Status and Potential of Post Harvest Technology of Horticultural Crops

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Dr. R. T. Patil Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Bhopal Status and Potential of Post Harvest Technology of Horticultural Crops In Haryana

National Production & Post Harvest Scenario: 

National Production & Post Harvest Scenario Agriculture contributes about 17.5% of GDP, employees 57% workforce and sustains approx over 70% of the population India produces about 230 million tons of food grains and 53.1 and 91.6 million tons of fruits and vegetables and ranks second in world Post harvest losses are 3-18% amounting to Rs. 45000 crores Low level of processing of fruits and vegetables at only 2% . Food processing is employment intensive, creates 1.8 jobs directly and 6.4 indirectly for every Rs. 10 lakh investment

Haryana Production & Post Harvest Scenario: 

Haryana Production & Post Harvest Scenario The area under horticulture crops has reached about 6.34 percent of the cropped area Vegetable cultivation has crossed over 3.43 lakh hectares and production over 40 lakh metric tonnes mark. Fruit production of 11,656 tonnes from 45,193 hectares. Over 7.59 lakh tonnes of vegetables from 17,370 hectares 55,101 tonnes of spices from an area of 1,857 hectares. Medicinal plants and flowers were grown over an area of 316 hectares and 175 hectares.

Reasons for Losses : 

Reasons for Losses Handling of raw produce through many stages of middlemen. Processing is mostly controlled by urban rather than rural entrepreneurs which leads to losses in valuable by products. Non availability of adequate and efficient equipment and machinery to be used in catchment areas. Low level of entrepreneurial urge in rural areas due to constraints of finance, assured market and proper training on technology On the whole, there exists a fragmented and inefficient value chain Higher the Value Addition Better the PH Management and Lower Will Be Losses

Agro Processing : 

Agro Processing Can provide processed food of highest quality at affordable cost to consumers Help environment by processing food in production catchment with least food miles Ensure traceability of raw materials used for processed product hence great for export and elite urban market. Help effective backward linkage with farmers for processing their raw produce Shorten the supply chain, increase the profitability of farmers and ultimately increase in GDP from agriculture and reduce poverty Reduce post harvest losses and increased availability of by products for further processing.

Price Difference : 

Price Difference Wheat - Rs 12/kg Wheat Flour Rs. 16-18/kg Fortified Flour Rs. 20-25/kg Oil seed – Rs 35/kg Oil Rs. 70/kg Paddy – Rs 12/kg Rice – Rs. 25/kg Mung- Rs. 20/kg Mung dal – Rs. 60/kg Maize-Rs.13/kg Maize flour-Rs. 16/kg Tomato-Rs. 5/kg Tomato ketchup-Rs 50-80/kg Fruit- Rs. 15-20/kg Fruits Bar-Rs. 200/kg Fruit Juice- Rs. 35/litre Coriander -Rs. 80/kg Coriander Powder-Rs. 200/kg Turmeric-Rs.65/kg Turmeric Powder –Rs. 200/kg Chili- Rs. 200/kg Chili Powder-Rs. 300/kg Black pepper-Rs. 100/kg B Pepper Powder- Rs.300/kg Chana - Rs. 28/kg Chana Dal-Rs. 35/kg Besan- Rs. 40/kg Vegetables-Rs.3-5/kg Minimal Processed/Ready to Cook Rs. 25-30/kg

High Value Products from Horticultural Wastes: 

High Value Products from Horticultural Wastes Pectin from fruit and vegetable peels Lycopene from tomato peel and oil from seeds Dietary fibres from fruit pomace Bio-plastics from tapioca Aniti oxidents and phenolic compounds from peels

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FRUIT MAIN PRODUCTION AREAS MANGO Panchkula , Ambala , Yamunanagar , Karnal , Kurukshetra GUAVA Gurgaon , Karnal , Hisar , Faridabad, Sonipat CITRUS Sirsa , Hisar , Ambala , Gyurgaon , Fatehabad SAPOTA Yamunanagar , Karnal , Panchkula , kurukshetra , Ambala BER Sonipat , Gurgaon , Hisar , Fatehabd , Rohtak AONLA Gurgaon , Sirsa , Hisar , Karnal , Faridabad

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VEGETABLES MAIN PRODUCTION AREAS POTATO Ambala , Yamunanagar , Karnal , Kurukshetra ONION Gurgaon , Panipat , Panchkula, Sonipat CAULIFLOWER Sonipat , Panipat , yamunanagar , Gurgaon TOMATO Yamunanagar , Karnal,Sonipat , kurukshetra CUCURBITS Karnal , Sonipat , Panipat , Gurgaon

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SPICES MAIN PRODUCTION AREAS TURMERIC Ambala , Yamunanagar , Panchkula , Kurukshetra CHILLIES Yamunanagar , Karnal , Hisar , Fatehbad , Jind GARLIC Karnal , Fatehabad , Sirsa , Y amunanagar , Gurgaon FENUGREEK Gurgaon , Hisar , Mahendragarh , Jind , Kurukshetra CORIANDER Kurukshetra , Karnal , Panchkula , Ambala , Gurgaon

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FLOWER MAIN PRODUCTION AREAS GLADIOLUS Faridabad, Gurgaon , Karnal , Panchkula TUBEROSE Faridabad ROSE Panipat , Sonipat , Gurgaon , Kaithal MARIGOLD Gurgaon , Sonipat , Jind , Jhajjar , Faridabad

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Aloe vera processing DISTRICT No. PRODUCTS Panchkula 1 Aloe Vera Gel, Health Products Ambala 2 F&V Products Kaithal 1 Pickles Panipat 5 Pickles, Jams, Sauces, Muraba Sonipat 8 RTE Veg , Curries, Pickle, Mushrooms Rohtak 3 Pickles, Jam, Sauces Gurgaon 4 Barley malt extraction, Mushrooms Rewari 4 Pickles, barley malt Bhiwani 1 Guar Gum Total 29

Unit Operations in Post Harvest Management : 

Unit Operations in Post Harvest Management Fruits and Vegetables Preharvest treatment Harvesting at Maturity Safe harvesting Pre cooling & washing Surface drying Cool/cold storage Safe transport Safe handling Value Addition to Main & Byproducts

Equipment and Gadgets: 

Equipment and Gadgets

Method of Determining Maturity of Mango in Tree : 

Method of Determining Maturity of Mango in Tree Eating quality and postharvest shelf life of ripe mango depends on its maturity at harvest Change of peel color and total soluble solids (TSS) are indicative parameters to measure maturity of mango. A maturity index was defined based on TSS and colour values. The model was developed to predict maturity using colourimeter Colour and maturity index chart were also developed to determine maturity This technique can be employed to sort the mangoes at export port, big mandies and in processing plant. Capacity About 100 mangoes per hour

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Strawberry Clipper Harvesting Tools

Fruit Saving Gadgets: 

Fruit Saving Gadgets After plucking from tree, fruit is thrown in the trough of fruit saver and collected in a box/container. The fruits are graded on size basis at appropriate places. Smallest grade fruit is collected first and largest grade is collected in last

Banana-Comb (Hand) Cutter: 

Banana-Comb (Hand) Cutter It is an useful to de-stem the comb from the banana bunch. It replaces the use of sickle, which was much labor and time consuming. It is safe for human and banana hands and can be used for faster work. 100 to 120 banana bunches can be de-handed per hour. Saves 10 to 15 banana-fingers per bunch (i. e. 2 to 8 % reduction in cutting losses of banana fruits)

CIPHET Tomato Grader: 

CIPHET Tomato Grader The tomatoes roll down the pipes due to gravity and fall immediately wherever they find the space of their diameter. Grades 3: 25-40 mm, 40-55 mm, 55-70 mm and > 70 mm The collector is inclined at 10 ° so that the tomatoes slide directly in crates. The important feature of grader is its ability to adjust the gap between the pipes and inclination of grading table and hopper. It can also be used for other round fruits and vegetables. Capacity: of 325 kg/hr Overall grading efficiency: 66%. Cost: Rs.25000.00

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Higher aril extraction capacity; around 5.0 quintal per hour Aril extraction/separation efficiency is in the range of 90-94% Mechanical damage received by arils is only 1-2% Mechanical Pomegranate Aril Extractor including Hand Tool Capacity 10 kg/h

Aloe Vera Gel Extractor: 

Aloe Vera Gel Extractor Aloe vara gel should be extracted within 6 hours and processing must be completed within 36 hours. An inner clear gel that contains 99% water and rest made of glucomannans , amino acids, lipids, sterols, vitamins etc. The equipment capacity 200-225kg gel/h (900-1000 leaves/h) for motorised and 100kg gel/h (400-450 leaves/h) for manual machine. The extracted gel is clean and without any physical damage.

Heat Pump Dryer for High Value Products: 

Heat Pump Dryer for High Value Products Micro-processor based temperature controller to regulates the drying temperature. Minimises the loss of vitamins and essential oil of the products and save energy in drying. For blanched Amla drying, the dryer reduced vitamin-C loss up to 87% as compared to the open sun drying. The products such as sliced fruits and vegetables is dried in 20-25 h and medicinal herbs and leaf crops are 12-20 h. The cost of the prototype is Rs. 1,50,000 and capacity is 30 kg/batch.

Safe Transport and Storage: 

Safe Transport and Storage

Mobile Cool Chamber : 

Mobile Cool Chamber The insulated box was designed such that it could hold 8 plastic crates of size 540x360x295 mm in two layer of four each Capacity of storage was 100 kg of fruits with 80% filling of each plastic crates Costs around Rs. 18,000-20,000/- Low cost unit saves the fruits from exposure to sunlight and preserves the quality.

Evaporatively Cooled Room for Storage of Fruits and Vegetables : 

Evaporatively Cooled Room for Storage of Fruits and Vegetables Compared on the basis of 10% physiological loss in weight (PLW) the shelf life inside the room was 34 days for early kinnow, 23 days for late kinnow, 11 days for cauliflower and 4 days for spinach as compared to 21, 11, 5 and 2 days respectively in an ordinary room at the same time. The cost of the chamber is Rs. 75000 and capacity is 2 tonnes. An evaporatively cooled (EC) room (3x3x3m. size) was developed for on-farm storage of fruits and vegetables. The summer temperature inside the EC room was 5-8C lower than that inside the ordinary room and winter temperature was 5-8 C higher than that inside the ordinary room.

CIPHET Evaporative Cooled Storage Structure : 

CIPHET Evaporative Cooled Storage Structure Storage of fruits and vegetables Evaporatively Cooled Structure (ECS) maintains a moderate low temperature and sufficiently high relative humidity for short term storage of fresh fruits and vegetables. Advantages Low level consumption of electricity Less initial investment Negligible maintenance cost Features Special design of roof, orientation Uses wetted pad as cooling medium 20 o C below the outside temperature An ECS of about 5 -7 tonne storage capacity may cost about Rs. 1.5 – 1.8 lakh.

Technology Packages: 

Technology Packages

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Minimal Processing of Vegetables

Shrink Packaging of Fruits and Vegetables: 

Shrink Packaging of Fruits and Vegetables

Process Technology for Guava Bar: 

Process Technology for Guava Bar Guava is perishable in nature and cannot be stored for more than two days during peak season. Guava can be processed into a number of products like fruits bar and beverage Fruits, which are rich in nutrients can be blended to improve its acceptability and flavor Guava bar acceptable even after 6 month of storage Composition: Moisture: 15%, Vitamin C: 120 mg/100g , Acidity: 1.08%, Reducing sugar: 14%, Non-reducing sugar: 46%, Weight of each bar: 5-10 g , KSM: 0.2%

Process Technology for Ber Preserves : 

Process Technology for Ber Preserves Excellent natural color Very good texture Rich in Vit. C Rich in minerals Least enzymatic browning Can keep well up to 6 months

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Soy Fortified Protein Enriched Mix Fruit Leather from Sapota The mixed fruit leather by mixing 60-80% sapota pulp in various proportions with different fruit pulps namely mango, papaya and banana at the rate of 5% each to have better taste and flavour of the product. Soy paste (okra) at the rate of 10 % was also added to this mixture. Total soluble solids (TSS) of the mixture are adjusted up to 30 brix by adding sugar syrup. Fruit leather was obtained by drying of pulps in tray dryer at 60  C for about 10 to 11 h. The fruit leather prepared by mixing sapota pulp (75%), soy paste (10%) and other fruit pulps (each 5%) was rated best among all combinations.

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Ready to Constitute Mustard Saag The green leaves are washed, drained and cut. The cut leaves are taken in the known proportion. The mixture of cut leaves and spices is cooked and then mashed to get smooth curry. The curry is then processed through various steps involving crushing, cooking, pulping, addition of edible flour, cold extrusion, drying, size reduction and packaging to attain mustard saag powder. The dried powder on mixing with lukewarm / hot water yield the inherent taste and odor of staple ingredients.

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Green chili processing into powder and puree Chilies powder has higher nutrition and controlled pungency. The green chilies have more Vitamin C & A and antioxidant properties. About 130 g of green Chilies powder and 300 ml puree could be prepared from one kilogram of fresh green Chilies. The cost of the plant for the processing 200kg of green chilies per day is estimated at 713000/-. The break even point comes be 49.15% and pay back period 1.91 years 1kg of green chilies costing Rs. 15/-, the value added product of Rs. 70/- could be marketed. Chili Puree Green Chili Powder

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Ready to Eat Vegetable Blended Meat Products Ready to Eat Chicken-Vegetables Sandwich Ready to Eat Chicken-Vegetables Nuggets Salient features of this technology are; 1) Utilization of indigenous equipment, 2) Efficient and economic use of vegetable by-products, 3) Substantive cost reduction of chicken products, 4) Improved products quality, sensory attributes and stability, 5) Low-cost and low fat chicken products could be prepared and 6) Increase in dietary fiber and natural antioxidants in the meat products The major cost factors in the chicken meat based value added products like fried-chicken, chicken nuggets are the price of raw meat, ingredients and imported equipment. The reduction in cost of production to more affordable level can be achieved by careful selection of ingredients, reformulation with unconventional food ingredients and using indigenously available equipment.

Use of Kinnow Peels for Face Care Products: 

Use of Kinnow Peels for Face Care Products Kinnow Peel Face Pack Kinnow Peel Face Toner Kinnow peel is a major (30- 34 %) processing waste generated during Kinnow processing into juices. Rich source of Vitamin C, Carotenoids, limonene, antioxidants, micronutrients and antibacterial limonoids. The face mask/pack and face toner are a rich blend of major concentration of Kinnow peel extracts and other minor components as preservatives and sticking agents. The products possess very effective deep cleansing properties along with stringent, disinfectant and antiseptic action to protect facial skin from unwanted blemishes

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Minimal Processing of Pomegranate Arils Pomegranate arils treated with Chlorinated water for 5 minutes (Sodium hypochloride 100 ppm) + Antioxidant for 30 seconds (5% W/v Citric acid or Ascorbic Acid) and packed in 25 μSemi permeable film and store at 5 ± 1º C maintains quality, colour and shelf life up to 16 days with good physical and microbiological conditions for their commercialization. Anti oxidants were positive to reduce spoilage and retain colour, quality and chemical composition of arils.

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Shrink Wrap Packaging for Enhancing Shelf Life of Mango A commercial unit comprises of a shrink wrapping machine, impulse sealer and heat shrinkable film. The machine with window size of 350x200 mm and conveyer speed of 1.25 cm/sec can give an output capacity of 80-100 kg fruits per hour. The packaging cost per tonne of mango works out to be Rs 1000-1250 depending upon fruit size and films to be used for wrapping. The commercial unit requires an initial investment of around Rs 1.25 lakh on machinery. Film wrapping extends the shelf life of mango by retarding fungal decay and metabolic activity during prolonged storage. Individually wrapped mango had a shelf life of 32 days as against 20 days for their counterparts under refrigerated storage. Unwrapped and wrapped mango after storage

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Ginger ( Zingiber officinalis ) confectioneries To increase consumption of resh ginger sweet ginger shreds and ginger shred based confectionery product have been developed. The sweet ginger shreds can be used as mouth fresheners whereas ginger shred based candy may have potential as novel product in confectionery industry. The good quality Osmo-dried ginger shreds were obtained by dipping fresh shreds in 60ºB sugar syrup followed by drying to around 10% moisture content. Further, ginger sheds based candy was prepared using different levels of ingredients namely ginger shreds, sugar, jaggery, honey, liquid glucose. Sweet ginger shreds Ginger shred based candy

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Use of Amla in Confectionary Developed at CIPHET (2007-08)

Method to Prepare Dried Garlic Slices (2006-07): 

Method to Prepare Dried Garlic Slices (2006-07) The cloves are separated, peeled and sliced across the length. Slices of 3mm thickness are dipped in 0.5% sodium metabisulphite solution for 15 min at ambient temperature and dried to 6% moisture content (db) in a fluidized bed dryer at 60 0 C air temperature. Slices thus obtained should be immediately packed in airtight containers. Plant & machinery : Stainless Steel knives, Fluidised bed dryer, Work tables, Dipping tanks etc., Manpower : 10-15 kg raw garlic / person for 8 h, Investment: 2 lakhs approx., Capacity: 10-15 kg dried garlic slices / day.

CIPHET Process of Mechanical Dewatering and Drying: 

CIPHET Process of Mechanical Dewatering and Drying Process-The onions were washed, peeled and mechanically dewatered prior to drying with centrifugal juicer. Partial mechanical dewatering resulted in as high as 60.98 % less consumption in energy than conventional method besides getting high value products i.e. onion juice and onion powder. The optimum combinations are 60% dewatering and 60-70  C temperatures. Onion juice was concentrated to 75% solids for increasing its shelf life. Storage studies of onion powder showed that there has been no significant loss in quality even after 2 months storage at room temperature.

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Powdering Technology for Beetroot (2007-08) Beet root Beetroot Powder Beetroot RTS Beetroots are rich in the nutrient Betaine (betacyanin) which lowers toxic levels of homocysteine, a naturally occurring amino acid that can be harmful to blood vessels and thus beneficial to the blood, the heart, and the digestive system. Specific anti-carcinogens are bound to the red colouring matter, which supposedly helps fight against cancer. Beetroot increases the uptake of oxygen by as much as 400 percent. CIPHET has standardized the process for making beetroot powder that can be further utilized for making various health products including ready to serve beverage

Modified Atmosphere Packaging Technology for High Value Vegetables: 

Modified Atmosphere Packaging Technology for High Value Vegetables Extended Shelf Life 9 days for Okra, 13 days for betel leaf and 7-8 days for broccoli

Spice and Herb Tablets: 

Spice and Herb Tablets Turmeric (b) Coriander (c) Black pepper (d) Fenugreek Different spice tablets were prepared in combination with trace amount of starch/gum acacia, salt etc., with cryo-ground spice powders. Spice tablet were packed (blister) for safe handling and usage. Tablets can be prepared for different formulations and can be used whenever needed. The essential volatiles are not lost during storage period.

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OSMO-CONVECTIVE DEHYDRATION OF KINNOW SEGMENTS PROCESS KINNOW PEELING SEPARATING OF SEGMENTS REMOVAL OF SEEDS DIPPING IN 60 % SUGAR SYRUP FOR 6 h DRAINING OF SYRUP DRIED OF SEGMENTS (60 O C FOR 10-12 h)

Examples: 

Examples

Soybean Milk, Tofu, Whey based Juices : 

Soybean Milk, Tofu, Whey based Juices Sh B S Garcha Dist. Sangrur Punjab. Established: 2000 Products: Soymilk, Tofu, Whey beverage Monthly Income: >Rs30,000 Employment generated: 10 Capital Investment: 3-4 lakhs

Franchise Concept in Soybean Products Processing: 

Franchise Concept in Soybean Products Processing Sh J S Sandha, Jalandhar Punjab Established: 2008 Products: flavored soya milk, curd, lassi, namkeen and soya roasted nuts, soymilk powder in pouches Created Small Scale Franchisees Technical guidance and support by CIPHET

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Dried Green Chilli, Ginger and Garlic Powder Sh Saket Ranjan M/s Skysnacks, Punea, Bihar Trained by CIPHET Products: Green chilli powder, Ginger Powder, Garlic Powder, Sattu and Pappad etc. Employment: >10 mostly ladies

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Chowdhary Made Agriculture Profitable with Value Addition in Rajasthan Kailash Chaudhary, Age 60 years Products: Aamla juice, amla powder, aloe vera juice, candies, squashes, pickles, sweets Exports to many countries Employment: Direct 30;Indirect 40 Established: 2004 Training and Technologies by CIPHET Turnover: > 1 crore Web: www.ksbiofoods.com

Evaporative Cooled Room: 

Evaporative Cooled Room Surinder Singh Vill Jalalabad, Moga Punjab Profession: Vegetable Farmer Cold Room used for on-farm short term storage of fruits and vegetables Cost of structure: Rs 75,000

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Recommendations/Suggestions The mobile cool chamber, EC Room and EC structure be promoted by allowing 50% subsidy Plants for crushed tomato, tomato puree, fruit pulp and canning in small as well as 15 kg tins (for restaurants) costing below 50 lakh and including a walk in cold room be promoted The new machines developed for processing like pomegranate aril extractor, vegetable washer, carrot washer, aonla juicer, kinnow juicer, heat pump dryer, tomato grader may be promoted with 50% subsidy Processed fruit products like Jam be introduced in school meal programmes to promote this sector The locally processed tomato ketchup and mixed fruit jams be provided through PDS to meet nutritional requirement and also to prevent losses and for that local SHGs be involved. Nurture upcoming entrepreneurs and help them in establishing and marketing by establishing a state level institute for PHM&VA

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Modern Technologies for Food Processing and Storage are essential for reducing the post harvest losses and increasing the profitability of farmers The GDP growth in Agriculture is three times more effective to reduce the poverty compared to GDP growth from other sources Thank You