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Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Bhopal 462 038 (MP) Application of Extrusion Cooking in Soy Coarse Cereal ProcessingPowerPoint Presentation: Nutritional Values of Soybeans Soybeans are very high in protein content, Contains a lot of fibre and are rich in calcium, magnesium Soy protein has a high biological value and contains all the essential amino acids. Soy oil is rich in unsaturated fatty acids and low in saturated fatty acids Phytochemicals found in soy are isoflavones, genistein, saponins, beta-sitosterol, daidzein. SOYABEAN: Glycine max Merr . Moisture (g): 8.1 Protein (g): 43.2 Fat (g): 19.5 Minerals (g): 4.6 Crude Fiber (g): 3.7 Carbohydrates (g): 20.9 Energy (Kcal): 432 Calcium (mg): 240 Phosphorus (mg): 690 Iron (mg): 10.4 Carotene (mcg): 426 Thiamine (mg): 0.73 Riboflavin (mg): 0.39 Niacin (mg): 3.2 Folic Acid (free) (mcg): 8.65 Folic Acid (Total) (mcg): 100PowerPoint Presentation: Nutritional Values of Coarse Cereals Ragi : Eleusine Coracana Sorghum: Sorghum vulgare Pearl Millet: Pennisetum typhoideum Moisture (g): 13.1 Protein (g): 7.3 Fat (g): 1.3 Minerals (g): 2.7 Crude Fiber (g): 3.6 Carbohydrates (g): 72.0 Energy (Kcal): 328 Calcium (mg): 344 Phosphorus (mg): 283 Iron (mg): 3.9 Carotene (mcg): 42 Thiamine (mg): 0.42 Riboflavin (mg): 0.19 Niacin (mg): 1.1 Folic Acid (F) (mcg): 52 Folic Acid (T) (mcg): 8.3 Moisture (g): 11.9 Protein (g): 10.4 Fat (g): 1.9 Minerals (g): 1.6 Crude Fiber (g): 1.6 Carbohydrates (g): 72.6 Energy (Kcal): 349 Calcium (mg): 25 Phosphorus (mg): 222 Iron (mg): 4.1 Carotene (mcg): 47 Thiamine (mg): 0.37 Riboflavin (mg): 0.13 Niacin (mg): 3.1 Total B6 (mg): 0.21 Folic Acid (F) (mcg): 14.0 Folic Acid (T) (mcg): 20.0 Moisture (g): 12.4 Protein (g): 11.6 Fat (g): 5.0 Minerals (g): 2.3 Crude Fiber (g): 1.2 Carbohydrates (g): 67.5 Energy (Kcal): 361 Calcium (mg): 42 Phosphorus (mg): 296 Iron (mg): 8.0 Carotene (mcg): 132 Thiamine (mg): 0.33 Riboflavin (mg): 0.25 Niacin (mg): 2.3 Folic Acid (F) (mcg): 14.7 Folic Acid (T) (mcg): 45.5PowerPoint Presentation: Health Benefits of Soybeans Reduction of triglycerides and LDL cholesterol due to soybean protein as well as isoflavones. Soy isoflavones also help to ease menopausal symptoms and reduce the risk for certain cancer, including prostate cancer and breast cancer. Genistein inhibits the enzyme tyrosine kinase, which plays a role in cell division and tumor growth. Saponins have an anti-thrombotic and liver protecting action. Soy isoflavones may help to reduce body weight.PowerPoint Presentation: A single machine conveys, mixes, kneads, cooks and forms in one continuous process. The energy input comes mainly from the conversion of mechanical to thermal energy. Extruded food materials undergo various transformations like starch gelatinization, fragmentation and protein denaturation It is widely used to manufacture breakfast cereals and snacks and other emerging application to increase process efficiencies. Extrusion ProcessingPowerPoint Presentation: Low-shear (forming) extruders: used to increase density of material that is generally high in moisture (e.g. pasta) using low screw speeds. Medium-shear stress: used to process raw materials with lower moisture content with higher energy inputs (e.g. pet foods, aquatic feeds, texturized vegetable protein). High-shear stress: where extrusion speeds and energy inputs are high to process low-moisture raw materials in a short length-to-diameter ratio barrel. Highly expanded products are obtained (e.g. snacks, breakfast cereals). Classification of Extrusion ProcessesPowerPoint Presentation: Single-screw extruders Consists of a rotating extruder shaft with screw elements (may be segmented screws and shearlocks), a stationary barrel housing (maybe segment sections), and a die and knife assembly. Twin screw extruders Counter-rotating twin-screw extruders (screws move in opposing directions, low speeds and long residence times) for production of gum, jelly and licorice confections. Co-rotating twin-screw extruders(screws move in same direction, high degree of heat transfer but not forced conveyance) for snack products. An intermeshing screw producing a positive pumping action, efficient mixing and self-cleaning. Non-intermeshing screws depend on friction for extrusion, like single-screw extruders Classification of ExtrudersPowerPoint Presentation: Second generation snacks: are those that expand when they come out of the extruder. This is the most popular type of expanded snack. Third generation snacks: or pellets do not expand when they come out of the extruder. After storage, the pellets are puffed by frying, microwave heating or hot air puffing. Expanded Snacks Produced by ExtrusionPowerPoint Presentation: Capacity 100 kg /h • Oil recovery 65 – 70 % in single pass • Good quality MFSF (Protein 48 %, Fat 6-8 %, TI Inactivation up to 70 %) •Development of commercial unit ( 250 kg /h) in progress in collaboration with a manufacturer Integral Extrusion Expelling UnitPowerPoint Presentation: Application of Expander in Oil Extraction This is used for Soya beans, cotton seed, wet corn germ, sunflower seed, rapeseed, salseed and many of the seeds and (fully or pre-pressed) oil cakes to make the meat porous and homogenous.PowerPoint Presentation: At CIPHET Ludhiana, we developed Ready-To-Eat snack foods from minor millet viz., foxtail millet, proso millet, little millet, barnyard millet and kodo millet using low cost collet extruder. The retexturized fruit bars were prepared incorporating dehulled bengal gram blended maize extrudates with banana (Musa paradisaca L.), mango (Magnifera indica L.) and papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit pulps. Using twin screw extruder Extrusion of millets/fruit pulp for health foodsExtruded Products from Coarse Cereals: Extruded Products from Coarse Cereals Extrusion is a novel technology to produce expanded blended products under high temperature short time regime CIPHET has modified the low cost collet extruder to produce expanded ready to eat snacks using rice and pulse brokens. The cost of the unit is Rs 2 Lakh, capacity 25 kg/h, cost of accessories Rs. 2 lakh and thus earn about minimum of Rs. 50,000 per monthExtruded Products from Soy-Coarse Cereals Blends: Extruded Products from Soy-Coarse Cereals Blends Soy-Sorghum 15% soy flour Soy-Pearl Millet 5-10% soy flour Coarse cereals 60%, 30% soy flour and 10% NFSM Pearl Millet Sorghum & MilletsPowerPoint Presentation: More homogeneous and consistent cooking process minimum waste. Extrusion is a very efficient and clean process, since all steps can be done in-line: mixing, cooking, forming, cooling, and cutting. Modular designs allow changing from one product to another product, color, or shape to be done within minutes—a significant process efficiency. Twin-screw extruders are largely self-cleaning, an advantage from the viewpoint of both sanitation and labor savings. ConclusionExtrusion is a clean technology to deliver variety of designer & nutritionally balanced foods: Extrusion is a clean technology to deliver variety of designer & nutritionally balanced foods Thanks You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.