Oilseeds Processing

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Dr. R. T. Patil Director, Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology, Ludhiana Increased Oil Availability through Post Harvest Management and Value Addition

Oil Seed Production & Post Harvest Scenario:

Oil Seed Production & Post Harvest Scenario Oil Seed Production of India is 30 million tonnes, losses are to about 6%. Oil from by products Rice Bran Maize Germ Millet bran Oilseed processing is a major segment, an activity largely concentrated in the cottage industry. 2.5 lakh ghanis and kolus which are animal operated oil expellers (cake has 15% fat) 50,000 mechanical oil expellers (Cake 6-8%) 15,500 oil mills (Cake 5-6%) 725 solvent extraction plants (Cake/Meal <1%) 300 oil refineries and over 175 hydrogenated vegetable oil plants.

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S. No Crop OILSEEDS Harvesting Collection Threshing Sort-ing/ Grad-ing Winnowing/ Cleaning/ Ginning Drying Packaging Tran-sportation Total Loss in Farm Operations 10 Mustard 4.5 1.1 1.8 - 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 8.4 11 Cottonseed ▲ 0.6 0.2 - - 0.9 ▲ 0.3 0.1 0.1 2.2 12 Soybean 3.1 0.5 1.2 - 0.5 0.2 0.1 0.2 5.8 13 Safflower 0.5 0.7 1.1 - 0.5 0.3 0.1 0.1 3.3 14 Sunflower 1.1 0.5 1.3 - 0.5 0.3 0.1 0.1 3.9 15 Groundnut 4.8 0.7 2.7 - 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.1 9.1 Loss (%) at National Level in different operations/channels

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Post Harvest Losses in Oil Seeds Oil Seed Production, Million tones Harvesting Loss % Supply Chain Loss % Storage Loss % Total Loss % Mustard 5.8 4.5 3.9 0.5 8.9 Cottonseed 2.9 0.6 1.6 0.6 2.8 Soybean 9.99 3.1 2.7 0.4 6.2 Safflower 2.17 0.5 2.8 0.4 3.7 Sunflower 1.44 1.1 2.8 0.6 4.5 Groundnut 9.36 4.8 4.3 1.0 10.1

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Safe Moisture Content for Storage Seed Maximum Moisture content, % (w.b.) Soybean 13.0 Flax seed 10.5 Rapeseed 7.0 Sunflower 8.5 Safflower 11.0 Peanuts 11.0 Cotton seed 10.0 Copra 7.0 Palm kernel 8.0

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Oil Expelling Techniques

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Capacity 100 kg /h • Oil recovery 65 – 70 % in single pass • Good quality MFSF (Protein 48 %, Fat 6-8 %, TI Inactivation up to 70 %) •Development of commercial unit ( 250 kg /h) in progress in collaboration with a manufacturer Integral Extrusion Expelling Unit

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Parameter Values Throughput capacity 25 kg/h Effective capacity for extruded soy-sample 15 kg /h Recovery 70%, Single pass Effective capacity for soft seeds in 2 passes 15 kg/h Recovery 80-85% Compression ratio for Primary section 5:1 Secondary section 3:1 Overall compression ratio 15:1 L:D ratio Primary section 5.1:1 Secondary section 4.5:1 Overall 9.6:1 Single Feed Multi Stage Oil Expeller

CIPHET Castor Decorticator:

CIPHET Castor Decorticator Currently castor seeds are manually depodded which is tedious, highly time and labour consuming. The depodding and decorticating efficiency was found to be 98.5 % at 6.2 % (w.b.) moisture content of the pods. At the same moisture content the capacity was also as high as 180 kg/h. Single person can conveniently operate the machine. Cost of the machine was Rs.25,000/- excluding cost of 2 hp electric motor.

Groundnut Pod Grader:

Groundnut Pod Grader Purpose Cleaning of pods and its grading based on weight, thickness and size. Power: 3 kW electric motor Manpower: Two Investment: Rs. 2,00000/- Output Capacity: 650 kg/h

     Groundnut Pod Decorticator:

Groundnut Pod Decorticator A composite unit of ground nut decorticator was developed especially for producers of value added products from whole kernel. The unit consists feed hopper, decorticating drum, aspirator, and sieve grader to grade kernel in two grades. The capacity of the unit is 60 kg/h and price is Rs 65,000. The dehulling efficiency is 87% with no breakage of the kernel. Technology has been licensed (Fee Rs. 60,000) to M/s OSAW Agro, Ambala for commercial production.

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Sunflower Dehulling Mill

A new process for processing mustard for sauce and its pilot plant.:

A new process for processing mustard for sauce and its pilot plant. Reactor Insulated steam jacketed pressure vessel Pressure and temperature gauges are provided for process control operated at 60 RPM with 1 hp electric motor. The volatiles are collected from upper outlet and condensed with circulating water. Decanter The processed material transferred to decanter where it is separated in paste, hulls, liquid bitter compound.

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D ouble C hamber M odern O il E xpeller Provision for cooling the barrel by passing water through water jackets for temperature of the barrel below 700C Pungent compounds present in the oil are not escaped during expelling. 10 tpd capacity provides 5.8% residual oil in mustard cake in one-go crushing, as compared to 7.5% in conventional expeller Mustard cake is bright green without any discolouration. Durability worm & cage bar assemblies (10 week against 3 weeks conventional expellers) The plant requires less space for installation.

Alternate Uses of Oil Seeds & Cake:

Alternate Uses of Oil Seeds & Cake Medium Fat Flours (extrusion expelling) Novel confectionary products from sunflower and sesame Products like beverage, curd and paneer from soybean & ground nut Edible sauce and chutneys from oil seeds for promoting rural enterprises

Conclusions:

Conclusions Modernization of oil milling sector to higher oil recovery and better quality cake Develop pre-pressing treatments for higher recovery and cold pressed quality oil (temp increase less than 30 C) Develop novel and efficient designs of oil expellers and their promotion Develop low cost technologies for bran oil expression Strengthening PH engineering R&D through Establishment of Oilseed Processing and Utilization Centre

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Thanks