Post Harvest technologies for Arunachal Pradesh


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Dr. R. T. Patil Director, Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology, Ludhiana Ways and Means for Post Harvest Management in Arunachal Pradesh

Agricultural Policy of Arunachal:

Agricultural Policy of Arunachal 2.11. Agro - processing : Setting up of Agro - processing units in production areas will be given due priority . To reduce post harvest wastage, effort would be made to add values specially to agricultural and horticultural produce by setting up small processing units. The small farmers Agricultural business consortium ( SFAC) will be activated to cater to the need of farmer entrepreneurs. Tea will be brought under Agriculture sector, but for processing it may be under industries Sector. 2.12 Price Support : Market intervention scheme involving procurement through a notified agency will be implemented for selected Agricultural / Horticultural Crops so that farmers are assured of remunerative prices.

Crop wise area, production and yield:

Crop wise area, production and yield

Area, production and yield of Horticultural Crops:

Area, production and yield of Horticultural Crops

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Present level of production of different types of food commodities and their estimated post-harvest losses Type of food commodity Present level of production Post-harvest losses Quantity Mt Ave. price Rs/t Value million Rs. crores % Quantity Mt Monetary value Rs. Crores Durable (cereals, pulses and oilseeds) 230 10000 230000 10 23 23000 Semi-perishables (potatoes, onion, sweet potato, tapioca) 40 3000 12000 15 6 1800 Perishables (Fruits, vegetables, milk, meat, fish and eggs) 210 15000 315000 20 42 63000 Total/Average 480 11604 557000 14.8 71 87800 Source: Kachru, 2005

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Loss equivalent to Rs. 63000 crores would be sufficient to construct 30 million sq. m. of floor area of scientifically designed warehouses and 1,800 cold stores of 50,000 tonnes capacity each. Magnitude of losses Post harvest Managemnt infrastucture like Cold storages, IQF, Refrigerated vans are as important to reduce losses as that of good road for overall development of the country.

Agro Entrepreneurship :

Agro Entrepreneurship

Agro Entrepreneurship :

Agro Entrepreneurship

Agro Entrepreneurship :

Agro Entrepreneurship

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Future trends in agro processing technologies

Reasons for losses :

Reasons for losses Handling of raw produce through many stages of middlemen. Processing is mostly controlled by urban rather than rural entrepreneurs which leads to losses in valuable by products. Non availability of adequate and efficient equipment and machinery to be used in catchment areas. Low level of entrepreneurial urge in rural areas due to constraints of finance, assured market and proper training on technology Higher the value addition better the PH management and lower will be losses

Post Harvest Infrastructure :

Post Harvest Infrastructure Post Harvest Management Harvesting Short term storage Collection Minimal Processing Packaging Transport Cold storages, IQF, Refrigerated vans Value addition Minimal Processing Intermediate processing Ready to eat convenience foods Health foods Food factories

Government Incentives:

Government Incentives Cold chain infrastructure has been the missing link in the process of agriculture Modern terminal markets under National Horticulture Mission will be set up in public-private partnership mode with a maximum Government equity of 49% The National Horticulture Board along with NABARD, NCDC and NAFED has provided assistance for cold chain facilities in tune of approximately Rs.300 crore

Important areas for development :

Important areas for development Maturity determination, Safe harvesting methods and equipment Pre-cooling facilities at farm, Pack house, Refrigerated vans/trucks/rail to transport fruits and vegetables to sea/airports and to retailers, Low temperature storage requirements, Waxing, Sorting and grading, Packaging, Process and machinery for converting raw fruits and vegetables to value added products, State of art Quality testing/certification laboratory

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Post Harvest Management Infrastructure

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Strawberry Clipper Mango Harvester Harvesting Tools

Banana Comb/Hand Cutter:

Banana Comb/Hand Cutter It is an useful to de-stem the comb/hand from the banana bunch. It replaces the use of sickle, which was much labor and time consuming. It is safe for human and banana hands and can be used for faster work.

Fruit Saving Gadgets:

Fruit Saving Gadgets After plucking from tree, fruit is thrown in the trough of fruit saver and collected in a box/container. The fruits are graded on size basis at appropriate places. Smallest grade fruit is collected first and largest grade is collected in last

CIPHET fruit Grader:

CIPHET fruit Grader The tomatoes roll down the pipes due to gravity and fall immediately wherever they find the space of their diameter. Grades 3: 25-40 mm, 40-55 mm, 55-70 mm and > 70 mm The collector is inclined at 10 ° so that the tomatoes slide directly in crates. The important feature of grader is its ability to adjust the gap between the pipes and inclination of grading table and hopper. It can also be used for other round fruits and vegetables. Capacity: of 325 kg/hr Overall grading efficiency: 66%. Cost: Rs.15000.00

Mobile cool chamber :

Mobile cool chamber Developed for short duration storage and transportation of fish for retail marketing. The insulated box was designed such that it could hold 8 plastic crates of size 540x360x295 mm in two layer of four each for keeping fish. The total capacity of storage was 150 kg of fish with 80% filling of each plastic crates and 1:1 ratio of ice and fish. It costs around Rs. 18,000-20,000/- and can be used for fruits and vegetables also. Seven units were distributed to various fisheries institute (CIBA Chennai, CIFT Cochin, NBFGR Lucknow, CIFA Bhubneswar, CIFRI Kolkatta, CIFRI Guwahati and CIFE Mumbai) for field trial

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Zero Energy Cool Chamber

Porous Bricks:

Porous Bricks Lower dry weight Higher water absorption capacity Better rate of evaporation from its surface Plant & machinery: Brick kiln, Power : Coal, Manpower: 100 Bricks per person, Capacity: Same as that of Brick Kiln, Raw materials: Brick earth, Crop Residues, Water

Evaporatively cooled room for storage of fruits and vegetables :

Evaporatively cooled room for storage of fruits and vegetables Compared on the basis of 10% physiological loss in weight (PLW) the shelf life inside the room was 34 days for early kinnow, 23 days for late kinnow, 11 days for cauliflower and 4 days for spinach as compared to 21, 11, 5 and 2 days respectively in an ordinary room at the same time. The cost of the chamber is Rs. 35000 and capacity is 2 tonnes. This technology has been transferred to 3 farmers for on farm use. An evaporatively cooled (EC) room (3x3x3m. size) was developed for on-farm storage of fruits and vegetables. The summer temperature inside the EC room was 5-8C lower than that inside the ordinary room and winter temperature was 5-8 C higher than that inside the ordinary room.

Two Stage Evaporative Cooler:

Two Stage Evaporative Cooler The cooler is portable and 1.5m x 1.0m x 2.0m in length, breadth and height The developed two stage evaporative cooler could be able to drop the temperature up to the wet bulb depression and to 90 % relative humidity. The effectiveness of the two stage evaporative cooler ranged from 1.1 to 1.2 over the single evaporation. The hourly cooling capacity of TSEC ranged from 2125 to 4500 W

CIPHET Evaporative Cooled Storage Structure:

CIPHET Evaporative Cooled Storage Structure Storage of fruits and vegetables Evaporatively Cooled Structure (ECS) maintains a moderate low temperature and sufficiently high relative humidity for short term storage of fresh fruits and vegetables. Advantages Low level consumption of electricity Less initial investment Negligible maintenance cost Features Special design of roof, orientation Uses wetted pad as cooling medium 20 o C below the outside temperature An ECS of about 5 -7 tonne storage capacity may cost about Rs. 1.5 – 1.8 lakh.

Pack house for fruits:

Pack house for fruits

Pilot Plant for Citrus Processing :

Pilot Plant for Citrus Processing The pilot plant consists of feed conveyor, washer, shifter/diverter, grader, waxing unit, hot air dryer and shrink-wrapping machine.

Shrink Packaging of Fruits and Vegetables:

Shrink Packaging of Fruits and Vegetables

Corrugated Fibre Board Box Packaging:

Corrugated Fibre Board Box Packaging

Low cost polyhouse for higher benefit: cost ratio:

Low cost polyhouse for higher benefit: cost ratio Yield of both broccoli and cabbage was significantly higher under polyhouse conditions compared to that in the open field. Naveen gave markedly higher fruit yield (93.2 t/ha) compared tot the other cultivars (71-73 t/ha) Trader horn and Rose supreme proved significantly better than the other cultivars in respect of spike length and number of florets .

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Minimal Processing of Vegetables

Refrigerated Transport:

Refrigerated Transport

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Infrastructure for Value Added Products

Method to prepare dried garlic slices :

Method to prepare dried garlic slices The cloves are separated, peeled and sliced across the length. Slices of 3mm thickness are dipped in 0.5% sodium metabisulphite solution for 15 min at ambient temperature and dried to 6% moisture content (db) in a fluidized bed dryer at 60 0 C air temperature. Slices thus obtained should be immediately packed in airtight containers. Plant & machinery : Stainless Steel knives, Fluidised bed dryer, Work tables, Dipping tanks etc., Manpower : 10-15 kg raw garlic / person for 8 h, Investment: 2 lakhs approx., Capacity: 10-15 kg dried garlic slices / day.

Ginger Powder:

Ginger Powder Process rhizomes washing, peeling, slicing with rotary ginger slicer to thickness of 3-4 mm. Tray drying upto 6% moisture content (wb). Pulverizing in a hammer mill to pass through US standard sieve no. 70 . Packaging in airtight glass bottles. Manpower: 200 kg /person (fresh), Finished produce cost : Rs. 125-150/- kg Investment : Rs. 2.5 lakhs , Capacity : 500 kg fresh ginger/day

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Capacity: 0.5 T/day, Cost: 10.0 Lakh Puree production plant

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Osmo-convective dehydration of pineapple slices The composition of the dehydrated product was analysed. It had 15.6 % moisture content (w.b.), 1.85 % acidity, 18.8 % reducing sugar, 3.88 mg/100g ascorbic acid and 115.71 μg/100 g β-carotene.

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Mobile Agro Processing Unit suggested for pulping, waxing, shrink wrapping etc. Cost: Rs. 2.00 –3.00 Lakh Equipment: As per requirement of the region

Entrepreneurship Development Programmes at CIPHET for Arunachal Pradesh:

Entrepreneurship Development Programmes at CIPHET for Arunachal Pradesh Grading and shrink packaging of fruits and vegetables for urban market. Fruits and vegetables purees and powder manufacturing technology. Evaporatively cooled structure and its application for off-season crops and storage. Construction, operation and management of covered cultivation structures for high value crops. Fabrication, operation and maintenance of mobile ice boxes/cool chambers for fruits, vegetables, meat and marine products. Drying and dehydration for preservation and value addition


Recommendations/Suggestions Intensify the use of proper harvesting tools and gadgets Popularize low cost sorting,grading equipment at farm level Popularize mobile sorting, grading, waxing and packaging concept on custom basis on farm Develop marketing concept for minimally processed foods at production catchment Develop clusters of modern food factories in production catchment with good market links Develop facilities similar to CIPHET for hands on training in modern food factories suitable for the region Develop novel value added products from ethnic fruits&vegetables for niche market and export as health foods Make available existing infrastructure of KVIC, PDS, institutional catering for marketing of rural processed products.

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Let us work together to preserve and process our unique agricultural wealth in to value added products and bring prosperity to rural (real) India

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Thank You

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