Guava Processing

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Dr. R. T. Patil Director, Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology, Ludhiana Post Harvest Management and Value Addition of Guava

Production & Post Harvest Scenario: 

Production & Post Harvest Scenario Agriculture contributes about 17.5% of GDP, employees 57% workforce and sustains approx over 70% of the population India produces about 230 million tons of food grains and 53.1 and 91.6 million tons of fruits and vegetables and ranks second in world Low level of processing of fruits and vegetables at only 2% . Food processing is employment intensive, creates 1.8 jobs directly and 6.4 indirectly for every US$ 25000 investment

Reasons for Losses : 

Reasons for Losses Handling of raw produce through many stages of middlemen. Processing is mostly controlled by urban rather than rural entrepreneurs which leads to losses in valuable by products. Non availability of adequate and efficient equipment and machinery to be used in catchment areas. Low level of entrepreneurial urge in rural areas due to constraints of finance, assured market and proper training on technology On the whole, there exists a fragmented and inefficient value chain Higher the Value Addition Better the PH Management and Lower Will Be Losses

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Nutritive Value of Guava

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Health Benefits of Guava Diarrhea & Dysentery: Guava is very rich in astringents which binds up loose bowels in diarrhea. These astringents are alkaline in nature and have disinfectant and anti-bacterial properties, thus help cure dysentery by inhibiting microbial growth and removing extra mucus from the intestines. Further, other nutrients in guava, such as vitamin-C, Carotenoids and potassium strengthens and tones up the digestive system and disinfect it. Guava is also beneficial in gastroenteritis. Cough & Cold: Juice of raw and immature guavas or decoction of guava-leaves is very helpful in giving relief in cough and cold by loosening cough, reducing mucus, disinfecting the respiratory tract, throat and lungs and inhibiting microbial activity due to its astringent properties. In some areas, roasted ripe guava is used as a remedy against extreme cases of cough and cold and congestion. Skin Care: Guavas can help improve your skin texture and avoid skin problems more than the best of beauty creams or skin toner gels can do. This is chiefly due to the abundance of astringents in its fruits (more in immature ones) and in leaves. You can benefit from it either by eating the fruits (this help tighten your muscles apart from your skin) or by washing your skin with the decoction of its immature fruits and leaves. It will tone up and tighten the loosened skin. In addition to the astringents, guava is very-very rich in vitamin-A, B, C and potassium which are very good anti oxidants and detoxifiers and keep your skin glowing and free from aging, wrinkles and other disorders.

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Health Benefits of Guava High Blood Pressure: Guava helps reduce cholesterol in blood and prevents it from thickening, thereby maintaining fluidity of blood and reducing blood pressure. Guava, being very rich in fiber and hypoglycemic in nature, helps reduce blood pressure. Weight Loss: Guava is very helpful for those who want to lose weight without compromising with their intake of proteins, vitamins and fiber. Guava, being very high in roughage and very rich in vitamins, proteins and minerals, but with no cholesterol and less digestible carbohydrates, is very filling and satisfies appetite very easily. Just have a medium sized guava in the lunch and you will not feel hungry till night. But ironically, it helps gaining weight in lean and thin people. This is probably due to its richness in nutrients, which keeps your metabolism right helping proper absorption of nutrients. Scurvy: Guava can outdo many other fruits, including orange and other citrus fruits, when it comes to concentration of vitamin-C, whose deficiency causes scurvy and which is the only remedy to it. It contains five times the vitamin-C in oranges. Cures Constipation: Experts suggest that guava is rich in dietary fiber and its seeds serve as natural laxatives. This property can promote digestion, frequent bowel movements and effective peristaltic movement of our colon. These can help in relieving constipation. Promotes Gum and Tooth Health: It is believed that the presence of vitamin C in guava can promote gum health by serving as an antioxidant. This property can repair the damaged connective fibers and can regenerate bone damage caused due to gum disease such as gingivitis. In addition, the astringent property of guava along with calcium can promote stronger gums and firm teeth.

Unit Operations in Post Harvest Management : 

Unit Operations in Post Harvest Management Fruits and Vegetables Preharvest treatment Harvesting at Maturity Safe harvesting Pre cooling & washing Surface drying Cool/cold storage Safe transport Safe handling

Maturity Indices for Guava: 

Maturity Indices for Guava Skin color is a good indicator to adjudge the maturity and ripeness of guava. Mature-green to partial ripe stage (color change from dark- to light-green) for distant marketing and Firm-yellow to half-ripe (softer) stage for local market. Late harvesting of ripened fruit can lead to high incidence of fruit fly infestation Immature-green guavas do not ripen properly and develop 'gummy' texture. Ethylene at 100 ppm for 1-2 days can accelerate ripening of mature-green guavas to full-yellow stage at 15-20°C and 90-95% relative humidity. This treatment results in more uniform ripening, which is more important for guavas destined for processing

Polymeric Film Packaging of Guava : 

Polymeric Film Packaging of Guava Individual shrink-wrap packaging is a new technique for post harvest handling of fruits like guava. Use of polysaccharides and lipid based edible waxes for skin coatings CIPHET has optimized the shrink wrap packaging of guava and it can be successfully stored for 12 days under ambient condition as against 5-7 days of unwrapped ones.

Insect Control in Stored Guava: 

Insect Control in Stored Guava Guavas are a preferred host for fruit flies and must be treated for disinfestations for exports. One of the insect control treatments is hot water treatment which is very popular world wide for control of fruit fly - immersing the fruit in 46°C water for 35 minutes or exposed to hot air at 49°C for 20 minutes. Another potential insect control treatment is irradiation at 0.15-0.30 kGy.

Storage of Guava: 

Storage of Guava Spoilage of guava increases two to three-fold with every 10 °C increase in temperature . Mature green fruit can be successfully stored for 2-3 weeks at 8-10 o C while fully ripe fruit can only be stored for one week at 5-8 o C with 90-95 % relative humidity. Chilling injury is major problems for the fruit maintained at low temperature for longer period Characterized by failure of mature-green or partially-ripe guavas to ripen, Increased decay incidence and severity upon transfer to higher temperatures. Fully-ripe guavas are less sensitive to chilling injury and can be kept for up to a week at 5°C.

Guava Corer cum Slicer: 

Guava Corer cum Slicer

Value Added Products-Guava Bar: 

Value Added Products-Guava Bar Guava is perishable in nature and cannot be stored for more than two days during peak season. Guava can be processed into a number of products like fruits bar and beverage Fruits, which are rich in nutrients can be blended to improve its acceptability and flavor Guava bar acceptable even after 6 month of storage Composition: Moisture: 15%, Vitamin C: 120 mg/100g , Acidity: 1.08%, Reducing sugar: 14%, Non-reducing sugar: 46%, Weight of each bar: 5-10 g , KSM: 0.2%

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Osmo-air dried guava rings/slices 4 mm 6 mm 8 mm Prepared by osmo-air dehydration process It results in self stable food i.e. product did not require any refrigeration for storage The product retains all the nutrients of fresh fruit with negligible loss of natural solids during this process Product can be stored for two months in poly pack and more than six month in MPP pouches

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Selection of fruit Sorting Washing Slicing Decoring Blanching Draining of slices Cabinet drying Packing and storage Osmotic treatment Osmo-air dehydration of guava ring

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Guava RTS Whey+ Guava Whey RTS Whey based guava RTS beverages Ready-to-serve guava beverages Prepared by mixing milk whey, pulp, sugar and citric acid. Whey contains 50 % milk solid which is just going waste Whey based guava beverage is cheaper and more nutritious than plain guava RTS Whey beverages required 8 % sugar while pure guava beverages have the similar tendency with 12 % sugar. Whey based RTS beverages can be stored for four months under ambient condition as against only two months for pure guava beverages.

By Product Utilisation-Guava Seeds: 

By Product Utilisation-Guava Seeds The guava seed proteins have been reported to be a suitable ingredient in food for human and animal consumption (Bernardino et. al 2001). The guava seed is composition 7.1 protein, 12.4% fat, 1.5 ash. 72.3% crude fiber and 6.7% carbohydrates. The total protein shows that a large proportion of the protein content (86-90%), corresponding to the glutelin fraction, is obtained as insoluble residue. The remaining proteins (14%) are distributed into globulins (10%) and albumins and prolamins (2% each one). The percent distribution of protein fractions is very similar to that of rice.

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Entrepreneurship Development Programme at CIPHET Abohar

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