking. Older children may begin to lie, bully or defy authority. Nightmares Drastic changes in academic performance. Overreactions to minor problems. INDICATORS OF STRESS IN CHILDREN

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FACTORS INFLUENCING SEVERITY OF STRESS

FACTORS INFLUENCING SEVERITY OF STRESS:

FACTORS INFLUENCING SEVERITY OF STRESS The effects of stress, the intensity of anxiety it arouses and the degree to which it disrupts the individual’s functioning, depends on a number of factors as follows: Predictability Control over duration Cognitive evaluation Feelings of competency Social supports.

FACTORS INFLUENCING SEVERITY OF STRESS:

FACTORS INFLUENCING SEVERITY OF STRESS Significance Time Length Cumulative Effect Multiplicity Approaching Deadline

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Predictability involves being able to predict the occurrence of a stressful event, even if we cannot control it. It usually reduces the severity of stress. Laboratory experiments show that both human beings and animals prefer predictable aversive events to unpredictable ones. PREDICTABILITY

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Having control over the duration of a stressful event also reduces its severity. Research findings show that control over an aversive event appears to lessen anxiety even if the control is never exercised or the belief is erroneous. CONTROL OVER DURATION

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The same stressful event can be perceived quite differently by two people, depending on what the situation seems to them. The objective facts of the situation are less important than how the individual appraises them. Our evaluation of the degree of threat depends to a large extent on our confidence in our ability to cope with the situation. COGNITIVE EVALUATION

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A person’s confidence in his or her ability to handle a stressful situation is a major factor in determining the severity of stress. Speaking before a large audience is a traumatic event for most people. But individuals experienced in public speaking have confidence in their ability and feel only minimal anxiety. FEELINGS OF COMPETENCY

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The emotional support and concern of other people can make stress more bearable. Divorce, the death of loved one, or serious illness is usually more devastating if one is alone. Stress is easier to tolerate when the cause of stress is shared with others. SOCIAL SUPPORTS

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Significance means how critical and important the event is to the individual (deaths, failing an exam), and how much change will have to be dealt with. The greater the significance and change, the higher the impact of the stressor. SIGNIFICANCE The retired person has a whole new set of stressors to deal with!

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If a stressor is continued over a long period of time, it will result in higher stress levels. For example, tiredness or insufficient sleep over an extended period of time will result in higher stress than that caused by just one night of bad sleep. TIME LENGTH

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This is when stressors are built up over a period of time without appropriate mechanisms to reduce or release the build-up. For example, a long series of little irritations and annoyances could result in a massive blowout between two people. CUMULATIVE EFFECT

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A number of stressors at one time will result in higher stress levels. For example, a fight with one's parents, final exams around the corner and loss of a loved one will be experienced as much more stressful than if each of these events happened separately. MULTIPLICITY

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If a demand has been made a few weeks or months in advance of the deadline, the degree of stress will increase as the due date approaches. For example, if you are given a project assignment two months in advance, it will probably seem too far away to get worked up about. As the deadline approaches, and the work has not been completed, your stress level will increase until you do something about it. APPROACHING DEADLINE

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The severity that a stressor may present is directly related to the characteristics of the stressor itself, how one feels about himself and one’s capacity, and at what stage of life the person is. CONCLUSION

BIBLIOGRAPHY :

BIBLIOGRAPHY Munn’s “Introduction to Psychology”, Fernald/Fernald, 5 th ed., WMC Brown Publishers, U.S.A. “Psychology”, Glietman, Fidlund & Reisberg, 5 th ed. , W.W.Norton & Company, NY. “Child Psychology- The Modern Science”, 3 rd ed., Vatsa, Haith & Miller. NY, Toronto. “Psychology and Sociology for G.N.M. & B.P.T. students”; Anthikad, Jaypee Publishers,1 st ed.,2006

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

BIBLIOGRAPHY “Essentials of Psychology for Nurses”; Sharma &Mann; Lotus Publishers, 5 th ed., 2006. “A textbook of psychology”; K. Amanpreet, Pee Vee Regd; 1 st ed, 2009. “Recognising stress for men”; Jerry Kenard, retreived from mens health.about.com , on 1 Feb’2010. “Signs of stress”; retreived from www.extension.iastate.edu , on 1 Feb’10

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THANK YOU

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