Grain Storage

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Dr. R. T. Patil Director, Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology, Ludhiana Bulk Storage of Food Grains in Production Catchments

Production (2009-10) & Post Harvest Scenario:

Production (2009-10) & Post Harvest Scenario Foodgrains – 218.19 million tonnes Rice 89.31 Wheat 80.98 Jowar 6.84 Bajra 6.46 Maize 16.32 Tur 2.56 Gram 7.38 Urad 1.29 Moong 0.73 PH Losses in Food grain sector: 8–12%

Unit Operations in Post Harvest Management Food Grains :

Unit Operations in Post Harvest Management Food Grains Harvesting at Maturity Proper threshing Post thresher cleaning Proper drying Safe storage

Heaps of paddy rot in a rice sheller of Sirhind. :

Heaps of paddy rot in a rice sheller of Sirhind. A Tribune photograph

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Punjab has suffered heavy losses due to the damage of wheat stored in the open. The state lost 16,500 tonnes of wheat lying in the open between 2006–07 and 2008–09 Post Harvest Losses

Sacks of wheat lie under open sky in Amritsar:

Sacks of wheat lie under open sky in Amritsar The Punjab agencies are grappling with the situation as 60 lakh tonnes of wheat purchased last year is still lying in the open in the state.

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The state has a scientific storage capacity of 182 lakh tonnes. There will be shortage of 44 lakh tonnes of scientific storage Of the 182 scientific storage capacity available with the state agencies, 106 lakh tonnes is covered and 76 lakh tonnes open (CAP).

Changes in Stored Grains/Products:

Changes in Stored Grains/Products Chemical changes In stored grains, changes occur in the fat, acidity, enzymes, colour, vitamins etc.. Respiration and heating Movement of air through the products helps to prevent excessive temperatures by removing heat and excess moisture. Micro-organism Changes take place in the amount of mold and yeast growth in the stored product. Insect and rodent The population of insects is affected by the moisture, temperature and quality of grain stored Moisture accumulation Movement of air through the stored product eliminates moisture accumulation.

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Mechanical device for detection of insects in stored grains As a result of the unique movement of clock-wise and anticlock-wise, the hiding insects frightened, scared, wander and then screened out from the grain sample. The device can be suitably used to detect variety of different insects such as: grain borer, rice weevil, red flour beetle, rusty grain beetle, and saw-tooth grain beetle in different types of cereals, pulses and oilseeds and similar commodity that become infested during storage. This device is also capable to detect the carry over infestation from the field harvest. The mechanical device consists of two separate units: a set of insect detecting boxes and another is a mechanical system to provide the desirable motion to the set of insect detecting boxes.

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Mobile Agro Processing Unit Suggested for Cleaning, Grading, Destoning of food Grains Cost: Rs. 2.00 –3.00 Lakh Equipment: As per requirement of the region

Advantages of Bulk Storage:

Advantages of Bulk Storage Storage is essential as crops are seasonal in nature Safe storage in jute bags can be done for not more than 3-4 months Out of total food grain production 10% is lost in conventional storage Along with silos mechanized handling system also needs to be developed GIC bins are being preferred by users Silos are one time investment and are not expensive in comparison to godowns in long term as it reduces cost of operation as well It reduces land requirement, cost of operations and maintains grain quality

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The Adani group has constructed a silo with a capacity of 2 lakh tonnes, which was filled to capacity last year. The group proposes to construct more silos in the state. Grain storage Silos with Mechanized Handling System

Silos:

Silos The silos are the containers for storage of grain. The silos are classified as metal silos and concrete silos on the basis of material of construction. Metal silos are further classified as M.S. Allweld and Galvanized Iron Corrugated (GIC) silos. There are various advantages of GIC silos over concrete and M.S. Allweld Silos. In general, there are two types of silos : 1) Flat bottom type, and 2) Hopper bottom type. Silo Accessories : The standard silo accessories are Grain Spreader, Level Indicator, Aeration System, Sweep Augar, Descharge Gate, Rotary Valve and Temperature Monitoring System.

Components of Silo System:

Components of Silo System In traditional storage methods such as Godown (ware house) and CAP the grain is stored in bags without cleaning and drying. In silos before grain is stored, it is mechanically cleaned, and dirt, dust and other impurities are removed. Similarly, incase of wet grain it is dried to certain moisture level. The entire silo system constitutes the following : a) Receiving platform with hoppers. b) Grain cleaner. c) Silos. d) Silo Accessories e) Grain conveying equipment. f) Motor control centre. g) Auto weighing and bagging system.

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19 states out of 28 produce food grains Uttar Pradesh tops in the ranking food grain production ranking with a total volume of 41.7 million tones for 2006-07, followed by Punjab at 25.2 million tones.

Need for Bulk Storage for Food Security:

Need for Bulk Storage for Food Security Dr. M.S. Swaminathan, Leader of Green Revolution and is a Living Legend and Father of Economic Ecology during the convocation address stressed on establishing ultra-modern grain storages at least in 50 locations in the country, each with a storage capacity of a Million tones of food grains (i.e. a 50 million tones storage grid) to ensure the food security of our country. He also cautioned that the year 2010 is a do or die year for Indian Agriculture.

Silos Requirement in the Country:

Silos Requirement in the Country Farmers need silos of 1500 – 2000 ton capacity each. Grain processors such as solvent plants, flour mills, rice mills, dal mills, starch plants, grain based distilleries, breweries, cattle, poultry feed plants etc. need 1000 ton to 10000 ton capacity each. Grain procurement agencies like FCI; Markfeds, CWC, SWC, Adtyas etc. requirement varies from 100 ton to 10000 ton capacity each. Therefore a study may be undertaken from above processors/grain agencies to find out exact requirement of silo capacities. Design suggested 50 ton to 500 ton capacity-hopper bottom and 500 to 10000 ton capacity of flat bottom type silos.

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Construction of Silo System The cylindrical body of the silo is made of corrugated iron panels reinforced by strong external uprights in shaped metal sheet. The material used for the storage silo is a steel of a high resistance with galvanisation SENDZIMIR 350g/square meter The roof is made of trapezoidal elements in galvanised and ribbed steel plate, appropriate to carry heavy loads. If storage silo can have an air blowing system cooling the grain and maintaining the moisture content in the safe zone. The silo assembly is made by using bolts of great mechanical characteristics and corrosion resistant due to presence of DACROMET covering. Special elastoplastic materials and PVC washers are used get perfect sealing of the panels and bolts.

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Source: Dr. Sawant, 2010

Need to Establish Silo Manufacturing Facility in the Country:

Need to Establish Silo Manufacturing Facility in the Country Collaboration with foreign silo manufacturer to design the silo small capacity silos and silo system The manufacturing facility for various silo design (GIC) The production catchment modern storage facilities open up big market for slios Silo manufacturing line includes Decoiler, straightening machine, corrugating machine, roll forming machine, shearing machine, one time punching machine, presses and various tools etc. Out of these, corrugating machine and roll forming machine (bending of corrugated sheets) are critical.

Cost of Silo System Vs Godown:

Cost of Silo System Vs Godown Fixed Cost for 1000 Mt Silo System Rs.2370 / Mt of grain stored Godown Rs.2702 //Mt of grain stored Note Godown @ 6 sq.ft per tonne of grain carpet area 60000 sq.ft.+ 15% for built up area (9000 sq ft) + 10% for truck movement =Total 76000 sq ft S. No ITEM GIC SILO STORAGE COST (in Rs.) GODOWN STORAGE COST (in Rs.) A) Land 400000 1520000 B) Silos 12700000 24150000-- C) Accessories 2100000 -- D) Ancillary Equipments 6000000 -- E) Wooden Crates -- 1350000 F) Foundation 2500000 -- Total 23700000 27020000 Source: Dr. Sawant, 2010

Cost of Silo System Vs Godown Source: Dr. Sawant, 2010:

Cost of Silo System Vs Godown Source: Dr. Sawant, 2010 OPERATIONAL & MAINTENANCE COST # ITEM GIC SILO STORAGE COST (in Rs.) MANUAL HANDING AND GODOWN STORAGE COST (in Rs.) 1. Electrical power 9,50,000 2,50,000 2. Labour 1,82,500 73,000 3. Handling 6,00,000 24,00,000 4. Maintenance 1,42,000 2,00,000 Total 1874500 30,58,000

Cost of Silo System Vs Godown Source: Dr. Sawant, 2010:

Cost of Silo System Vs Godown Source: Dr. Sawant, 2010 LOSSES # Item (in Rs.) (in Rs.) 1. Due to moisture reduction / handling 2400000 7200000 2. Due to Rats, insects, pests, fungi deseases, pilferage etc. Nil 600000 Total 2400000 13200000 Total recurring cost + losses 71.25/MT 271/ MT

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Thermax India Ltd. D-13, MIDC Industrial Area R D Aga Road, Chinchwad Pune 411019 Phone : 020 - 66122100/27475941-42 B. G. Shirke Construction Technology Pvt. Ltd 72-76, Industrial Estate, Mundhwa, Pune 411 036. Tel. : +91 (20) 26708100, 26870755, 756 Shri Krishana Marketing & Services Sr. No. 24/4, Handewadi Chowck, Off Katraj-Fursungi By Pass, Tal Haveli, Pune - 411028, Maharashtra, India Phone : 91-20-26898732/32932832 Sri Shanmuga Poultry Service #9/B-3, S.K.K. Complex Mohanur Road, Namakkal - 637001, Tamil Nadu, India Phone : 91-4286-231980/266266 Mobile : +919443231980 Adherence Interceder 309, Sector 14, Faridabad - 121007, Haryana, India Phone : 91-129-2220351 Third Planet (India) Address : E-18, Rajeev Nagar, Opp. Sector-22, Rohini, Delhi - 110086, India Phone : 91-11-27581391 Conceptual Equipments And Services Pvt. Ltd. Daffodil, Puliyankavu Road, Karingarapulli (Po), Palakkad - 678559, Kerala, India Phone : 91-491-2570067, Mobile : +919846787076, Padsons Industries Pvt. Ltd. Managal Das Market, Akola - 444001, Maharashtra, India Phone : 91-724-2433660/2258099 Mobile : +919823075410 Manufacturers of Silos in India

Our website www.ciphet.in Our publications Annual Report Quarterly Newsletter Monthly E-newsletter email: ciphet@sify.com:

Our website www.ciphet.in Our publications Annual Report Quarterly Newsletter Monthly E-newsletter email: ciphet@sify.com