Processing & Storage of Grains

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Dr. R. T. Patil Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Bhopal 462 038 (MP) POST HARVEST MACHINERY AND STORAGE OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCE

Production & Post Harvest Scenario:

Production & Post Harvest Scenario Agriculture contributes about 17.5% of GDP, employees 57% workforce and sustains approx over 70% of the population India produces about 230 million tons of food grains and 53.1 and 91.6 million tons of fruits and vegetables and ranks second in world however losses are 3-18% Low level of processing of fruits and vegetables at only 2% . Food processing is employment intensive, creates 1.8 jobs directly and 6.4 indirectly for every Rs. 10 lakh investment

Agro Processing :

Agro Processing Can provide processed food of highest quality at affordable cost to consumers Help environment by processing food in production catchment with least food miles Ensure traceability of raw materials used for processed product hence great for export and elite urban market. Help effective backward linkage with farmers for processing their raw produce Shorten the supply chain, increase the profitability of farmers and ultimately increase in GDP from agriculture and reduce poverty Reduce post harvest losses and increased availability of by products for animal feed.

Agro Entrepreneurship :

Agro Entrepreneurship

Agro Entrepreneurship :

Agro Entrepreneurship

Price Difference :

Price Difference Wheat - Rs 12/kg Wheat Flour Rs. 16-18/kg Fortified Flour Rs. 20-25/kg Oil seed – Rs 35/kg Oil Rs. 70/kg Paddy – Rs 12/kg Rice – Rs. 25/kg Mung- Rs. 20/kg Mung dal – Rs. 60/kg Maize-Rs.13/kg Maize flour-Rs. 16/kg Tomato-Rs. 5/kg Tomato ketchup-Rs 50-80/kg Fruit- Rs. 15-20/kg Fruits Bar-Rs. 200/kg Fruit Juice- Rs. 35/litre Coriander -Rs. 80/kg Coriander Powder-Rs. 200/kg Turmeric-Rs.65/kg Turmeric Powder –Rs. 200/kg Chili- Rs. 200/kg Chili Powder-Rs. 300/kg Black pepper-Rs. 100/kg B Pepper Powder- Rs.300/kg Chana Dal- Rs. 28/kg Chana Dal-Rs. 35/kg Besan- Rs. 40/kg

Modern Rice Milling:

Modern Rice Milling The major operations performed by modern rice mills are: storage, cleaning, husking, separation, whitening and grading. De-husking is done in rubber roll shellers while polishing is done in cone polishers or horizontal abrasive polishers. The rice mills can be of following capacity. (i) Composite rice milling machine-a single unit (capacity 250 kg/hr). (ii) Mini rice mills: Capacity of 250 kg/hr. However, husking and polishing is done by separate machines. (iii) Modern rice mills of capacity 2-4 t/hr.

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Oil Milling Common capacity of baby oil expeller is 60 kg / hr of oil seed. Improved expellers are equipped with a special cooling system consisting essentially of hollow worm shafts or hollow barrel frame through which cooling water or oil is pumped. A filtration system is coupled with baby oil expeller becomes an integral part of a model agro industrial complex.

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Dal Milling Capacity 100-125 kg/h, Power required 3 hp Approx. Cost: Rs 60000 Efficiency-82-85% Versatility of PKV dhal mill has been enhanced for polishing mold-affected sorghum and also (ii) for cleaning wheat.

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Spice Milling It comprises of two functions: grinding and grading such as in hammer mills or in pin mill which gives cool grinding in one direct operation. No dressing is needed to get fine grinding. The degree of fineness required can be achieved by changing screen. The hammer and hammer pins are hard heat-treated steel, interchangeable and reversible giving four times the life of ordinary hammer

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GRAIN STORAGE FARM LEVEL STORAGE STRUCTURES

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It has been developed for the arid region of the country where stone slabs are naturally available in abundance. The bin is constructed using 40 mm rectangular stone slabs of storage capacity about 250 kg. These bins are constructed by the farmers using mud as cementing material. Chittor Stone Bin

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The modification to conventional bins by lining them with polyethylene has been found to be very effective. A flask shaped structure made of bamboo strips and covered with polyethylene sheet is used in North Eastern region of India. The capacity of the bin is about 125 kg. The viability of the seed remains about 93% with no insect damage after 1 yr storage. A low cost modified mud grain storage structure made of ipomea cornea stalk is used in central India. The capacity of the structure is 1 tonne. The structure has a good insulating property hence; the grains are safe during storage. Double Walled Polyethylene Lined Bamboo Bin

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GRAIN STORAGE BULK STORAGE STRUCTURE AT FARMERS LEVEL

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For long duration storage a LDPE sandwitched PUSA bin has been found to be most suitable. he performance of the bin is similar to any other metal or concrete structures. In fact because of good insulation properties of mud brick, the problem of moisture migration is also negligible. About 9.5 million tonnes of food grains are stored in such bins in India. The capacity of such bins ranges from 0.5 to 4 t. PUSA Bin

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The structure is circular in shape having 2 m diameter and 1 m depth. Upper part of 600 mm is kept above the ground level to make it rat proof and prevent entry of surface water. The entire structure is made of RCC except the floor. The floor construction consists of two layers of cement concrete. A thick layer of bitumen is also provided in between these layers. It is suitably air tight and as a result one fumigation serves the purpose for 33 months storage of wheat. Underground Air Tight RCC Structures

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GRAIN STORAGE BULK STORAGE OF FOOD GRAINS

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This is an improvised arrangement of storing food grains in open, generally on a plinth, which is damp and rat proof. The grain bags are stacked In a standard size on wooden dunnage. The stacks are covered from all four sides and top with 250 micron LDPE sheets. Food grains in this system are generally stored for 6-12 months. Cover and Plinth Storage

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These are primarily meant for providing warehousing facilities to the farmers. The godowns, 100 t to 5000 t capacity, are owned by Govt. agencies. Twin span warehouse with structural trusses design was adopted in early sixties and constructed with brick or stone masonary. Asbestos or corrugated GI sheets supported by steel trusses are used for roofing. Due to provision of valley gutters, there is perennial problem of leakage resulting in damage of stored grain. Godowns (Bag Storage Structures)

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In earlier twin span godowns due to povision of valley gutters in , there is perennial problem of leakage resulting in damage of stored grain in earlier design, subsequently the RCC flat type roof structure was developed to store about 5000 t of grain. The cost of construction of such structures is excessively higher due to application of steel and cement and it takes a long time in construction. Flat RCC Roof Warehouse

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Metal silos are cheaper than concrete silos by 15-20% depending on their size. Generally Silo system is equipped with other preparatory units like cleaning and drying equipment. Initially silos are 50% more expensive but this additional cost is recovered within 2-4 years. The loss of grain in such system is only 0.2% compared to 1% in godown and warehousing systems. The loss caused by rodents, insects, fungi and handling is about 0.2% compared to 8% in godown system. Silos

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Modern Technologies for Food Processing and Storage are essential for reducing the post harvest losses and increasing the profitability of farmers The GDP growth in Agriculture is three times more effective to reduce the poverty compared to GDP growth from other sources Thank You

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