Innovations Temporary Storage of food grains-CIPHET

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Innovations in Temporary Storage of Food Grains Dr. R.T. Patil Former Director, CIPHET, Ludhiana Chairman & ED, Benevole for PHT, Bhopal

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Temporary Grain Storage in India FCI and state agencies stored 23.08 lakh tonnes and 144.97 lakh tonnes, respectively in 2010 and the damaged grain in CAP was 716 metric tonne in 2010 S torage gap (deficit) to the tune of 12-14 MMT. The efficient alternative to CAP is necessary to meet the growing demand for storage and reduction of storage losses

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Grain Quality in Storage Optimum storage conditions-moisture less than 12% and temperature less than 30°C will not deteriorate quality during storage over a season. Problems due to Higher temperatures: Development of hot-spots, Moisture migration from warmer to cooler grain causing caking, Mould development in over-moist grain Decrease in seed germination Decrease in malting quality of barley, Decrease in baking and milling quality of wheat, Colour deterioration of pulses and Rancidity in oilseeds

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Conditions in Temporary Storage Grain entering a temporary storage structure should be cool and dry. Temperatures of grain loads placed into storage should be within 5 to 10°C of each other to prevent moisture movement due to temperature gradients. The grain should be placed in the storage at less than 14% (w.b.) and preferably 13% for greater safety. The average moisture content of the pile should be 0.5 to 1% less than the safe storage moisture content. Grain of poor quality should be dried 1% more than required for good quality grain.

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Grain Aeration Aeration is necessary, if more than 50 MT grain is stored for longer than 2 months. Aeration rates of at least 0.04 m 3 per minute per MT should be provided. Provide two or three smaller fans and ducts to obtain proper air distribution in flat storage structures. Aeration ducts of 30 cm or larger dia. corrugated drain pipes are used in temporary structures. The drainpipe is covered with cloth to prevent grain from plugging the openings. The number of fans and aeration ducts depends on the grain type and dimensions of the grain pile.

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Temporary Storage Structures used Worldwide The CAP storage Grain Storage Rings Flexible silos Underground storage/Bunker storage Prefabricated relocatable warehouses Cocoons Airwarehouses Flat Grain Storage Large Plastic Membrane Bags

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In CAP 50 kg capacity jute bags are used The most commonly constructed size is for 1500 tonnes with 3000 bags of 50 kg CAP storage are with the length and breadth of 8.55 and 6.30 m, respectively. The sides and ridge heights are 4.50 and 6.00 m, respectively. Regular opening of covers is necessary to allow some aeration. The advantage of CAP is its low establishment cost, which is only 25% the cost of godown storage Cover and Plinth Storage

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Thermal model has been developed based on solar energy for predicting the wheat grain temperature while stored in CAP. The model showed around 10 to 12°C rise in grain temperature from the mean monthly ambient temperature during the year with black cover. A white colour plastic cover simulated result showed reduction in the grain temperature by 6-8 o C compared to black sheet. Effect of Color of Cover on Quality

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Grain Storage Rings Corrugated galvanised panels are rolled and crimped on a line This deep corrugation are made in 22 SWG. The industrial gasket is also provided on the top edge of the ring for the entire diameter protecting the tarp from the sharp edges of the steel panels.

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Flexible silos Early types employed butyl rubber sheeting as the membrane and had capacities of up to 1,000 tonnes. Currently available silos use PVC-coated polyester fabric & have 500 tonne capacity. The silos require little site preparation, are easy to erect and are relocatable. The silos require no mechanical equipment

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Underground storage of grain The pit is about one and a half times the width of a bulldozer blade, length as per volume. The grain must be under 13 per cent moisture content. Polythene sheeting is laid across the ridged grain for about 2 m either side of the pit Soil cover of 30 - 100 cm deep, sloping to ground level is put on the pit

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Prefabricated Relocatable Warehouses It has tubular steel frame covered by PVC-coated polyester fabric tensioned over the frame. The capacity of structures varies from 50 to 3000 tonnes. Stores require minimal foundations, and the integral base frame can be effectively anchored to the ground

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Cocoons These are tough but flexible UV-resistant PVC enclosures sealed with zip fasteners. Light in weight when empty and can be delivered easily to site. Capacity ranges from 5–50 tonnes. They prevent insect, water and water vapour penetration into the contents. The cocoons are modular, fabricated in 5, 10, 20 and 50 tonnes capacity.

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Airwarehouses Airwarehouses are kept erect by pressure of forced ventilation. Once erected and working satisfactorily, bagged produce can be moved in and out of the buildings easily. Each warehouse typically has a capacity of 2000–5000 tonnes. Constant flow of air keeps the interior free of condensation and moisture and the structure's coated fabric provides protection from ultraviolet radiation. Constant power supply is necessary to keep the structure inflated and erect.

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Flat Grain Storage These are modular flat grain storage bunkers. These grain bunkers come in up to 5 million bushels capacity and are very economical for storage of corn, wheat, canola and other grains. Precast exterior concrete walls are erected from 1.5 m to 6.5 m height. The optional aeration system having Z shaped tubes is connected through the wall flushed with the floor.

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Large Plastic Membrane Bags The system is very cost competitive in comparison to other storage options. This system of storage offers a low investment storage system that can be quite effective on farm in several scenarios. The polymer bag is described as a hermetic type of storage system.

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Major Recommendations The color of the polyethylene used in traditional CAP storage should be changed to white. The prefabricated relocatable warehouses may be installed on the railway platforms where the grain need to kept for transit In grain mandies the harvest bags and rings may be explored to avoid the damage to the grain due to sudden rain during harvest season. Investigations may be undertaken to test the suitability of structures for Indian conditions

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Modern Technologies for Food Storage are essential for reducing the post harvest losses and increasing the profitability of farmers Thank You

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