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Dr. R. T. Patil Director, Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology, Ludhiana Post Harvest Management and Value Addition with Special Reference to ASEAN countries

Production & Post Harvest Scenario:

Production & Post Harvest Scenario Agriculture contributes about 17.5% of GDP, employees 57% workforce and sustains approx over 70% of the population India produces about 230 million tons of food grains and 53.1 and 91.6 million tons of fruits and vegetables and ranks second in world Low level of processing of fruits and vegetables at only 2% . Food processing is employment intensive, creates 1.8 jobs directly and 6.4 indirectly for every US$ 25000 investment

Reasons for Losses :

Reasons for Losses Handling of raw produce through many stages of middlemen. Processing is mostly controlled by urban rather than rural entrepreneurs which leads to losses in valuable by products. Non availability of adequate and efficient equipment and machinery to be used in catchment areas. Low level of entrepreneurial urge in rural areas due to constraints of finance, assured market and proper training on technology On the whole, there exists a fragmented and inefficient value chain Higher the Value Addition Better the PH Management and Lower Will Be Losses

Unit Operations in Post Harvest Management :

Unit Operations in Post Harvest Management Food Grains Harvesting at Maturity Proper threshing Post thresh cleaning Proper drying Safe storage Fruits and Vegetables Preharvest treatment Harvesting at Maturity Safe harvesting Pre cooling & washing Surface drying Cool/cold storage Safe transport Safe handling

Important Crops of ASEAN countries:

Important Crops of ASEAN countries Member Nations Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, The Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam Major crops Paddy, Maize, Soybean, and Sugarcane Major fruits and vegetables Cassava, Banana, Pineapple, Mango, Guava, Manggosteen.

Post Harvest Management & Value Addition of Mango:

Post Harvest Management & Value Addition of Mango India occupies 54% of the world's production Fruits are plucked from the tree when they are still hard and green. Correct maturity of mango fruit, Pressure tests are used as an indication of fruit maturity. Picking of fruits with stem slightly above the abscission point is recommended. Mechanical harvesting extends the shelf life Sorting the fruits in several grades is common in Gujarat and Maharashtra, particularly for 'Alphonso', in Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh for 'Bangalora', and for 'Dashehari' in Uttar Pradesh. Sieves having circular holes of 8, 7.5 and 7 cm diameter are used to distinguish fruits by simple marks on the package. The most popular containers used for packing mangoes are baskets of various makes, whereas crates, boxes, etc. are used occasionally Value added products The mango pulp, mango juice, mango leather/bar, mango pickle, raw mango pulp RTS, mango slices in sugar syrup, raw mango toffees, mango shreds, mouth freshner, raw mango juice and powder etc are produced.

Post Harvest Management & Value Addition of Mango:

Post Harvest Management & Value Addition of Mango Maturity Harvesting Cooling & Washing Raw Mango Processing Machines

Post Harvest Management & Value Addition of Guava:

Post Harvest Management & Value Addition of Guava Shelf life under ambient conditions is 2 to 3 days on an average. Fruits are graded on the basis of their weight, size and colour. The shelf life can be extended upto 20 days by keeping them at low temperature of 5 0 C and 75-85% relative humidity. It can be stored for about 10 days at room temperature (18 0 -23 0 C) in polybags providing a ventilation of 0.25%. The shelf-life of fruits extention by waxing, shrink packaging and fungicide treatments. Packed in boxes or in baskets of different sizes Value added products from guava like guava pulp/paste, guava leather, guava bar, guava based RTS have been standardized. Similary osmo dehydrated guava rings and cubes have also been developed at CIPHET Ludhiana.

Post Harvest Management & Value Addition of Pineapple:

Post Harvest Management & Value Addition of Pineapple Fruits are graded based on size, shape, maturity, and free from diseases and blemishes. The cut surface is treated with a suitable fungicide to control fungal decay. For local markets, Packed in bamboo baskets lined with paddy-straw. The first layer of fruits is arranged in such a way that they stand on their stumps. For distant markets, fruit are wrapped individually with paddy straw and then packed. For export purpose the pineapples are packed into fibreboard or wood containers. When fruits are transported for long distances or to be stored for several days, refrigerated transport is required to slow down ripening process. Value added products - pineapple pulp, pineapple juice, pineapple jam, sliced pineapples in sugar syrup and osmo dehydrated pineapple candy can be produced from selected fully ripped pineapples.

Post Harvest Management & Value Addition of Bananas:

Post Harvest Management & Value Addition of Bananas The bananas are transported as bunch padded with banana leaves. A fungicidal treatment is applied to cut ends to prevent stem end rot. For exports, bananas are removed from the stem and hands and clusters of the bananas are packed in corrugated boxes with perforated polyethylene liners. The curved side of the hands is kept facing upwards making sure that the crown of the upper hands do not damage the banana underneath. Hands are graded based on the number and size of fingers in each hand. In the cold storage, bananas are stored at 13-14°C with 90-95% relative humidity. Value added products Banana Flower Pickle, Banana Chips, Banana Fruit Pickle, Banana Fig , Banana Ready to Serve Juice , Unripe Banana Powder

Post Harvest Management & Value Addition of Cassava:

Post Harvest Management & Value Addition of Cassava In India cassava is mainly grown in Kerela, Tamilnadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh The CTCRI developed post harvest management and value addition technologies Tool for harvesting Method to prolong shelf life of fresh cassava Production of Cassava rava Production of Cassava Porridge Starch based biodegradable plastic Mobile Starch extraction unit Harvesting tool Chipping machine Chips dryer Mobile starch extraction unit

CIPHET Low Cost Grader:

CIPHET Low Cost Grader The spherical fruits roll down the pipes due to gravity and fall immediately wherever they find the space of their diameter. Grades 3: 25-40 mm, 40-55 mm, 55-70 mm and > 70 mm The collector is inclined at 10 ° so that the tomatoes slide directly in crates. The important feature of grader is its ability to adjust the gap between the pipes and inclination of grading table and hopper. It can also be used for other round fruits and vegetables. Capacity: of 325 kg/hr Overall grading efficiency: 66%. Cost: Rs.15000.00

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Minimal Processing of Vegetables

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Mobile Agro Processing Unit Mechanical device for detection of insects in stored grains Post Harvest Management of Food Grains

PHM of Paddy:

PHM of Paddy Hand pounding, pedal operated system and Engleberg huller Modern rice mills using rubber rolls for paddy dehusking. 4000 colour sorters are in use for removal of discoloured grain Improved process of parboiling Continuous flow LSU type driers have been most commonly used units followed by tray driers (batch type). Thermic fluids are used as medium of heat transfer for heating the air used for drying The recovery of brown rice the hullers 62-64, shellers 65-67, and modern mills 68-70 per cent The bio processing/physical refining of rice bran oil Modern Rice Mill Vvalue-added products of rice include puffed and flaked rice. Quick cooking rice has been developed at DFRL, Mysore and CFTRI, Mysore.

PHM of Maize:

PHM of Maize Harvesting-cob-sheath turns brownish, grains become hard and contain 20 per cent moisture. Dried in sun for 4 to 5 days and shelled at 12 to 15 per cent moisture. Shelling is done by hand or power Sheller driven by electric current or tractors are available in the state. Drying of grain for 2 to 3 days, cleaned and stored at 8 to 10 per cent moisture. Storing in airtight containers reduces damage due to insects and rodents. The power driven maize sheller of 2000 to 2500 kg/h capacity and hand operated maize shellers having 100 kg/h capacity are available Maize soji and flour are used in many households and eateries and CFTRI has developed a compact mini maize mill. Wet milling is followed for starch and protein separation Value added products of maize include maize grits for animal feed, maize flakes, breakfast food, instant upma, instant kesri bhat, biscuits, ready-to-eat maize puff and instant corn soup mix. Dehusker-thresher CIPHET Manual sheller Motorised sheller

PHM of Soybean:

PHM of Soybean Soybean contains 40% protein, 20% oil and other nutrients Use of 5-25% of soybean along with cereals gives maximum nutritional advantages. In India, soy products like oil, textures soy protein (TSP), soymilk, soypaneer (Tofu), soy- yogurt, soy flour, soy fortified bakery products, and health and snack foods are produced based on technology developed at SPU CIAE Bhopal. full fat soyflour passing through 30-mesh sieve are protein 40%, carbohydrates 22%, oil 20%, fiber 5% and minerals 3%. Soy fortified biscuits are highly acceptable contain 12% protein and 24% fat. Soy milk and paneer is produced at a micro enterprise level using soypaneer plant developed at SPU Centre, CIAE, Bhopal. Soy Nuts is a simple ready to eat product from Soybean. It is either roasted or fried. Soymilk plant, Capacity-300 l/day

PHM of Sugar cane:

PHM of Sugar cane About 80% of the cane is milled, about half for white sugar & 42% for Jaggery and Khandsari. Khandsari Sugar Khandsari is very popular in India and is produced in small local mills which supply local villages and markets. It is light brown in color and has not undergone refining. Jaggery / Gur Made by boiling sugar cane juice and then pressing it into round blocks. An improved triple pan furnace for boiling and concentration of sugarcane juice, Mechanical sugarcane juice filtration system for removal of very small particles (up to 500 micron size) and insoluble impurities, Standardisation of use of natural clarificants an electronic alarm system to determine the striking point temperature for jaggery solidification V alue added products L iquid jaggery, G ranular jaggery, J aggery chocolate are some of the novel technologies.

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Environment Control Technologies

Two Stage Evaporative Cooler:

Two Stage Evaporative Cooler The cooler is portable and 1.5m x 1.0m x 2.0m in length, breadth and height The developed two stage evaporative cooler could be able to drop the temperature up to the wet bulb depression and to 90 % relative humidity. The effectiveness of the two stage evaporative cooler ranged from 1.1 to 1.2 over the single evaporation. The hourly cooling capacity of TSEC ranged from 2125 to 4500 W

Mobile Cool Chamber :

Mobile Cool Chamber Developed for short duration storage and transportation of fish for retail marketing. The insulated box was designed such that it could hold 8 plastic crates of size 540x360x295 mm in two layer of four each for keeping fish. The total capacity of storage was 150 kg of fish with 80% filling of each plastic crates and 1:1 ratio of ice and fish. It costs around Rs. 18,000-20,000/- and can be used for fruits and vegetables also. Seven units were distributed to various fisheries institute (CIBA Chennai, CIFT Cochin, NBFGR Lucknow, CIFA Bhubneshwar, CIFRI Kolkatta, CIFRI Guwahati and CIFE Mumbai) for field trial

Evaporatively Cooled Room for Storage of Fruits and Vegetables :

Evaporatively Cooled Room for Storage of Fruits and Vegetables Compared on the basis of 10% physiological loss in weight (PLW) the shelf life inside the room was 34 days for early kinnow, 23 days for late kinnow, 11 days for cauliflower and 4 days for spinach as compared to 21, 11, 5 and 2 days respectively in an ordinary room at the same time. The cost of the chamber is Rs. 50000 and capacity is 2 tonnes. This technology has been transferred to 3 farmers for on farm use. An evaporatively cooled (EC) room (3x3x3m. size) was developed for on-farm storage of fruits and vegetables. The summer temperature inside the EC room was 5-8C lower than that inside the ordinary room and winter temperature was 5-8 C higher than that inside the ordinary room.

CIPHET Evaporative Cooled Storage Structure:

CIPHET Evaporative Cooled Storage Structure Storage of fruits and vegetables Evaporatively Cooled Structure (ECS) maintains a moderate low temperature and sufficiently high relative humidity for short term storage of fresh fruits and vegetables. Advantages Low level consumption of electricity Less initial investment Negligible maintenance cost Features Special design of roof, orientation Uses wetted pad as cooling medium 20 o C below the outside temperature An ECS of about 5 -7 tonne storage capacity may cost about Rs. 1.5 – 1.8 lakh.

Entrepreneurship Development Programmes at CIPHET suitable for ASEAN countries:

Entrepreneurship Development Programmes at CIPHET suitable for ASEAN countries Preservation of fruits and vegetables through dehydration for making value added products Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) of Fresh and Minimally Processed Vegetables Operation and Maintenance of Mobile Ice Boxes / Cool Chambers for Fruits and Vegetables Construction and maintenance of Evaporative Cooled Structure for Storage of fruits & Vegetables Processing of Guava for Manufacturing of Value Added Products Grading and Shrink Packaging of Fruits and Vegetables for Urban Market

Collaborative Programmes:

Collaborative Programmes · Conduct seminars/brain storming session jointly in ASEAN countries · Study of post- harvest physiology, senescence, ripening, respiration etc. of different crop varieties and commodities as influenced by time, temperature, humidity, mechanical injuries/interaction, etc. · Harnessing biotechnology and genetic engineering that enhance shelf life, quality, and Nutritive value · Modernization of cleaning, grading, sorting, milling, processing and packaging equipment Training on post harvest management and value addition of durables, semi perishables and perishable at CIPHET Ludhiana to the officers from ASEAN countries Collaborative programme to establish a Network of Food Quality and Safety to effectively address the issues of global trade Establish a Regional Network of Post Harvest Mechanization similar to RNAM to accelerate development of post harvest infrastructure

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