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genetic engineering


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Genetic Engineering:

Genetic Engineering

Genetic Engineering:

Genetic Engineering Genetic engineering is the human altering of the genetic material of living cells to make them capable of producing new substances or performing new functions. The technique became possible during the 1950s when Francis Crick (1916-) and James Watson (1928-) discovered the structure of DNA molecules. Crick, Watson and later researchers learned how these molecules store and transmit genetic information. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is found in the nucleus of all living cells. It is structured as a double helix, with two twisted strands parallel to each other with rungs like a ladder between the strands. Each strand consists of four chemical bases: guanine (G), adenine (A), thymine (T) and cytosine (C). These bases are repeated in particular arrays of sequences throughout the DNA molecule. The patterns they create provide the instructions on how cells will develop and what their tasks will be. DNA is packed into structures called chromosomes within the cell.

Genetic Engineering:

Genetic Engineering Manipulating an organism’s genome to alter microbes, plants, and animals for our benefit correct genetic defects in humans Recombinant DNA ©2004 Demonstratives, Inc.(2).3gp

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Genetic engineering, also known as recombinant DNA technology , means altering the genes in a living organism to produce a Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) with a new genotype. Various kinds of genetic modification are possible: inserting a foreign gene from one species into another, forming a transgenic organism ; altering an existing gene so that its product is changed; or changing gene expression so that it is translated more often or not at all.

Basic steps in genetic engineering:

Basic steps in genetic engineering Isolate the gene Insert it in a host using a vector Produce as many copies of the host as possible Separate and purify the product of the gene

Step 1: Isolating the gene:

Step 1: Isolating the gene

Step 2: Inserting gene into vector:

Step 2: Inserting gene into vector Vector – molecule of DNA which is used to carry a foreign gene into a host cell

Step 3: inserting vector into host:

Step 3: inserting vector into host



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HHrr high yield low resistance pollen grain ovule hhRR low yield high resistance The F 1 consists of plants with high yield and good resistance zygote 4


a b c d e a x b = c c x d = e Hybrid wheat ( c ) was crossed with wild wild grass ( d ) to give hybrid wheat ( e ) used for making flour and bread Manipulating genes by cross breeding Wheat variety ( a ) was crossed with wild grass ( b ) to give hybrid wheat ( c ) wheat © Sir Ralph Riley 7


Genetically modified Genetically modified tomatoes Control tomatoes After storage After storage © Astra Zeneca Tomatoes

Inserting a gene:

plasmid restriction enzyme cuts plasmid the same restriction enzyme cuts the insulin gene out of the human DNA human DNA strand insulin gene Inserting a gene the insulin gene is inserted into the plasmid 11

Recombinant plastids:

The recombinant plastids are inserted into a bacterium * the insulin gene makes the bacterium produce insulin Recombinant plastids 12

Genetically Engineering Humans:

Genetically Engineering Humans Bone marrow supplies stem cells Successful replacement of gene for enzyme needed for lymphocyte development

Bacterial clone:

Next slide Bacterial clone


cells in sheep A’s mammary gland one cell isolated diploid nucleus egg cell (ovum) from sheep B nucleus removed the two cells are fused together * embryo implanted in uterus of sheep C cloned lamb born cell division produces early embryo Dolly 21

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Dolly, the Cloned Sheep Dolly, the first mammal to be successfully cloned from an adult somatic cell . Her birth was announced in 1997. People tend to see clones as exact copies of the originals, but they are not. While their DNA is the same, as in monozygotic twins, variations in the environment can cause significant dissimilarities. Dolly lived to the age of six, giving birth “naturally” to a lamb named Bonnie, before being put down because of progressive lung disease and crippling arthritis. Since Dolly, many other large mammals have been cloned, including horses and bulls. Cloning is now considered a promising way of preserving endangered species.

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Biotechnology and Health Product Use Insulin Diabetes Interferon Cancer Interleukin Cancer Human growth hormone Dwarfism Neuroactive proteins Pain

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Tooth decay – engineered Streptococcus mutans, the bacteria that destroys enamel Future Health-related Biotech Products Vaccines – herpes, hepatitis C, AIDS, malaria

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Important Plant Improvement Methods Breeding Crossing two individuals from the same species; produces a new, improved variety; not a biotechnology procedure Transformation Adding a gene from another species; the essential biotechnology procedure to produce transgenics Source: USDA Source: USDA

The Top 10 New Organisms of 2007:

The Top 10 New Organisms of 2007 Above: A special filter in a dark room shows a cat (left) with a red fluorescent protein that makes it glow when exposed to ultraviolet rays, next to a normal cloned cat (right) at Gyeongsang National University in Jinju, South Korea. Below: In normal light, a normal cloned cat (left) stands next to two cats which have been cloned to glow red, but only in ultraviolet. Photo: AP / Yonhap, Choi Byung-kil Genetic engineering isn't just for scientists in ivory towers or corporate R&D labs anymore. Researchers are still creating new mice and crops every week, but the tools and knowledge necessary to create organisms never before seen on Earth have pushed out to pet breeders, artists and college kids.

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1. Ashera GD hypoallergenic cat Lifestyle Pets has created a cat it calls the Ashera GD, which has been genetically engineered to be hypoallergenic. The high-tech blend of exotic cat varieties doesn't come cheap: This kitty in the window retails for $27,000 -- nothing to sneeze at. The ultra-rich around the world, however, don't mind the price tag. Six of the cats sold in December, three of them in the company's best market: Russia. Next year, expect a transgenic cat, which will remain kitten-size throughout its life. 2 . Butanol-producing E. coli Genetic engineering is getting so easy, even a kid can do it. A team of students from the University of Alberta, "the Butanerds," competed in the International Genetically Engineered Machines competition, creating an E. coli strain that produces butanol fuel (albeit rather inefficiently). The Butanerds have competition from a host of well-funded startups, like Synthetic Genomics and LS9 , which are trying to genetically modify single-celled organisms to create the fuels of the future. 3. Artful fluorescent tadpoles At an Ohio State art show earlier this year, Russian artist Dmitry Bulatov presented his genetically engineered tadpoles , which glow red and green. Bulatov, the curator of the Kaliningrad Branch of the National Centre for Contemporary Art in Russia, is one of a handful of artists around the world using biotechnology to create art. The field is controversial, because it involves experimenting with living things without a medical or therapeutic purpose. Bulatov edited a collection of essays on these issues called Biomediale: Contemporary Society and Genomic Culture

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4. Insulin-producing lettuce In July, a University of Central Florida researcher announced he had genetically modified lettuce heads that produce insulin . They could be transformed into time-release capsules for people with diabetes, to help them maintain blood-sugar levels without regular injections. 5. Super CO2-absorbing trees With global warming all over the news in 2007, many schemes have been proposed for taking greenhouse gases out of the atmosphere. Trees already do the world an admirable service sequestering carbon dioxide, but scientists at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee are also genetically modifying poplar trees to increase the amount of carbon that the trees can store. 6. Rapid vaccine-making button mushrooms In November, Darpa-funded Pennsylvania State University researchers unveiled a new method for rapidly producing vaccines: genetically engineered button mushrooms . Pharming, using plants as chemical factories, is beginning to catch on as a cheap way to synthesize drugs. Within a few years, the Penn State scientists say their 'shrooms will be able to make 3 million doses of vaccine in 12 weeks. Rapid-response vaccine-making could come in handy in case of a bioterror attack or bird-flu outbreak.

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7. Glow-in-the-dark cats Photographs of cats genetically engineered by South Korean scientists to glow red when exposed to UV light made headlines around the world. What most news stories didn't mention was the scientific potential for fluorescent creatures: The animals' glow acts as a "green light" that lets scientists know that their genetic transformations of other, non-glowing genes have worked. 8. Cancer-fighting Clostridium bacteria Surgery, chemotherapy and radiation treatment mean that a cancer diagnosis is no longer always a death sentence. But certain oxygen-starved parts of tumors are still difficult to reach with the old methods. Enter the Clostridium family of bacteria. Injected into the body, they grow and multiply only in the oxygen-poor parts of cancer tumors. In September, scientists in the Netherlands showed they could arm Clostridium bacteria with therapeutic protein genes, essentially creating search-and-destroy tumor missiles . 9. Schizophrenic mice Johns Hopkins researchers had created schizophrenic mice was a surprise, even to scientists who regularly create genetically altered mice to model human diseases. In recent years, we've seen very big mice, fearless mice, Rain Man mice and a host of others. But the schizophrenic experience of hallucinations, delusions of grandeur and paranoia seemed somehow distinctly human. However, scientists recently identified a single gene called DISC1 as a major schizophrenia risk factor, leading to the creation of these mice, which lack the gene. Anatomical examinations revealed similarities between the mice's brains and those of human patients. The mice also revealed behaviors -- trouble finding food, agitation in open fields -- that researchers say parallel human schizophrenic activities.

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10. Yeast with poison-sensing rat genes Temple University doctors announced in May that they'd genetically modified a strain of yeast to glow green in the presence of DNT, an ingredient in dynamite. The scientists used rat olfactory genes to sense the chemical and switch on fluorescent-protein producing genes. Biosensors might be better than man-made sensors for applications like detecting nerve gas, because they are cheap to produce. Genetic Engineering Modifying Pill – Hair Straighten or Curly Hair Gene are inherited from our parents, one copy from mummy and one copy from daddy. Combination of the genotype will develop different phenotype, which is the appearance or trait that we can see, such as color of eyes, curly or straight hair and etc. So, genes in the genome are the storage of memory of all creature, from the ancestor and slowly evolved until today. It has everything encoded.

Introductory example: credit scoring:

Introductory example: credit scoring A possible model: IF (NOC = 2) AND (S > 80000) THEN good ELSE bad In general: IF formula THEN good ELSE bad Only unknown is the right formula, hence Our search space (phenotypes) is the set of formulas Natural fitness of a formula: percentage of well classified cases of the model it stands for Natural representation of formulas (genotypes) is: parse trees

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IF (NOC = 2) AND (S > 80000) THEN good ELSE bad can be represented by the following tree AND S 2 NOC 80000 > =

Tree based representation:

Tree based representation Trees are a universal form, e.g. consider Arithmetic formula Logical formula Program (x  true)  (( x  y )  (z  (x  y))) i =1; while (i < 20) { i = i +1 }

Computer based software's for Genetic Engineering:

Computer based software's for Genetic Engineering MB Eye Color Inheritance 1.10 MB Eye Color Inheritance is an eye color determination tool ... . This is based on the genetic inheritance of the eye color...

MB Eye Color Inheritance 1.10 specifications:

MB Eye Color Inheritance 1.10 specifications General: Publisher Mystic Board Publisher web site Release date March 31, 2010 Date added March 30, 2010

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Category: Category Home Software Subcategory Kids & Parenting Software System requirements: Operating systems Windows 2003, Windows Me, Windows 98, Windows 95, Windows 2000, Windows Vista, Windows NT, Windows XP, Windows Server 2008 Additional requirements Not available

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Download information: File size 619.35K File name MBFreeEyeColorInheritance.exe Popularity: Total Downloads 269 Downloads last week 3 Pricing: License model Free Limitations Not available Price Not available

About MB Eye Color Inheritance Software:

About MB Eye Color Inheritance Software MB Eye Color Inheritance is an eye color determination tool for your child. This is based on the genetic inheritance of the eye color from a parent to a child. Eye color inheritance has been an interesting topic of discussion for many years. It is a known fact that many children are born with a different eye color, which slowly darkens as they grow up. This software is a fun test that can determine the eye color of your child based on the eye color of the mother and the father. The eye color is passed on to the child through a process known as the Mendelian inheritance rules. But there can be exceptions too.

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The Eye Colors consist of: Blue Light Blue Blue-Green Green / Hazel Brown Light Brown Dark Brown / Black Eye color is known to have a polygenic inheritance pattern. It is determined by co-dominant alleles. This is one of the forms in which our genetic information is present in our DNA. Eye color is controlled by 6 different alleles. More the number of dominant alleles more are the chances of your eye being darker. But do keep in mind that this is not a very accurate method of determining the paternity of a child. MB Eye Color Inheritance is an interesting software with a simple to use interface. This software is a freeware. The result thus generated by the software comes in an easy and understandable format. The software has been designed keeping in mind the average computer user and as such you do not have to be a techno savvy person to run the software.

Programming Language for Genetic Engineering:

Programming Language for Genetic Engineering The purpose of synthetic biology is to create new biological systems not found in nature to solve pressing problems. The “ultimate dream is to design these systems at a high level of abstraction using engineering-based tools and programming languages, press a button, and have the design translated to DNA sequences that can be synthesized and put to work in living cells.” Microsoft Research has introduced programming languages that can model these synthetic systems.  Proteins and genes are expressed in a modular manner, and the program can then calculate and simulate the reactions to determine whether the synthetic biology will solve the problem at hand. The result is GEC (Genetic Engineering of Cells)and LBS(Language for Biochemical Systems ), two languages for modeling in synthetic biology and systems biology, respectively.  The GEC-LBS Tools package includes the GEC and LBS compilers and prototype Windows applications.

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In systems biology there is however a trade-off in the landscape of existing formal languages: some are modular but may be difficult for some biologists to understand (e.g. process calculi) while others are more intuitive but monolithic (e.g. rule-based languages). The first major contribution of this thesis is to bridge this gap with a Language for Biochemical Systems (LBS). LBS is based on the modular Calculus of Biochemical Systems and adds e.g. parameterised modules with subtyping and a notion of nondeterminism for handling combinatorial explosion. LBS can also incorporate other rule-based languages such as Kappa, hence adding modularity to these. Modularity is important for a rational structuring of models but can also be exploited in analysis as is shown for the specific case of Petri net flows.

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On the synthetic biology side, none of the few existing dedicated languages allow for a high-level description of designs that can be automatically translated into DNA sequences for implementation in living cells. The second major contribution of this thesis is exactly such a language for Genetic Engineering of Cells (GEC). GEC exploits the recent advent of standard genetic parts (“biobricks”) and allows for the composition of such parts into genes in a modular and abstract manner using logical constraints. GEC programs can then be translated to DNA sequences using a constraint satisfaction engine based on a given database of genetic parts.



Fundamental Weaknesses of the Concept :

Fundamental Weaknesses of the Concept Imprecise Technology —A genetic engineer moves genes from one organism to another. A gene can be cut precisely from the DNA of an organism, but the insertion into the DNA of the target organism is basically random. As a consequence, there is a risk that it may disrupt the functioning of other genes essential to the life of that organism. Side Effects —Genetic engineering is like performing heart surgery with a shovel. Scientists do not yet understand living systems completely enough to perform DNA surgery without creating mutations which could be harmful to the environment and our health. Widespread Crop Failure —Genetic engineers intend to profit by patenting genetically engineered seeds. This means that, when a farmer plants genetically engineered seeds, all the seeds have identical genetic structure. As a result, if a fungus, a virus, or a pest develops which can attack this particular crop, there could be widespread crop failure. Threatens Our Entire Food Supply —Insects, birds, and wind can carry genetically altered seeds into neighboring fields and beyond. Pollen from transgenic plants can cross-pollinate with genetically natural crops and wild relatives. All crops, organic and non-organic, are vulnerable to contamination from cross-pollinatation.

Health Hazards :

Health Hazards No Long-Term Safety Testing —Genetic engineering uses material from organisms that have never been part of the human food supply to change the fundamental nature of the food we eat. Without long-term testing no one knows if these foods are safe. Toxins —Genetic engineering can cause unexpected mutations in an organism, which can create new and higher levels of toxins in foods. Allergic Reactions —Genetic engineering can also produce unforeseen and unknown allergens in foods. Decreased Nutritional Value —Transgenic foods may mislead consumers with counterfeit freshness. A luscious-looking, bright red genetically engineered tomato could be several weeks old and of little nutritional worth.

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Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria —Genetic engineers use antibiotic-resistance genes to mark genetically engineered cells. This means that genetically engineered crops contain genes which confer resistance to antibiotics. These genes may be picked up by bacteria which may infect us. Problems Cannot Be Traced —Without labels, our public health agencies are powerless to trace problems of any kind back to their source. The potential for tragedy is staggering. Side Effects can Kill —37 people died, 1500 were partially paralyzed, and 5000 more were temporarily disabled by a syndrome that was finally linked to tryptophan made by genetically-engineered bacteria. DNA is actually not well understood. 97% of human DNA is called ³junk² because scientists do not know its function. The workings of a single cell are so complex, no one knows the whole of it. Yet the biotech companies have already planted millions of acres with genetically engineered crops, and they intend to engineer every crop in the world.

Environmental Hazards :

Environmental Hazards Increased use of Herbicides —Scientists estimate that plants genetically engineered to be herbicide-resistant will greatly increase the amount of herbicide use. Farmers, knowing that their crops can tolerate the herbicides, will use them more liberally. More Pesticides —GE crops often manufacture their own pesticides and may be classified as pesticides by the EPA. This strategy will put more pesticides into our food and fields than ever before. Ecology may be damaged —The influence of a genetically engineered organism on the food chain may damage the local ecology. The new organism may compete successfully with wild relatives, causing unforeseen changes in the environment. Gene Pollution Cannot Be Cleaned Up —Once genetically engineered organisms, bacteria and viruses are released into the environment it is impossible to contain or recall them. Unlike chemical or nuclear contamination, negative effects are irreversible.


Conclusion In conclusion, development of genetic engineering-cloning is needed and it has some benefits for human kind. However, the areas of usage cloning must be bewared to prevent some ethical and controversial issues. In addition to this, using cloning on people must wait for deter some abuses and it is not appropriate for today’s people and conditions due to the potential usage of cloning in a bad way. Another disadvantage of Genetic Engineering is Genetic engineering borderlines on many moral issues, particularly involving religion, which questions whether man has the right to manipulate the laws and course of nature. Also it brings into question Darwin's theory of "the survival of the fittest“.



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