System Development LifeCycle

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System Development Life Cycle:

System Development Life Cycle In the present booming economical environment every organization plans to expand and develop quick system and encash economic boom, as soon as possible. This require a process which can quickly develop new systems, in lesser time with lesser cost. This presentation will focus on the process of how to achieve the development goal. Sridhar & Santhanam Dhiraj Birla SnS

What is SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT ?:

We are talking about the development of a system or business so first we should understand what is development: - “ System Development ” refers to the process of – Examining a business situation, With the intent of improving it, Through better procedures and methods. System Development is having two major component in it System Analysis – Analysis of current system for Problems & Demerits in it and Additional requirements in new system System Design – Process of planning new system which will replace the old one SnS What is SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT ?

Beginning of a System Development:

Beginning of a System Development System Development usually begins when a problem or opportunity is identified by Managers, it can be because of any of the followings: New design idea to smoothen the process in the organization. Evolving environmental changes such as Competition. Adding new business or product line to present business. Present system does not satisfy the users information needs. Present system no longer efficiently and effectively meets the Goals of organization. Excessive time spent in correcting errors. Current Reports / Outputs not meting users decision making skills. Escalating customer and vendor complaints. SnS

System Development “Methodology”:

System Development “Methodology” A system development methodology is a formalized, standardized, documented set of activities used to manage a system development project. It can be characterized as follows: DIVISION OF PROJECT into the identifiable phases which can be managed without having any problem. REVIEW OF DEVELOPMENT PROCESS by TOP Management on periodically by getting deliverables. APPROVALS from all the participants of the Development (i.e. Users, Managers, Analyst and Auditors). TESTING OF SYSTEM thoroughly prior to implementation to ensure that it meets user’s needs. TRANNING of user who will operate the new system. POST IMPLEMENTATION REVIEW for effectiveness and efficiency of new system SnS

System Development Life Cycle:

System Development Life Cycle In an organization System Development Object can be achieved by following steps: Preliminary Investigation Requirements analysis or system analysis Design of System Development of Software System Testing Implementation and Maintenance SnS

Preliminary Investigation:

Preliminary Investigation Whatever may be the reason of a request submitted by the Users or Managers to the IS department a system analyst is assigned to make a preliminary investigation. The objective of this activity is to review all requests and identify those proposals that are most beneficial to the organization. But this should be noted that this is neither a designed study nor it includes collection of details to completely describe the business system. Preliminary Investigation object can be achieved in following steps: Request Clarification Feasibility study Estimating Costs and Benefits Request Approvals Preliminary Investigation SnS

Request Clarification:

Request Clarification Defining the Scope and Objective of Request : As mentioned in the objectives of System development objective earlier, an analyst has to define for which objective a request for development is submitted. Conducting the Investigation This is nothing but the Collection of data / inputs by: Reviewing internal documents (i.e Organizational Charts, operating procedures etc. Conducting interviews of User, Supervisory Personal and Managers Identify viable option: Analyst has to identify the viable option by applying his common sense and intuitions on his investigation Preliminary Investigation SnS

Feasibility (Possibility) Study:

Feasibility (Possibility) Study Evaluation of alternative systems through cost and benefit analysis : Technical Feasibility : Hardware and software availability, Technical Guarantee of Accuracy, Reliability, Easy to Access, Data security, technical capacity to hold data and future expansion. Economical Feasibility : Evaluation of cost & Benefits expected. Operational Feasibility: Finding views of workers, employees, customers & suppliers about the use of new system. Schedule Feasibility: Estimation of time to take new system to become operational. Legal feasibility: Testing whether new system will comply financial reporting requirements & Company’s contractual obligations. Preliminary Investigation SnS

Estimating Cost & Benefit:

Estimating Cost & Benefit COSTS: Development Costs : This includes cost of testing, training, start up costs, salary to designers, acquisition cost of hardware & software. Operation Costs : This includes operator salary, maintenance costs, etc . Intangible Costs : Loss of employee productivity, self confidence etc. BENEFITS: Tangible Benefits : Increase in sales / Contribution / Profits Decrease in investment, operating and processing cost. Improved information availability, analysis, Management Decision skill I ntangible Benefits : Increase in Goodwill / Improved Image of Business Preliminary Investigation SnS

Request Approval:

Request Approval Based on the Observation and Findings of the Analyst, selected requests are put up for the approval of management Preliminary Investigation SnS

Requirement Analysis and System Analysis:

Requirement Analysis and System Analysis After the selection of a request for development analyst study in depth the Present and Proposed New System . This is the study of weakness & Problems in the present system and management requirements of new system. This phase of System Development is being completed in following step: Collection of data and facts Analysis of Present System Analysis of Proposed system Requirement Analysis & System Analysis SnS

Collection of Data & Facts:

Collection of Data & Facts Every system is built to meets some set of needs and to assess these needs , the analyst often interact extensively with the people, who will be benefited from the system In order to determine the requirement of those peoples he can use following facts finding techniques: Documents: This includes the Manuals, diagrams, forms, organizational charts etc. It should be ensured that all documents are accurate & up to date Questionnaires: These are skillfully drafted group of standard question which can be given to all personal and can be analyze quickly. Interviews: To get a complete picture of problems and opportunities. Observation : Surprise Visit of users work palace to get a clear picture of user’s environment. Requirement Analysis & System Analysis SnS

Analysis of Present System:

Analysis of Present System Detailed investigation of the present system involves collecting, organizing and evaluating facts about the present system and the environment in which it operates by studying following areas in depth: Review of Historical Aspects of organization Analyze Present inputs to the system Review of all data file maintained irrespective of online or offline Review methods, procedures & data communications Analyze Present outputs of system Review internal controls Model the existing physical system and logical system Undertake overall analysis of present system Requirement Analysis & System Analysis SnS

Analysis of Proposed System:

Analysis of Proposed System After each functional area of present system is defined the purposed system specification must be defined. These specification will be based on the strength and weakness of present system. System Specification which should be in conformity with the Project Objective and Areas Covered should be following: Output / Reports Maintenance of Database Data Inputting Process Methods and Procedures to show the relationship between Input and Output Work volume including peak period work volume Requirement Analysis & System Analysis SnS

System Design:

System Design System design first involves Logical Design . First one has to write detailed specification that called design specification. Than secondly it involves Physical Design . This Phase of System Development includes following functions : Designing System Output Designing System Input Data Storage System Design SnS

Designing System Output:

Designing System Output Important factor of Output Design: A process of Output designing contained Designing of Content (required info in an output), Form (the way in which a content presented to user), Volume (quantum of Output i.e. Prints), Time Lines (time of need of outputs), Media (method of output i.e. Print, CD etc) and Format (Physical arrangement of Data). Way of Presenting Information: The way in which data will be presented to the User which should be simple and better understandable and for this Tabular and Graphic (charts, maps etc) can be used. Design / Layout of Output: The layout of a output can be in Printed form, visual on screen etc. System Design SnS

Designing of System Input:

Designing of System Input Important Factor of Input Design : A process of Input designing contained Designing of Content (required info in a input), Form (the media in which input is received by user), Volume (quantum of input records), Time Lines (required time to enter one record), Media (method of input i.e. keyboard, BCR etc) and Format (Input by the user in the system). Coding: To reduce input control errors and speed up the entire process coding is very important. This is also important to get all records in a specific form. Methods: Individually (Unique codes giving only one option to user out of may i.e selection of gender from male or Female etc), Space or suggestive (for brief information), Schemes: Classification Codes (only single digit is required for quick input the ), Function code (activities to be performed without spelling out all details) etc. System Design SnS

Data Storage:

Data Storage This includes the storage of data, indexing etc. For storage of data it can follow following approaches: Conventional File Approach : This is a traditional approach where each transaction is updated in the master file, each application have their own database and it is not useful for other applications. (Boss in IHCL) Database Approach: This support decision making skill of the management. Data are stored in the small-small database files and same data can be used in the multiple applications. (Files maintained as a process of the organization for MIS etc.) System Design SnS

System Acquisition & Development:

System Acquisition & Development After designing the system all required resources (hardware & Software) should be gathered. If some of them are already with the organization than it reduces the cost of acquisition, for remaining items organization has to plan its procurements process, this includes following: Selection of Hardware: Selection of Software Vendor Selection System Acquisition & Development SnS

Selection of Hardware:

Selection of Hardware While selecting the hardware for new system a developer must keep in mind following: Latest Technology Whether requirement of business is for Scientific or Business Computer Software supplied by the manufacture and requirement of additional software Compatible with the existing systems in organization System Acquisition & Development SnS

Selection of Software:

Selection of Software Selection of a perfect Software for organization is totally depends on the followings: Rapid Implementation: Whether software can be implemented quickly and put on use ASAP. This characteristic will not be there if software is to be developed, hence that will take long time. Low Risk of Quality: Software should be properly tested by the manufacturer for the quality otherwise organization has to spend its precious time on quality assurance. Low Risk of Cost: The cost and benefit analysis will give us the perfect cost, which organization can bear for acquiring the given software. System Acquisition & Development SnS

Vendor Selection:

Vendor Selection This is finding of resources from new system hardware and software will be procured. At resource will be finalized based on the following: Performance Capability in relation to cost and quality: Cost & Benefits : Preparation of comparative statements based on the quotations received from vendors with terms and conditions. Maintainability : Maintenance requirements of the new equipments Compatibility with the Existing system : Vendor support : Post sale support from vendors System Acquisition & Development SnS

System Testing:

System Testing This is Performing Parallel Operation and get the following done to analyze the operational implementation feasibility: Preparation realistic data based on the actual working data of the organization. It may be based on the Historical data of the organization. Processing of Test Data with the new system and take all outputs which can be possible. Checking result of all system with the results of the same data in the current system for the accuracy and error in the processing. Review result with future users, operational and support personal: System Testing SnS

Implementation & Maintenance:

Implementation & Maintenance As the final Phase of the System Development it gives the results of the whole process and handover the new system to end users. This also includes the overall review of the development process for its leakages and errors in it. To complete this phase a developer has to complete the following functions successfully: Equipment Installation Training Personnel: Conversion Procedure: Post Implementation Evaluation (Feedback) Implementation & Maintenance SnS

Equipment Installation:

Equipment Installation This includes following functions: Site Preparation: Preparing the site for installation and mobilizing all required equipments and personnel at the site. Equipment Installation: Assembling and commissioning of the equipments (hardware) and installation of software Equipment Checkout: Organize test runs of the system with sample actual data and thereafter if it performs satisfactory than with the live actual data. Implementation & Maintenance SnS

Training Personnel:

Training Personnel Since user are not familiar with the New System, System Development Process includes training of - System Operators: IT personnel who will handle the system maintenance in the future. Users (Operators): The final user who will work on the system. If there are deficiencies in Training, these may translate into reduction in user Productivity Levels Implementation & Maintenance SnS

Conversion Procedures:

Conversion Procedures This is the time when organization switch over from old system to new developed system. Following are the Strategies / Methods for conversion / Changeover of old system to new system. Direct Changeover: Direct closing the old system and starting the new one. Parallel Changeover: for sometime operating both system simultaneously. Gradual Changeover: Department wise switch over to new systems. Distributed Changeover: Any other method which management feels good for organation. Implementation & Maintenance SnS

Post Implementation Evaluation (Feedback):

Post Implementation Evaluation (Feedback) Analysis of Satisfaction of Users or checking whether system is Operating Properly or whether Objectives of System Development is achieved or not, is the most important function in whole System Development process. This is also important for development of new system in future since each development gives some experiences and lists some things to be taken care off. Post Implementation Evaluation includes following area: Development Evaluation: Check whether development was done within schedule and budgets. Operation Evaluation: Check whether system is capable for handling the duties and objective of development is achieved Information Evaluation: Check Satisfaction of users etc. Implementation & Maintenance SnS

Thank You:

Thank You SnS

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