PHT for Hortcultural Produce


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Dr. R. T. Patil Director, Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology, Ludhiana Simple, Reliable and Cost Effective Postharvest Technologies for Horticultural Produce Fruits & Vegetables Spices & Condiments

Production & Post Harvest Scenario:

Production & Post Harvest Scenario Agriculture contributes about 17.5% of GDP, employees 57% workforce and sustains approx over 70% of the population India produces about 230 million tons of food grains and 53.1 and 91.6 million tons of fruits and vegetables and ranks second in world however losses are 3-18% Low level of processing of fruits and vegetables at only 2% . Food processing is employment intensive, creates 1.8 jobs directly and 6.4 indirectly for every Rs. 10 lakh investment

Reasons for Losses :

Reasons for Losses Handling of raw produce through many stages of middlemen. Processing is mostly controlled by urban rather than rural entrepreneurs which leads to losses in valuable by products. Non availability of adequate and efficient equipment and machinery to be used in catchment areas. Low level of entrepreneurial urge in rural areas due to constraints of finance, assured market and proper training on technology On the whole, there exists a fragmented and inefficient value chain Higher the Value Addition Better the PH Management and Lower Will Be Losses

Agro Entrepreneurship :

Agro Entrepreneurship

Agro Entrepreneurship :

Agro Entrepreneurship

Price Difference :

Price Difference Tomato-Rs. 5/kg Tomato ketchup-Rs 50-80/kg Fruit- Rs. 15-20/kg Fruits Bar-Rs. 200/kg Fruit Juice- Rs. 35/litre Coriander -Rs. 80/kg Coriander Powder-Rs. 200/kg Turmeric-Rs.65/kg Turmeric Powder –Rs. 200/kg Chili- Rs. 200/kg Chili Powder-Rs. 300/kg Black pepper-Rs. 100/kg Pepper Powder- Rs.300/kg Vegetables-Rs.3-5/kg Minimal Processed/Ready to Cook Rs. 25-30/kg

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Future Trends in Agro Processing Technologies

Unit Operations in Post Harvest Management :

Unit Operations in Post Harvest Management Fruits and Vegetables Preharvest treatment Harvesting at Maturity Safe harvesting Pre cooling & washing Surface drying Cool/cold storage Safe transport Safe handling

Unit Operations in Fruits & Vegetables Processing :

Unit Operations in Fruits & Vegetables Processing Fruit Pulp & Juice Washing Pulping Sterilisation Bottling Storage Juice Mixing Sterilisation Bottling Leather Fresh Cut Vegetables Washing Moisture removal Chopping MAP Secondary packaging Storage in cool room Fruits & Vegetable dehydration Cleaning Blanching /treating Chopping Drying MAP Packaging

Unit Operations in Spices and Condiments Processing :

Unit Operations in Spices and Condiments Processing Powdering Cleaning Pre-Drying Chopping Low Temperature Grinding (Hammer Mill or Barrel Cooled Mill) MAP Packaging

APCs by KVKs, NGOs and Institutes for Fruit Processing :

APCs by KVKs, NGOs and Institutes for Fruit Processing Can process their own produce for value addition while training and demonstration to upcoming entrepreneurs Can be used as incubation centre on custom hire by upcoming entrepreneurs Can provide processed food of highest quality at affordable cost to consumers Help environment by processing food in production catchment with least food miles Ensure traceability of raw materials used for processed product hence great for export and elite urban market. Help effective backward linkage with farmers for processing their raw produce Shorten the supply chain, increase the profitability of farmers and ultimately increase in GDP from agriculture and reduce poverty Reduce post harvest losses and increased availability of by products for animal feed.

Equipment for APC for Fruits & Vegetables :

Equipment for APC for Fruits & Vegetables Description Nos Rate Rs. Working Tables 3 30000 30000 Weighing balance 1 25000 25000 Stainless steel container 2 1000 1000 Stainless steel container 3 1500 1500 Improved stoves/ LPG burner 3 5000 5000 Washing Machine 1 35000 35000 Basket Centrifuge 1 20000 20000 Pulp extractor 1 9500 9500 Glass jars, various sizes 500 5000 5000 Hand /electrical operated capping device (cappers) 1 5200 5200 Work benches 3 3000 3000 Slicer 1 55000 55000 Peeler 1 55000 55000 Tray dryer 1 125000 125000 Pulverizer/Hammer mill 1 35000 35000 Packaging materials 10000 10000 Walk in cooler (Cold Storage) 1 800000 800000 Total 1229850

Equipment for APC for Spices, Condiments & Others:

Equipment for APC for Spices, Condiments & Others Description Nos Rate Rs. Cleaner/Grader 1 10000 10000 Masala Chakki (Spices grinder) 1 25000 25000 Dryer 2 125000 250000 Micro pulverizer 1 35000 35000 Boiling 1 50000 50000 Polisher 1 45000 45000 Weighing balance, Packaging materials 1 25000 25000 Bagging, packing, sealing machines 1 35000 35000 Miscellaneous equipments like handling bins, storage vessels, Etc. 1 50000 50000 10 hp Electric motor 2 25000 50000 Electrical connection 1 4000 4000 Furniture and other non recurring expenses 1 4000 4000 Total 583000

Economics of APC for Fruits & Vegetables :

Economics of APC for Fruits & Vegetables Particulars Rs. Equipment Cost 1229850 Other contingent expenses (Monthly) 4700 Working capital per month 650800 Fixed cost per kg 2.73 Variable cost per kg Minimal processing 14.05 Drying 24.09 Value added Pro 14.05 Return on investment, % (Net profit per year / Total capital investment) Minimal processing 13.66% Drying 24.40% Value added Pro 49.18% Break Even Point, kg of production (Fixed cost per year/(Sell price per kg-variable cost per kg)) Minimal processing 273.3 Drying 10.85 Value added Pro 342.79 Pay Back Period, Year (Total capital investment/Net profit per year) 1.29

Economics of APC for Spices & Condiments:

Economics of APC for Spices & Condiments Particulars Rs. Equipment Cost 583000 Other contingent expenses (Monthly) 4700 Fixed cost per kg 2.4325 Variable cost per kg Spices 49.53 Return on investment, % Spices 76.19 Break Even Point, kg of production Spices 235.38 Pay Back Period, Year Total capital investment/Net profit per year 0.76

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Minimal Processing of Vegetables

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PAU Fruit & Vegetable Washing Machine Output capacity : 100 - 600 kg/h Unit Cost : Rs 25,000 -50,000 Speed : 1 - 60 rpm Foreign matter removed: 3 - 30% Washing efficiency : 90.2-95.5%

CIPHET Tomato Grader:

CIPHET Tomato Grader The tomatoes roll down the pipes due to gravity and fall immediately wherever they find the space of their diameter. Grades 3: 25-40 mm, 40-55 mm, 55-70 mm and > 70 mm The collector is inclined at 10 ° so that the tomatoes slide directly in crates. The important feature of grader is its ability to adjust the gap between the pipes and inclination of grading table and hopper. It can also be used for other round fruits and vegetables. Capacity: of 325 kg/hr Overall grading efficiency: 66%. Cost: Rs.15000.00

Kinnow Processing Equipment:

Kinnow Processing Equipment Grader Washing & Waxing

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Higher aril extraction capacity; around 5.0 quintal per hour Aril extraction/separation efficiency is in the range of 90-94% Mechanical damage received by arils is only 1-2% Mechanical Pomegranate Aril Extractor

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A Novel Design Tray Dryer for Dehydrated Fruits and Vegetables The dryer is one of the most essential equipment required in food processing as most of the fruits and vegetables and crop commodities require drying for preservation as well as for processing. The CIPHET has developed a tray dryer having a unique design of plenum chamber which facilitates horizontal as well as vertical hot air movement. This concept has minimized the problem of non-uniform drying of food materials in different trays in the tray dryer. This equipment can be useful in drying vegetables for soup making, fruit pulp for making fruit leather, drying of spices and condiments to achieve better quality. The capacity of the dryer is about 30 kg of sliced fruits/vegetables per batch. Cost is approx. Rs. 30,000.00

Process Technology for Guava Bar:

Process Technology for Guava Bar Guava is perishable in nature and cannot be stored for more than two days during peak season. Guava can be processed into a number of products like fruits bar and beverage Fruits, which are rich in nutrients can be blended to improve its acceptability and flavor Guava bar acceptable even after 6 month of storage Composition: Moisture: 15%, Vitamin C: 120 mg/100g , Acidity: 1.08%, Reducing sugar: 14%, Non-reducing sugar: 46%, Weight of each bar: 5-10 g , KSM: 0.2%

Process Technology for Ber Preserves :

Process Technology for Ber Preserves Excellent natural color Very good texture Rich in Vit. C Rich in minerals Least enzymatic browning Can keep well up to 6 months

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Soy Fortified Protein Enriched Mix Fruit Leather from Sapota The mixed fruit leather was prepared by mixing 60-80% sapota pulp in various proportions with different fruit pulps namely mango, papaya and banana at the rate of 5% each to have better taste and flavour of the product. Soy paste (okra) at the rate of 10 % was also added to this mixture. Total soluble solids (TSS) of the mixture are adjusted up to 30 brix by adding sugar syrup. Fruit leather was obtained by drying of pulps in tray dryer at 60  C for about 10 to 11 h. and analyzed for proximate composition. The fruit leather prepared by mixing sapota pulp (75%), soy paste (10%) and other fruit pulps (each 5%) was rated best among all combinations.

Modified Atmosphere Packaging Technology for High Value Vegetables:

Modified Atmosphere Packaging Technology for High Value Vegetables Extended Shelf Life 9 days for Okra, 13 days for betel leaf and 7-8 days for broccoli

Evaporatively Cooled Room for Storage of Fruits and Vegetables :

Evaporatively Cooled Room for Storage of Fruits and Vegetables Compared on the basis of 10% physiological loss in weight (PLW) the shelf life inside the room was 34 days for early kinnow, 23 days for late kinnow, 11 days for cauliflower and 4 days for spinach as compared to 21, 11, 5 and 2 days respectively in an ordinary room at the same time. The cost of the chamber is Rs. 50000 and capacity is 2 tonnes. This technology has been transferred to 3 farmers for on farm use. An evaporatively cooled (EC) room (3x3x3m. size) was developed for on-farm storage of fruits and vegetables. The summer temperature inside the EC room was 5-8C lower than that inside the ordinary room and winter temperature was 5-8 C higher than that inside the ordinary room.

CIPHET Evaporative Cooled Storage Structure :

CIPHET Evaporative Cooled Storage Structure Storage of fruits and vegetables Evaporatively Cooled Structure (ECS) maintains a moderate low temperature and sufficiently high relative humidity for short term storage of fresh fruits and vegetables. Advantages Low level consumption of electricity Less initial investment Negligible maintenance cost Features Special design of roof, orientation Uses wetted pad as cooling medium 20 o C below the outside temperature An ECS of about 5 -7 tonne storage capacity may cost about Rs. 1.5 – 1.8 lakh.

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The APCs have the potential to Provide Urban-amenities in Rural Areas (PURA) through employment and income generation among the rural youth. The GDP growth in Agriculture is three times more effective to reduce the poverty compared to GDP growth from other sources Thank You !!!

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