Food Processing


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Dr. R. T. Patil , Ex Director Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology & Director, Technocrats Institute of Technology, Bhopal (MP) FOOD PROCESSING-HERBINGER OF NATIONS PROSPERITY

Production & Post Harvest Scenario:

Production & Post Harvest Scenario Agriculture contributes about 16% of GDP, employees 57% workforce and sustains approx over 70% of the population India produces about 230 million tons of food grains and 53.1 and 91.6 million tons of fruits and vegetables and ranks second in world Post harvest losses are 3-18% amounting to Rs. 45000 crores Low level of processing of fruits and vegetables at only 2% . Food processing is employment intensive, creates 1.8 jobs directly and 6.4 indirectly for every Rs. 10 lakh investment

Price Difference :

Price Difference Wheat - Rs 12/kg Wheat Flour Rs. 16-18/kg Fortified Flour Rs. 20-25/kg Oil seed – Rs 35/kg Oil Rs. 70/kg Paddy – Rs 12/kg Rice – Rs. 25/kg Mung- Rs. 20/kg Mung dal – Rs. 60/kg Maize-Rs.13/kg Maize flour-Rs. 16/kg Tomato-Rs. 5/kg Tomato ketchup-Rs 50-80/kg Fruit- Rs. 15-20/kg Fruits Bar-Rs. 200/kg Fruit Juice- Rs. 35/litre Coriander -Rs. 80/kg Coriander Powder-Rs. 200/kg Turmeric-Rs.65/kg Turmeric Powder –Rs. 200/kg Chili- Rs. 200/kg Chili Powder-Rs. 300/kg Black pepper-Rs. 100/kg B Pepper Powder- Rs.300/kg Chana - Rs. 28/kg Chana Dal-Rs. 35/kg Besan- Rs. 40/kg Vegetables-Rs.3-5/kg Minimal Processed/Ready to Cook Rs. 25-30/kg

High Value Products from Wastes:

High Value Products from Wastes Pectin from fruit and vegetable peels Lycopene from tomato peel and oil from seeds Bio-colour from arhar husk and used flowers A low calorie sweetner (xyletol) from corn cob and bagasse Beta amylase and Xylanase from cereal bran and husk Enzymes (protease, laccase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase) from green gram husk and wheat germ Gelatin / Peptides from slaughter house waste Dietary fibres from fruit pomace Bio-plastics from tapioca Aniti oxidents and phenolic compounds from cereal brans and pulse husks

Reasons for Losses :

Reasons for Losses Handling of raw produce through many stages of middlemen. Processing is mostly controlled by urban rather than rural entrepreneurs which leads to losses in valuable by products. Non availability of adequate and efficient equipment and machinery to be used in catchment areas. Low level of entrepreneurial urge in rural areas due to constraints of finance, assured market and proper training on technology On the whole, there exists a fragmented and inefficient value chain Higher the Value Addition Better the PH Management and Lower Will Be Losses

Agro Processing :

Agro Processing Can provide processed food of highest quality at affordable cost to consumers Help environment by processing food in production catchment with least food miles Ensure traceability of raw materials used for processed product hence great for export and elite urban market. Help effective backward linkage with farmers for processing their raw produce Shorten the supply chain, increase the profitability of farmers and ultimately increase in GDP from agriculture and reduce poverty Reduce post harvest losses and increased availability of by products for further processing.

Unit Operations in Post Harvest Management :

Unit Operations in Post Harvest Management Food Grains Harvesting at Maturity Proper threshing Post thresh cleaning Proper drying Safe storage Fruits and Vegetables Preharvest treatment Harvesting at Maturity Safe harvesting Pre cooling & washing Surface drying Cool/cold storage Safe transport Safe handling Value Addition to Main & Byproducts

Agro Entrepreneurship :

Agro Entrepreneurship

Agro Entrepreneurship :

Agro Entrepreneurship

Agro Entrepreneurship :

Agro Entrepreneurship

Equipment and Gadgets:

Equipment and Gadgets

Method of Determining Maturity of Mango in Tree :

Method of Determining Maturity of Mango in Tree Eating quality and postharvest shelf life of ripe mango depends on its maturity at harvest Change of peel color and total soluble solids (TSS) are indicative parameters to measure maturity of mango. A maturity index was defined based on TSS and colour values. The model was developed to predict maturity using colourimeter Colour and maturity index chart were also developed to determine maturity This technique can be employed to sort the mangoes at export port, big mandies and in processing plant. Capacity About 100 mangoes per hour

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Strawberry Clipper Harvesting Tools

Fruit Saving Gadgets:

Fruit Saving Gadgets After plucking from tree, fruit is thrown in the trough of fruit saver and collected in a box/container. The fruits are graded on size basis at appropriate places. Smallest grade fruit is collected first and largest grade is collected in last

Banana-Comb (Hand) Cutter:

Banana-Comb (Hand) Cutter It is an useful to de-stem the comb from the banana bunch. It replaces the use of sickle, which was much labor and time consuming. It is safe for human and banana hands and can be used for faster work. 100 to 120 banana bunches can be de-handed per hour. Saves 10 to 15 banana-fingers per bunch (i. e. 2 to 8 % reduction in cutting losses of banana fruits)

CIPHET Tomato Grader:

CIPHET Tomato Grader The tomatoes roll down the pipes due to gravity and fall immediately wherever they find the space of their diameter. Grades 3: 25-40 mm, 40-55 mm, 55-70 mm and > 70 mm The collector is inclined at 10 ° so that the tomatoes slide directly in crates. The important feature of grader is its ability to adjust the gap between the pipes and inclination of grading table and hopper. It can also be used for other round fruits and vegetables. Capacity: of 325 kg/hr Overall grading efficiency: 66%. Cost: Rs.25000.00

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Higher aril extraction capacity; around 5.0 quintal per hour Aril extraction/separation efficiency is in the range of 90-94% Mechanical damage received by arils is only 1-2% Mechanical Pomegranate Aril Extractor including Hand Tool Capacity 10 kg/h

Aloe Vera Gel Extractor:

Aloe Vera Gel Extractor Aloe vara gel should be extracted within 6 hours and processing must be completed within 36 hours. An inner clear gel that contains 99% water and rest made of glucomannans , amino acids, lipids, sterols, vitamins etc. The equipment capacity 200-225kg gel/h (900-1000 leaves/h) for motorised and 100kg gel/h (400-450 leaves/h) for manual machine. The extracted gel is clean and without any physical damage.

Heat Pump Dryer for High Value Products:

Heat Pump Dryer for High Value Products Micro-processor based temperature controller to regulates the drying temperature. Minimises the loss of vitamins and essential oil of the products and save energy in drying. For blanched Amla drying, the dryer reduced vitamin-C loss up to 87% as compared to the open sun drying. The products such as sliced fruits and vegetables is dried in 20-25 h and medicinal herbs and leaf crops are 12-20 h. The cost of the prototype is Rs. 1,50,000 and capacity is 30 kg/batch.

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Sitaphal Peeling Machine Removing the sitaphal seeds and pulp automatically without disturbing the pulp texture. Capacity: 120Kg/hr, Efficiency: 94% pulp recovery, Coarse / Intact Pulp recovery: 70-72%; Fine Pulp recovery: 28-30%. The machine is licensed to NEXTGEN Drying System, Pune

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Small Composite Unit for Tomato Puree and Fruit Pulp The machine has components like a cooker, grinder, mixture, processor and juicer. The machine is capable of processing around 200 kg of herbal products and fruits in an hour. Mr. Dharamvir Singh from Haryana has developed this machine to extract juice; residue is used for making candy, sweets and other items. He has employed 35 women for his business and also sells units of the machine. He even trains buyers on how to use it. He earns about Rs. 24 lakh per year from processed products and the machine is sold for 1.50 lakh.

Emerging Technologies:

Emerging Technologies

Emerging Technologies in Food Processing:

Emerging Technologies in Food Processing High Pressure Processing Microwave heat processing Ohmic heat processing Micronisation Irradiation Extrusion Processing Biotechnology

High Pressure Processing:

High Pressure Processing HPP can replace conventional processes, while maintaining safety and quality. Effects of HPP are generally marked as retention of color, flavor and fresh appearance

Microwave heat processing:

Microwave heat processing Effective for inactivating enzymes, reduced indirect heating requirement and water use Result in improved product flavour, colour, texture and nutritive value.

Ohmic heat processing:

Ohmic heat processing Alternating electrical current is passed through a food sample. Internal energy generation in foods. Produces an inside-out heating pattern at different frequencies than MW. Uniformly heats foods with different densities.


Micronisation Short time exposure of electromagnetic radiation at a wavelength of 1.8-3.4  m m, Promotes internal heating and increased digestibility Instantized product due to increased ability to uptake of water. Starch is gelatinized, seed microstructure becomes more penetrable and thus short cooking times.


Irradiation Gamma - irradiation reduces antinutritional factors Reduces the phytic acid content and flatulence causing oligosaccharides in leguminous crops Helps improved keeping quality of food grains and flours

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A single machine conveys, mixes, kneads, cooks and forms in one continuous process. The energy input comes mainly from the conversion of mechanical to thermal energy. Extruded food materials undergo various transformations like starch gelatinization, fragmentation and protein denaturation It is widely used to manufacture breakfast cereals and snacks and other emerging application to increase process efficiencies. Extrusion Processing

Extrusion Processing:

Extrusion Processing

Extruded Products from Coarse Cereals:

Extruded Products from Coarse Cereals Extrusion is a high temperature short time processed to produce expanded & textured products CIPHET has modified the low cost collet extruder to produce expanded ready to eat snacks using rice and pulse brokens. The cost of the unit is Rs 2 Lakh, capacity 25 kg/h, cost of accessories Rs. 2 lakh and thus earn about minimum of Rs. 50,000 per month


Biotechnology Fermenter of 30 litre capacity with controls for temperature, pH, DO and CO 2 monitoring installed at CIPHET, Ludhiana

Bioprocessing Technologies for Crop Residues:

Bioprocessing Technologies for Crop Residues Efficient process for production of ethanol Production of enzymes such as cellulase, xylanase, pectinase and protease Production of industrially important products such as citric acid Single Cell Protein ( SCP ) production

Safe Transport and Storage:

Safe Transport and Storage

Mobile Cool Chamber :

Mobile Cool Chamber The insulated box was designed such that it could hold 8 plastic crates of size 540x360x295 mm in two layer of four each Capacity of storage was 100 kg of fruits with 80% filling of each plastic crates Costs around Rs. 18,000-20,000/- Low cost unit saves the fruits from exposure to sunlight and preserves the quality.

Refrigerated transport:

Refrigerated transport Further a refrigeration unit is mounted on top for cooling the solution of ethylene glycol and salt stored in the jacket of insulated box. This solution is cooled to subzero temperature by running the refrigeration unit by plugging to power source for 8-10 hours before use. The refrigerated transport vehicle can lower the product temperature up to 5 °C. The wattage of compressor is 0.65 kW.

Ventilated Rail Transport :

Ventilated Rail Transport Ventilated rail cars have been developed by NHB where the slotted holes were provided on front bottom, front and rear ends to accommodate vertical forced air and natural convection due to holes at the bottom. At least 15% of total floor area was perforated and labyrinths provided for the protection from rain where ever essential. The design provides 5% area at the bottom and 10% area on the top at both from and rear ends. The rail trasnports the material as fresh over very long distances

Evaporatively Cooled Room for Storage of Fruits and Vegetables :

Evaporatively Cooled Room for Storage of Fruits and Vegetables Compared on the basis of 10% physiological loss in weight (PLW) the shelf life inside the room was 34 days for early kinnow, 23 days for late kinnow, 11 days for cauliflower and 4 days for spinach as compared to 21, 11, 5 and 2 days respectively in an ordinary room at the same time. The cost of the chamber is Rs. 75000 and capacity is 2 tonnes. An evaporatively cooled (EC) room (3x3x3m. size) was developed for on-farm storage of fruits and vegetables. The summer temperature inside the EC room was 5-8C lower than that inside the ordinary room and winter temperature was 5-8 C higher than that inside the ordinary room.

CIPHET Evaporative Cooled Storage Structure :

CIPHET Evaporative Cooled Storage Structure Storage of fruits and vegetables Evaporatively Cooled Structure (ECS) maintains a moderate low temperature and sufficiently high relative humidity for short term storage of fresh fruits and vegetables. Advantages Low level consumption of electricity Less initial investment Negligible maintenance cost Features Special design of roof, orientation Uses wetted pad as cooling medium 20 o C below the outside temperature An ECS of about 5 -7 tonne storage capacity may cost about Rs. 1.5 – 1.8 lakh.

Technology Packages:

Technology Packages

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Minimal Processing of Vegetables

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Groundnut and Soybean based Beverage and Curd With use of modern air less grinding and de-odourising technique prepared peanut milk with negligible beany/nutty flavour. Highly acceptable chocolate / vanilla flavoured beverages with about 12 % total solids and 3.25 % protein. The process for the preparation of acceptable curd (Dahi) with 15 % total solids and 4.25 % protein has also been optimized. Rich in Niacin and Thiamine. Contains bioactive phyto chemicals, particularly isoflavones and trans-resveratrol. Peanut milk is also highly healthful as that of soybean milk with added advantage of not having strong beany flavor, no anti nutrients and no flatulence.

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Mobile Agro Processing Unit Suggested for Cleaning, Grading, Destoning of food Grains Cost: Rs. 2.00 –3.00 Lakh Equipment: As per requirement of the region

Shrink Packaging of Fruits and Vegetables:

Shrink Packaging of Fruits and Vegetables

Process Technology for Guava Bar:

Process Technology for Guava Bar Guava is perishable in nature and cannot be stored for more than two days during peak season. Guava can be processed into a number of products like fruits bar and beverage Fruits, which are rich in nutrients can be blended to improve its acceptability and flavor Guava bar acceptable even after 6 month of storage Composition: Moisture: 15%, Vitamin C: 120 mg/100g , Acidity: 1.08%, Reducing sugar: 14%, Non-reducing sugar: 46%, Weight of each bar: 5-10 g , KSM: 0.2%

Process Technology for Ber Preserves :

Process Technology for Ber Preserves Excellent natural color Very good texture Rich in Vit. C Rich in minerals Least enzymatic browning Can keep well up to 6 months

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Soy Fortified Protein Enriched Mix Fruit Leather from Sapota The mixed fruit leather by mixing 60-80% sapota pulp in various proportions with different fruit pulps namely mango, papaya and banana at the rate of 5% each to have better taste and flavour of the product. Soy paste (okra) at the rate of 10 % was also added to this mixture. Total soluble solids (TSS) of the mixture are adjusted up to 30 brix by adding sugar syrup. Fruit leather was obtained by drying of pulps in tray dryer at 60  C for about 10 to 11 h. The fruit leather prepared by mixing sapota pulp (75%), soy paste (10%) and other fruit pulps (each 5%) was rated best among all combinations.

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Ready to Constitute Mustard Saag The green leaves are washed, drained and cut. The cut leaves are taken in the known proportion. The mixture of cut leaves and spices is cooked and then mashed to get smooth curry. The curry is then processed through various steps involving crushing, cooking, pulping, addition of edible flour, cold extrusion, drying, size reduction and packaging to attain mustard saag powder. The dried powder on mixing with lukewarm / hot water yield the inherent taste and odor of staple ingredients.

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Green chili processing into powder and puree Chilies powder has higher nutrition and controlled pungency. The green chilies have more Vitamin C & A and antioxidant properties. About 130 g of green Chilies powder and 300 ml puree could be prepared from one kilogram of fresh green Chilies. The cost of the plant for the processing 200kg of green chilies per day is estimated at 713000/-. The break even point comes be 49.15% and pay back period 1.91 years 1kg of green chilies costing Rs. 15/-, the value added product of Rs. 70/- could be marketed. Chili Puree Green Chili Powder

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Ready to Eat Vegetable Blended Meat Products Ready to Eat Chicken-Vegetables Sandwich Ready to Eat Chicken-Vegetables Nuggets Salient features of this technology are; 1) Utilization of indigenous equipment, 2) Efficient and economic use of vegetable by-products, 3) Substantive cost reduction of chicken products, 4) Improved products quality, sensory attributes and stability, 5) Low-cost and low fat chicken products could be prepared and 6) Increase in dietary fiber and natural antioxidants in the meat products The major cost factors in the chicken meat based value added products like fried-chicken, chicken nuggets are the price of raw meat, ingredients and imported equipment. The reduction in cost of production to more affordable level can be achieved by careful selection of ingredients, reformulation with unconventional food ingredients and using indigenously available equipment.

Soy Butter:

Soy Butter High protein butter like spread like pea nut butter Soybean 40% protein and 18% oil Shelf life 45 days under ambient With kitchen appliances 2 kg soybean can be processed yielding 1.6 kg of soy butter and which can be sold at Rs 200/kg At this rate profit will be 70% and ROI will be 133%

Use of Kinnow Peels for Face Care Products:

Use of Kinnow Peels for Face Care Products Kinnow Peel Face Pack Kinnow Peel Face Toner Kinnow peel is a major (30- 34 %) processing waste generated during Kinnow processing into juices. Rich source of Vitamin C, Carotenoids, limonene, antioxidants, micronutrients and antibacterial limonoids. The face mask/pack and face toner are a rich blend of major concentration of Kinnow peel extracts and other minor components as preservatives and sticking agents. The products possess very effective deep cleansing properties along with stringent, disinfectant and antiseptic action to protect facial skin from unwanted blemishes



Soybean Milk, Tofu, Whey based Juices :

Soybean Milk, Tofu, Whey based Juices Sh B S Garcha Dist. Sangrur Punjab. Established: 2000 Products: Soymilk, Tofu, Whey beverage Monthly Income: >Rs30,000 Employment generated: 10 Capital Investment: 3-4 lakhs

Franchise Concept in Soybean Products Processing:

Franchise Concept in Soybean Products Processing Sh J S Sandha, Jalandhar Punjab Established: 2008 Products: flavored soya milk, curd, lassi, namkeen and soya roasted nuts, soymilk powder in pouches Created Small Scale Franchisees Technical guidance and support by CIPHET

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Dried Green Chilli, Ginger and Garlic Powder Sh Saket Ranjan M/s Skysnacks, Punea, Bihar Trained by CIPHET Products: Green chilli powder, Ginger Powder, Garlic Powder, Sattu and Pappad etc. Employment: >10 mostly ladies

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Chowdhary Made Agriculture Profitable with Value Addition in Rajasthan Kailash Chaudhary, Age 60 years Products: Aamla juice, amla powder, aloe vera juice, candies, squashes, pickles, sweets Exports to many countries Employment: Direct 30;Indirect 40 Established: 2004 Training and Technologies by CIPHET Turnover: > 1 crore Web:

Evaporative Cooled Room:

Evaporative Cooled Room Surinder Singh Vill Jalalabad, Moga Punjab Profession: Vegetable Farmer Cold Room used for on-farm short term storage of fruits and vegetables Cost of structure: Rs 75,000


Recommendations Formulate National Agro-Processing Policy with incentives for small scale agro-processing units in rural areas. Unleash the vast entrepreneurial talent of our rural population by providing training and credit. Forge Public Private partnerships in food processing industry and food infrastructure including food parks, cold storage, rural godowns, warehouses etc. Facilitate direct marketing by farmers and rural processors to consumers though farmers outlets Reach international standards of food packaging, safety and quality and by compulsory appointment of food engg/tech in each food business.

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The Agro Processing in Production Catchment has potential to Provide Urban-amenities in Rural Areas (PURA) through employment and income generation among the rural youth. Thank You

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