A REVIEW GUIDE IN POLICE PLANS AND OPERATIONS : A REVIEW GUIDE IN POLICE PLANS AND OPERATIONS By
WILFREDO R. BERALDE & MELCON S. LAPINA SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPORTANCE OF PLANNING : SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPORTANCE OF PLANNING Police, fire and jail operations demand the utmost skill and careful planning in order to insure the accomplishment of the police objectives and mission. Planning may mean any of the following: Slide 3: The process of combining all aspects of public safety activity and the realistic anticipation of the future problems; the analysis of strategy and the correlation of strategy to detail;
The use of rational design or pattern for all the public safety undertakings; and Slide 4: The act of determining policies and guidelines for police/fire/jail activities and operations and providing controls and safeguards for such activities and operation in the public safety services. AIMS OF POLICE STRATEGY AND TACTICS: : AIMS OF POLICE STRATEGY AND TACTICS: The attainment of police objectives with the maximum of success.
The attainment of police design with minimum of effort.
The lessening of risk in police operations.
The coordination of various police elements in the undertaking of joint task for operation. Slide 6: The reduction of friction and misunderstanding between the police and the public.
The attainment of basic police purpose in the enforcement of laws.
The attainment of total police effectiveness through the integration of physical, scientific, technical and psychological processes. IMPORTANCE OF POLICE STRATEGY : IMPORTANCE OF POLICE STRATEGY Controlling of mobs and crowds
Handling of prisoners and suspects
Police raids on buildings and places
The capture of barricaded criminal hideouts
The quelling of prison riots
The handling of parades and demonstration Slide 8: Police actions in civil defense
Responding to bank robbery alarm
The technique of riot control
Mobile and foot patrol
Actions during disasters and calamities
The control and regulations of traffic
Protective securities to VIPs and dignitaries
Action during labor strikes
Surveillance and undercover works. NATURE OF PLANNING : Planning is an important and never-ending process of administration; particularly in the concept of public safety. Its importance cannot be minimized even in the local police command, and a commander who ignores it, does so at substantial peril. In a very simple sense, planning is deciding in advance on what is to be done and how it is to be accomplished. It is in essence, preparations for actions. NATURE OF PLANNING Slide 10: In order to insure the accomplishment of the of the public safety objectives and mission, its components such as the police, fire and jail operations must adopt the utmost skill and careful planning. Planning is the key to administrative process which may mean any of the following: Slide 11: The process of combining all aspects of the public safety activity and the realistic anticipation of the future problems, the analysis of strategy and correlation of strategy to detail;
The use of rational design or pattern for all the public safety undertakings; and
The act of determining policies and guidelines for police, fire and jail activities and operations and providing controls and safeguards for such activities and operations in the public safety services. RESPONSIBILITY IN PLANNING : RESPONSIBILITY IN PLANNING Broad policy planning shall be the responsibility of the Director-General of the PNP. The commander at each level or command, however, shall be responsible for establishing internal operational policies to achieve the objectives and missions of the police in his/her own unit. Slide 13: This requires a clear definition of work to be done; who will do it; and how well it is to be done. He/She shall be responsible for PLANNING, ORGANIZING, DIRECTING, STAFFING, COORDINATING, CONTROLLING, REPORTING and BUDGETING for the aforementioned unit within existing policies and available resources. Slide 14: For maximum effectiveness, he/she shall be responsible for the technical operation of the unit and the management of its personnel. Slide 15: In effect, PLANNING as the key to administrative process, is a COMMAND RESPONSIBILITY of all commanders concerned. In the concept of the PNP, Broad Policy Planning is the command responsibility of the Director-General, while in the local command planning is the command responsibility of the respective local commanders. Slide 16: Specifically, the commander at each level or command shall have the command responsibility of the following:
1. Establishing internal operational policies to achieve the objectives and mission of his/her department in his/her particular unit. This requires a clear definition of work to be done, who are to do it, and how well it is to be done. Slide 17: 2. Planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, controlling, reporting and budgeting for the aforementioned unit within existing policies and available resources.
3. For maximum effectiveness, he/she shall be responsible for the technical operation of the unit and the management of its personnel. TYPES OF PLANS : TYPES OF PLANS To formally achieve the administrative planning responsibility within the unit, the commander shall develop plans relating to:
Policies or Procedures
Management POLICY OR PROCEDURAL PLAN : POLICY OR PROCEDURAL PLAN Standard operating procedure shall be planned to guide members in routine field operations and in some special operations in accordance with the following procedures: Slide 20: Field Procedures. This is intended to be used in all situations of all kinds, which shall be outlined to guide officers and men in the field. This relate to reporting, dispatching to raids, arrests, stopping suspicious looking person, receiving complaints, touring beat, investigation of crimes and similar activities. Slide 21: The use of physical force and clubs, restraining devices, firearms, teargas, and the like, in dealing with groups or individual, shall also be outlined. Slide 22: Headquarters Procedures. To be included in these procedures are the duties of the dispatcher, jailer, matron, and other personnel concerned, which may be reflected in the duty manual. It also involves coordinated action on activity of several offices. However, it shall be established separately as in the case of using telephone for local/long distance, the radio teletype, and other similar devices Slide 23: Special Operating Procedures. Certain special operations also necessitate the preparation of procedures as guides. TACTICAL PLANS : TACTICAL PLANS These are plans for operations of special divisions like the patrol, detectives, traffic, fire and juvenile control divisions. Operational plans shall be prepared to accomplish each of the primary police tasks. For example a patrol activity must be planned; the force must be distributed among the shifts and territorially among beats in proportion to the needs of the service; special details must be planned to meet unexpected needs and so on. Slide 25: Likewise, on crime prevention, and traffic, juvenile and vice control, campaign must be planned and assignments be made to assure the accomplishment of the police purpose in meeting both average and irregular needs.
Plans for operations of special division consist of two types, namely: Slide 26: Those designed to meet everyday, year-round needs, which are regular operating program of the division. This is known as REGULAR OPERATING PROGRAM. The operating units shall have specific plans to meet current needs. The manpower shall be distributed throughout the hours of operation and throughout the area of jurisdiction in proportion to need. Slide 27: These plans shall also assure suitable supervision, which becomes difficult when the regular assignment is interrupted to deal with these short time periodic needs. Slide 28: Specialized assignment shall be worked out for the detective and juvenile divisions to provide approximately equal work loads, taking into consideration variations in the importance of cases and the average time required to investigate them. Assignment of officers and men to divisions shall be on the need and on the basis of specialty and interest. Slide 29: Special program shall be developed to meet particular needs in each field of activity. For example, the traffic division needs program of enforcement, public education and engineering. The juvenile division needs program designed to make better citizens of delinquent and pre-delinquent children, and operational plans to eliminate certain delinquency-inducing factors in the community. Slide 30: Those designed to meet unusual needs, the result of intermittent and usually unexpected variations in activities that demand attention. This is MEETING THE UNUSUAL NEEDS. The unusual needs may arise in any field of police activity and are nearly always met in the detective, vice and juvenile divisions by temporary readjustment of regular assignment. Slide 31: For example, a sudden upsurge of robberies may result in caseload beyond the capacity of the detective assigned. Some of these cases may be assigned to other detectives less at work. EXTRA OFFICE PLANS : EXTRA OFFICE PLANS The active interest and participation of individual citizen is so vital to the success of the integrated police programs that the police shall continuously seek to motivate, promote and maintain an active public concern in its affairs. Plans shall be made to organize the community to assist in the accomplishment of objectives in the field of traffic control, organized crime, and juvenile delinquency prevention. Slide 33: The organizations may call safety councils for crime and delinquency prevention. Organization and operating plans for civil defense shall also be prepared or used in case of emergency or war in coordination with the office of the Civil Defense. MANAGEMENT PLANS : MANAGEMENT PLANS Plans of management shall map out in advance all operations involved in the organization management or personnel and material and in the procurement and disbursement of money, such as the following: Slide 35: BUDGET PLANNING. Present and future money needs for personnel, equipment and capital investments must be estimated, and plans for supporting budget requests must be made if needed appropriations are to be obtained. Slide 36: ACCOUNTING PROCEDURES. Accounting procedures shall be established and expenditures reports shall also be provided to assist in making administrative decisions and in holding expenditures within the appropriations. Slide 37: SPECIFICATION AND PURCHASING PROCEDURES. Specifications shall be drawn for equipment and supplies, and purchasing procedures shall likewise be established to ensure the checking of deliveries against specifications of orders. Plans and specifications shall be drafted for new buildings and for remodeling old ones. Slide 38: PERSONNEL. Procedures shall be established to assure the carrying out of personnel program and allocation of personnel among the component organizational units in proportion to need. Slide 39: ORGANIZATION. A basic plan of the command/unit shall be made/posted for the guidance of the force. For the organization to be meaningful, it shall be accompanied by a duty manual, which shall define relationship between the component units in terms of specific responsibilities. Slide 40: The duty manual shall incorporate rules and regulations and shall contain the following: definition of terms, organization of rank, general duties of the various units, and the like, provided the same shall not be in conflict with the manual. STEPS IN PLANNING : STEPS IN PLANNING The following steps provide an orderly means of development of plans: Slide 42: FRAME OF REFERENCE. This shall be based on a careful view of the matters relating to the situation for which plans are being developed. Opinions or ideas of persons who may speak with authority on the subject and views of the police commander, other government officials, and other professional shall be considered. Slide 43: CLARIFYING THE PROBLEMS. This calls for the identification of the problem, understanding both its record and its possible solution. A situation must exist for which something must and can be done. Slide 44: COLLECTING ALL PERTINENT FACTS. No attempt shall be made to develop a plan until all facts relating to it have been gathered. In the series of robberies, all cases on files shall be carefully reviewed to determine the modus operandi, suspects, types of victims, and such other information as may be necessary. Facts relating to such matters as availability, deployment and use of personnel shall be gathered. Slide 45: ANALYZING THE FACTS. After all data have been gathered a careful analysis and evaluation shall be made. This provides the basis from which plan or plans are evolved. Only such facts as may have relevance shall be considered. Slide 46: DEVELOPING ALTERNATIVE PLANS. In the initial phases of plan development, several alternative measures shall appear to be logically comparable to the needs of the situation. As the alternative solutions are evaluated, one of the proposed plans shall usually prove more logical than the others. Slide 47: SELECTING THE MOST APPROPRIATE ALTERNATIVES. A careful consideration of all facts usually leads to the selection of the “best” of alternative proposals. Slide 48: SELLING THE PLAN. A plan to be effectively carried out, must be accepted by the persons concerned at the appropriate level of the plan’s development. Slide 49: ARRANGING FOR THE EXECUTION OF THE PLAN. The execution of a plan requires the issuance of orders and detectives to units and personnel concerned, the establishment of a schedule, and the provisions of manpower and equipment for carrying out the plan. Slide 50: EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE PLAN. The result of the plan shall be determined. This is necessary in order to know whether a correct alternative was chosen, whether or not the plan was correct, which phase was poorly implemented, and whether additional planning may be necessary. Slide 51: Virtually, every problem in law enforcement and public safety leads itself to a thorough and systematic analysis of the process of planning. The said process of planning was clearly discussed in the STEPS IN PLANNING from Frame of Reference up to Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Plan. Slide 52: These aforementioned STEPS IN PLANNING would result in an orderly means for development of plans. The general emphasis of police planning therefore is identical, if not similar to, that industry whose ultimate objective is to improve efficiency and effectiveness of the current operations in law enforcement and public safety. Slide 53: This is in consonance with the broad goals of RA 6975, which is to conserve manpower and budget and to provide better law enforcement and public safety – managerial efficiency has been the by-word. CHARACTERISTICS OF PLANS : CHARACTERISTICS OF PLANS Effective plans have certain identifiable characteristics such as the following: Slide 55: Clearly defined objective or goals
Simplicity, directness and clarity
Possibility of attainment
Provisions for standards of operation
Economy in terms of resources needed for implementation, and
Anticipated effect or effects on future operations. Slide 56: The identifiable characteristics of effective plans as enumerated in this section serve only as guide post for a commander to adopt and develop. The success of any plan lies in the success of its implementation. A good plan poorly executed is as ineffective as a poor plan. Slide 57: The effectiveness of planning likewise depends to a degree of or on the timeliness of the plan and on strategy used for implementation. Timeliness requires a commander to be able to exploit the sources involved in time to be of use to requiring his command responsibility. Plans to be used must be timely. Slide 58: EXECUTION OF PLANS. Once plans are made, same shall be put into operation and the result thereof evaluated accordingly. Operations on the public safety force shall be directed by the chiefs or commander to attain the following objectives: Slide 59: Protection of lives and property
Preservation of the peace and order
Prevention of crimes
Repression and suppression of criminality
Apprehension of criminals Slide 60: Enforcement of laws and ordinances and regulations of conduct
Safeguarding of public health and moral
Prompt execution of criminal writs and processes of the court; and
Coordination and cooperation with other law enforcement agencies Slide 61: To achieve the foregoing objectives, the public safety services tasks shall be specifically assigned and each member must know his particular duties and functions. Functions or Tasks shall be categorized into: Slide 62: Primary. The primary or line operation tasks shall include patrol, investigation, traffic, vice and juvenile control. Accomplishment of these primary tasks shall achieve the main objective of the PNP. Slide 63: Secondary. Auxiliary or service tasks shall include records, property, jail, crime laboratory, transportation and communication. These tasks shall assist and effectively support the primary task in the accomplishment of the objective. Slide 64: Administrative. The administrative or managerial tasks shall include personnel, intelligence, inspection, planning, budgeting, training and public relations. These tasks shall assist and effectively support both the primary and secondary tasks in the attainment of their objectives. Slide 65: FIELD OPERATIONS. Operations in the field shall be directed by the police commander and the subordinate commanders and the same shall be aimed at the accomplishment of the following primary tasks effectively and economically. The following are the PRIMARY OR LINE OPERATION TASKS. Slide 66: PATROL. The patrol force shall accomplish the primary responsibility of safeguarding the community through the protection of life and property, the preservation of peace, the prevention of crime, the suppression of criminal activities and apprehension of criminals, the enforcement of laws and ordinances and regulations of conduct, and performing necessary services and inspection. Slide 67: Policing shall be considered a patrol service with specialized activities developed as aids. A patrol force or unit is the nucleus of the police organization about which the special services are grouped, and therefore, it shall not be subordinated to any other police unit in force. Slide 68: The proportional strength of the patrol force and the special units like investigation, traffic and vice and juvenile units, shall depend on the services performed by each. The patrol force being the backbone of the police service, shall be responsible for the accomplishment of the TOTAL POLICE JOB, and in small police stations/sub-stations having no specialization, it shall perform all the primary, secondary and administrative tasks. Slide 69: If a special unit is created, it must be decided which task shall be taken from patrol, to be made the exclusive responsibility of said special unit, which tasks shall remain in the exclusive responsibility of the patrol, and which task shall be assigned as joint responsibility. Slide 70: INVESTIGATION. The basic purpose of investigation of detective bureau shall be to investigate certain designated serious crimes and clear them by the recovery of stolen property and the arrest and conviction of the perpetrators. Slide 71: To this end, the investigation division shall supervise the investigation made by patrol officer and undertake additional investigations as may be necessary of all felonies, and all cases of murder, homicide, robbery, theft and other grave offenses, except those types that are assigned by department regulations to the traffic, vice and juvenile units. Slide 72: The investigation division shall also be responsible for the investigation of felonies and misdemeanors which have not been cleared by arrest or some other means and which come within their jurisdiction. It shall be responsible also for the investigation of non-criminal activities, including missing person, and matters wherein an investigation would be beneficial to the public welfare. Slide 73: TRAFFIC CONTROL. Police control of streets or highways vehicles and peoples shall facilitate the safe and rapid movements of vehicles and pedestrians. To this end, the inconvenience, dangers and economic losses that arise from these movement congestion, delays, stopping, and parking of vehicles must be lessened. Control of traffic shall be accomplished in three steps, they are: Slide 74: Causes of accident and congestion shall be discovered, facts gathered and analyzed for this purpose.
Causes shall be remedied; changes shall be made in physical conditions that create hazards; and legislation shall be enacted to regulate drivers and pedestrians. Slide 75: The public shall be educated in the provisions of traffic and ordinances; motorists and pedestrians shall be trained in satisfactory movement habits; and compliance with regulation shall be obtained if need be, by enforcement. The police shall initiate action and coordinate the efforts of the agencies that are also concerned in these activities. Slide 76: The PNP have three tools to aid them in traffic control. Summarily, the above-mentioned are the:
1. Traffic Engineering
2. Traffic Education; and
3. Traffic Enforcement Slide 77: VICE CONTROL. It shall determine stand of the police service in the control of vices, to treat vice offenses as they shall do to any violation, and exert efforts to eliminate them, as they attempt to eliminate robbery, theft and public disturbance. Control of vice shall be based on law rather than on moral precept, and intensive operations shall be directed toward their elimination. Slide 78: A primary interest in vice control results from the close coordination between vice and criminal activities. Constant raids of known vice dens shall be undertaken. Slide 79: JUVENILE DELINQUENCY CONTROL. Effective crime control necessitates preventing the development of individual as criminals. The police commander shall recognize a need for preventing crime or correcting conditions that induce criminality and by rehabilitating the delinquent. Slide 80: In determining the role which the police shall play in this endeavor, the commander shall study the causes of delinquency and the means of their elimination or correction, to inventory and evaluate community social-welfare activities directly or indirectly related to the prevention of criminality, and to discover by analysis delinquency prevention tasks that are best suited to perform. Slide 81: In carrying out this program, the police shall obtain support and assistance by harnessing all community resources to the tasks such as the facilities of health and guidance clinics, the professional skills of physicians, psychiatrist and psychologist, and the help of teachers, ministers and laymen. Slide 82: The police shall enlist the aid, focus the attention, and coordinate the activities of every agency and ground in the community which services may assist in the accomplishment of the delinquency prevention program. Slide 83: AUXILIARY AND ADMINISTRATIVE TASKS. In order for police operations to succeed, the resources of the PNP such as manpower, money, materials, methods and machines, shall be properly marshaled, utilized, coordinated and controlled. Field units shall be amply and ably supported by the auxiliary and administrative bureaus in their operations. Slide 84: The SECONDARY AND AUXILIARY or service police tasks such as records, property, jail, crime laboratory, transportation and communication must be made to support the line units. In like manner, the managerial tasks of personnel staffing, budgeting, intelligence, inspection, planning, training, and public relations must likewise support the line units. Slide 85: In a sense, Section 10 enumerates the resources of the Philippine National Police (PNP), otherwise known as the 5Ms of Police Management. The following are to wit:
4. Methods, and
5. Machine DEFINITIONS OF TERMS COMMONLY ENCOUNTERED IN POLICE PLANNING : DEFINITIONS OF TERMS COMMONLY ENCOUNTERED IN POLICE PLANNING POLICE OPERATION – the act of carrying out pre-conceived measure in a regular movement by managing people in a situation to the advantage of a given mission in particular and of the good of the community in general. Slide 87: POLICE STRATEGY AND TACTICS – consists of plans and procedures adopted by the police for the attainment of operational objectives, aims, purposes, or situation and their accomplishment which involves leadership, initiatives, group action, coordination and integration. Slide 88: STRATEGY – a plan, device or scheme for the purpose of carrying out some design or purpose of gaining some advantage in a conflict for police operation. Slide 89: TACTICS – the method or procedure adopted to carry out a plan to attain a police purpose. Slide 90: MOB – defined as an active and hostile crowd. A MOB’s characteristic is its hostile activity. Slide 91: WEDGE FORMATION – a formation composed of a squad or platoon. It is the normal offensive formation with diagonal primarily adjunct thereto. This is used when the crowd is small enough which do not require more than a squad. This is commonly used in splitting the crowd in order to apprehend the ring leader. Slide 92: SQUAD DIAGONAL – used in dealing with small groups. The purpose of this movement is to move away the crowd from a wall or a building, or to sweep the street with crowd. In the event the crowd is large, wedge diagonal is more appropriate. Squad diagonal may be formed by a platoon or by a unit of any size. Slide 93: DEPLOYED LINE – strictly a defensive formation and will be used in cases the police have drawn fire or gained the objective and wish to hold it. The reserves who are not engage in any squad or section movement should be drawn up in a skirmish line in the immediate rear of the action. This action may be formed by a unit of any size. Slide 94: CIVIL DEFENSE – the joint endeavor of the civilian population of the country to survive the effect of war. While the armed forces are engaged in fighting the enemy in the field, it is the responsibility of every person in the country to prevent and minimize the damage which the enemy can cause upon civilian population. Slide 95: Republic Act 1190 – known as the CIVIL DEFENSE Law which took effect on August 18, 1954. This is the law that provide for the creation of a Central National Defense Administration in the country. Slide 96: FRAGMENTATION BOMB – are intended against military personnel in the battle field. Slide 97: GENERAL PURPOSE BOMB – are intended against ordinary buildings, civilian concentration and common targets. Slide 98: DEMOLITION BOMB – are intended for special target of great size and strength like massive bridges, canal docks, dams and large concrete buildings. Demolition Bombs are also known as ARMOUR PIERCING BOMBS as they are constructed as to penetrate battle ditch, combat tanks and reinforced concrete or steel buildings. Slide 99: NAPALM – (Liquid) designed for use of a fighter plane and produces fire only. Slide 100: TEAR GAS – Affects the eyes alone, and are therefore none persistent. It is not popular gas as warfare weapon. Slide 101: RESPIRATORY IRRITANT GAS – are made from arsenic compound and produce pain in the nose through respiratory passages followed by nausea and vomiting. This is a non-fatal gas, but very effective in causing panic because it causes the victim to vomit and to be more exposed to vulnerability. Slide 102: LUNG INJURANT GAS – attacks the lungs and cause a burning sensation in the nose and throat followed by injury of the lungs resulting in possible death of the victim. Slide 103: BLISTERING GASES – the most effective chemical weapon because they can be delivered as sprays over large areas and evaporated very slowly into a deadly weapon, and the liquid form causes terrible burns and blisters on the skin penetrating ordinary clothing even leather jackets and shoes. Slide 104: SYSTEMATIC TOXIC GAS – has the capacity of penetrating the skin and the lining of the lungs exerting a direct action upon nervous system of the body. It is considered the most deadly among gases. It passes through the blood stream and performs systematic action resulting in the paralysis of the nervous system. Slide 105: STATE OF EMERGENCY – State of Emergency may be proclaimed by the president of the Philippines with the concurrence of the majority members of the Congress in accordance with Article VII, Section 18 of the New Constitution for a certain period of time. Slide 106: RAID – a sudden attack or invasion of a building or small locality to effect an arrest, to secure evidence of illegal activity, or recover stolen property as necessary material in the prosecution of an offense. Types of Mobs : Types of Mobs AGGRESSIVE MOB – active crowd where the main action is to escape all one sided, aimed at the destruction of persons or property. Slide 108: ESCAPE OR PANIC MOB – one where the main objective is to escape for fear or safety. Slide 109: ACQUISITIVE MOB – one whose goal is to acquire some objects, like food, money or other personal property. Slide 110: EXPRESSIVE MOB – one whose activity, although incidentally destructive, is aimed principally at the expression or emotion or attitude, like political crowd or religious meeting. Personality Types of Mobs : Personality Types of Mobs IMPULSIVE INDIVIDUAL – that member of restive crowd that has not yet erupted into a mob who initiates the first impulsive or violent act which sets off sufficient crowd’s participation to form a mob. Slide 112: CAUTIOUS INDIVIDUAL – that person who is not impulsive enough to initiate violence but is completely susceptible to influence by the violent acts of the impulsive individual. Slide 113: YIELDING INDIVIDUAL – that person who requires more stimulation than merely his own normal tendencies to violence. He does not become participant until he perceived the remaining sufficiently anonymous and until a certain impression of universality is present. Slide 114: SUPPORTING INDIVIDUAL – that person who supports or follows what others do or tell him to do.