Innovations in Rice processing

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Dr . R. T. Patil , Director, Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology, Ludhiana Innovations in Rice Processing

Rice Production:

Rice Production

Export of Basmati and Non Non-Basmati Rice from India during 1991-92 to 2001-02:

Export of Basmati and Non Non-Basmati Rice from India during 1991-92 to 2001-02

Health Benefits of Rice:

Health Benefits of Rice Brown rice contains manganese which is great for energy and antioxidant protection Phytonutrients with anti-cancer properties protect against heart disease Contains magnesium which can help to protect against and reduce the symptoms of asthma, migraine headaches, heart attack, stroke and high blood pressure The fibre content of brown rice can help to protect against and reduce the symptoms of atherosclerosis, colon cancer, constipation, diarrhoea and gallstones

Health Benefits of Rice:

Health Benefits of Rice Good for bowel health, Important source of vitamin B1 Good energy food Balances blood sugar levels Antioxidant Anti-cancer Lowers cholesterol Lowers high blood pressure Relieves constipation Brown rice is healthier than white rice

Nutrients in Rice:

Nutrients in Rice Potassium Calcium Iron Magnesium Phosphorus Zinc Manganese Vitamin B3 Vitamin B5 Vitamin B6 Folic acid

Recent Trends in Processing:

Recent Trends in Processing Soft drying Curing of rice Bio polishing Rice in bakery-rice biscuits Rice crispies Microwavable and pressure cooker puffed rice Vitamin rice

Soft Drying for High Moisture Paddy:

Soft Drying for High Moisture Paddy

This system of drying can accept the lots with varied moisture content as moisture gets balanced due to hygroscopicity of husk:

This system of drying can accept the lots with varied moisture content as moisture gets balanced due to hygroscopicity of husk

Advantages of Soft Drying :

Advantages of Soft Drying Low running cost No heated air required It is only aeration with high capacity blowers Storage tanks with mixing arrangements can be used for drying Higher head yield No heat stress to grain as in sun drying or mechanical drying No cracking of grain due to drying Energy saving No heavy mixing of paddy during drying Drying of moistened paddy is relatively simple as no quality concern Naturally dried rice hence retains original taste

Curing of High Moisture Paddy:

Curing of High Moisture Paddy Yields partially parboiled rice Better in Nutrition compared to raw rice Better in color compared parboiled rice Better in texture compared to parboiled rice Grade between white and parboiled rice

Bio Polishing-Enzymatic Polishing of Brown Rice:

Bio Polishing-Enzymatic Polishing of Brown Rice Mechanical milling results in lower head rice yield with loss of major nutrients. An alternative polishing method known as bio-polish has been developed for rice with some selected multi-enzymes Bio-polishing has been carried out on germinated brown rice to get softer, nutritious brown rice with the added benefits of germinated rice. The bio-polished rice has been found to be superior in every aspect when compared to milled rice. IIT Kharagpur Technology

Salient Features of Bio Polishing:

Salient Features of Bio Polishing No loss in head rice yield Nutrient rich than milled rice Fibre content more than milled rice With benefits of germinated brown rice Softer with less cooking time than brown rice Better shelf-life as compared to the non-treated rice Higher antioxidant potential, free amino acids, crude fibre and phenolics as compared to the non-treated rice Positive effect on water uptake ratio and volume expansion ratio. Less cooking time Easy for digestion

Rice Biscuits-Crackers:

Rice Biscuits-Crackers Steam-kneading a mixture of rice powder and water to form a rice dough Forming a piece from the rice dough by knead-extruding First drying stage to intermediate moisture Second drying step to baking moisture content Baking the piece in to 3 stages to produce the soft-baked rice cracker having a specific volume of 5.0 to 6.5 cm3/g Coating a surface of the rice cracker United States Patent 6890573, 2005

Rice Biscuits-Crackers:

Rice Biscuits-Crackers

Half Products for Microwave Expanded/Puffed Products:

Half Products for Microwave Expanded/Puffed Products Half products especially adapted to be puffed by consumers at-home by microwave heating to form puffed food products. The finished products comprise both R-T-E cereals and snack products. The half products are fabricated from cooked farinaceous doughs comprising rice flour, wheat starch, oil and salt, which have been gelatinized by subjecting the mixture to high shear mixing during heating. The half products are further applied with exterior or topical sugar coating. United States Patent 5102679, 1990

Rice Crispies:

Rice Crispies

Vitamin-enriching rice extrusion process:

Vitamin-enriching rice extrusion process Extrusion mechanism has been developed that transforms rice brokens into vitamin-enriched rice pellets. Rice pellets can be customised in terms of colour, shape, and size, composition and their cooking characteristics can also be tailor-made such as instant rice pellets, as quick-cooking rice pellets, or as a product for admixture to natural rice. Conserves most of the sensitive vitamins during storage, washing and even cooking

Recommendations/Suggstions:

Recommendations/ Suggstions To address the problem of high moisture paddy Curing technology be properly investigated and standardized Soft drying using the existing facilities at rice mills should be standardized Modern techniques be indigenously developed to produce rice crispies and baked products due to their health benefits Extruded designer foods be developed from rice brokens as value added health foods The rice millers and their associations should actively support the research for innovative process and product development based on rice.

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