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FACTORS AFFECTING DEVELOPMENT AND EXISTENCE OF CRIME AND CRIMINALITY These factors are: GEOGRAPHICAL FACTORS Earlier criminologists correlated climate, humidity, wind velocity, atmospheric pressure, rainfall, nature of soil, and other geographical factors to the existence and development of crimes and criminality.

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The following are the explanations formulated by criminologists about geography and crimes: The North and South Pole Approach to Equator Season of the Year Soil Formation Temperature Humidity and Atmospheric Pressure Wind Velocity

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BIOLOGICAL FACTORS Man as a living organism has been the object of several studies, which has the purpose of determining the causes of his crimes. Among such studies are the following:

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Physiognomy – this is the study of the relationship between the facial features and human conduct of a person in relation to crimes. This study and science was used by Beccaria (1764) and Lavater (1175) to discover the character of a person by: Observing his physical appearance Measurement of the outward appearance

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Phrenology or Craniology – Franz Joseph Gall & Johann Gaspar Spurzheim claimed in their study that the shape of the head of the criminal differs from that of the non-criminals. This theory, however, was found without basis.

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Study of Physical Defects & Handicap in Relation to Crimes – Leaders of notorious criminal groups are usually nicknamed in accordance with their physical defects and handicap. This defect is the very reason so that they become violent, feel inferior to others and/or being ostracized by the society. The unfavorable results therefore, could be following: Handicap is the condition of unable to perform as a consequence of physical and mental unfitness. Ostracize is to avoid speaking to or dealing with.

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Persons who are suffering from physical defects cause poor social relationship and serious emotional disturbance; It reduces his capacity to complete occupationally and socially; It may cause the development of inferiority complex; and Persons suffering from defects are frequently irritated by friends and resort to violent criminal behavior.

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Study of criminals (by Ernst Kretschmer) classifying types of physique and the type of crimes they are prone to commit: Pyknic Type: Those who are stout and with round bodies. They tend to commit deception, fraud and violence. Athletic Type: Those who are muscular and strong. They are usually connected with crimes against violence.

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Asthenic Type: Those who are skinny and slender. Their crimes are petty thievery and fraud. Dysplastic or Mixed Type: Those who are less clear evident having any predominant type. Their offenses are against decency and morality. Study of William Sheldon (Varieties of Delinquent Youth) classifying types of physique and criminal temperament: Physique is an alternative name for the body of human being. Temperament refers to a person’s usual mood.

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Types of Physique ENDOMORPHIC have heavy builds and are slow moving. They are known for lethargic behavior rendering them unlikely to commit violent crime and more willing to engage in less strenuous criminal activities such as fencing stolen property. ECTOMORPHIC are tall and thin and less social and more intellectual than the other types. Lethargic means deficient in alertness or activity. Strenuous is characterized by or performed with much energy or force.

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MESOMORPHIC have well-developed muscles and an athletic appearance. They are active, aggressive, sometimes violent, and the most likely to become criminals.

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Temperament VISCEROTONIC – General relaxation of body; comfortable person; lover of luxury; and essentially extrovert person. SOMATONIC – Active, dynamic; walks, talks, gestures assertively and behaves aggressively. CEREBROTONIC – Introvert and full of functional complaints to allergies, skin troubles, chronic fatigue, insomnia, insensitive skin and to noise; shrinks from crowds.

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Study of Heredity as the Causes of Crimes The common household expressions like “It is in the blood” and “like father like son” are usually heard and said whenever there are several members in the family who are criminals. Accordingly heredity transmits single traits and characteristics from parents to offspring.

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Although modern criminologists seem not to accept the role of heredity in the formation of criminal behavior of men, it cannot be denied that it is playing a “role as contributory factor in the genesis of criminal behavior.”

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The following are some proofs to show the role of heredity in the development of criminality: Study of Kallikak Family Tree (Henry H. Goddard) Study of Juke Family Tree (Dugdale & Estabrook) Study of Sir Jonathan Edwards Family Tree

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Psychoanalytic & Psychiatric Factors Definitions Psychoanalytic – the analysis of human behavior Psychiatry – the study of human mind Various studies of human behavior and mind in relation to the causes of crimes

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Several noted criminologists have advanced the theories that criminal behavior is developed among individuals consonant with the development of his mind, traits and behavior.

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AICHORN – In his book entitled Wayward Youth, 1925 said the cause of crime and delinquency is the faulty development of the child during the first few years of his life. As a child, the human being normally follows only his pleasure impulses instinctively. Soon he grows up and finds some restrictions to these pleasure impulses, which he must control. Otherwise, he suffers from faulty ego development and become delinquent.

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ABRAHAMSEN – In his Crime and Human Mind, 1945 explained the causes of crime by this formula “Criminal Behavior equals Criminalistic Tendencies plus Crime Inducing Situation Divided by the Persons Mental or Emotional Resistance to Temptation. This described as: C = Crime Tendency + Situation/Resistance (Emotional)

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CYRIL BURT (Young Delinquent, 1925) gave the theory of general emotionality. According to him, many offenses of a particular instinctive drive. An excess of the submissive instinct account for tendency of many criminals to be weak-willed or easily led. Fear and absconding may be due to the impulse of fear. Callous type offenders may be due to the deficiency in the primitive emotion of love and an excess of the instinct of hate.

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HEALY (Individual Delinquency) claimed that crime is an expression of the mental content of the individual. Frustration of the individual causes emotional discomfort, personality demands removal of pain and the pain is eliminated by substitute behavior, that is the start of the crime delinquency of an individual.

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BROMBERG (Crime and Mind, 1948) claimed that criminality is the result of emotional immaturity. A person is emotionally matured when he has learned to control his emotion effectively and who lives at peace with himself and in harmony with the standards of conduct which are acceptable to society. An emotionally immature person rebels against rules and regulations, tend to engage in unusual activities and experience a feeling of guilt due to inferiority complex.

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SIGMUND FREUD (The Superego, Ego and Id, 1927) in his psychoanalytical theory of human personality and crimes, he has the following explanations:

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Id are impulses or instinct of social drives, it contains that is inherited, that is present at birth. A newborn infant enters the world with an energy reservoir of instinctive biological drives which is uncontaminated by external reality. At this point, the human being is prepared to behave only in terms of pleasure principle towards the discharge of his instinctual energies. Selfishness, violence, and anti-social wishes are part of the original instinct of man.

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EGO is a man’s physical organization between his sensory stimuli on one hand and his motor activity on the other. The ego operates on the basis of expediency. The question of right and wrong, safe or dangerous, permitted or prohibited do not play an important role. The child begins to acquire an awareness of one-self distinct from the environment. Decisions are reached in terms of reality principle.

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SUPER-EGO means the conscience of man. It is the role agencies outside the home, which tries to control the ego. The super-ego and maybe represented by the voice of God, moral truth, commandments of society, good for the whole will of the majority, cultural conventional and other rules.

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The Gianelt Index of Criminality This crimino-synthesis explains the reason why a person may commit a crime or inhibit himself from doing so under the following conditions: 1. Need Frustration – The person before committing the crime is likely to feel unhappy, unsatisfied, resentful or angry about something in particular, or about life in general.

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Internal Inhibition – It refers to all types of internal forces which may prevent a person from committing a crime. These forces may be person’s conscience, or his principles, or his sense of self-respect, or the particular conception he has of himself, of a sense of guilt or remorse that he may experience if he commits certain actions. These forces operate from within the person, without any need for restrain from outside.

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External Inhibition – This refers to all types of external forces which may prevent an individual from committing crime. These forces may be produced by the thought that the person may get caught if he commits the crime, or sentenced to prison for a given number of years, or disgraced in the community or punished in some-other ways.

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Contact with Reality – This refers to the extent to which person can learn from his past mistakes, as well as to the extent to which he can evaluate accurately the present situation and foresee the consequence of his present action in relation to his future.

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Situational Crime Potential – This refers to the actual opportunity to commit the crime, that is to the easiness or possibilities to commit a crime offered by a given place, situation, person or environment.

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Mental Disturbances The following are cases of mental disturbances which are sometimes the causes of criminality and the development of criminal behavior. MENTAL DEFICIENCY – a condition of arrested or incomplete development of the mind existing before the age of 18, whether arising from inherent causes or induced by disease or injury. They may commit violent crimes but definitely not crimes involving the use of mentality

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IDIOTS – persons whose mentality is like a child of 2 yrs old. IMBECILES – persons whose mentality is like a child of 2 to 7 yrs old.

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FEEBLEMINDED PERSONS – those in whose case there exist mental defectiveness which though not amounting to imbecility, is yet pronounced that they require care, supervision and control for their own or for the protection of others or in case of children they appear to be permanently incapable by reason of such defectiveness or receiving proper benefit from the instruction of an ordinary school.

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SCHIZOPHRENIA – This is sometimes called DEMENTIA PRAECOX which is a form of psychosis characterized by thinking disturbance and regression to a more relatively unimpaired and intellectual functions are well preserved. The personal appearance are dilapidated and the patient is liable to impulsive acts, destructively and may commit suicide.

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COMPULSIVE NEUROSIS – A disorder of the psychic and mental functions without lesions of nerves and less severity than psychosis. Usually it is accompanied by a morbid nature or tendency on a particular act or object.

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PSYCHOPATHIC PERSONALITY – This is the most important cause of criminality among youthful offenders and habitual criminals. It is characterized by infantile level or rescind, lack of conscience, deficient feeling of affection to others and aggression to environment and other people.

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EPILEPSY – This is a condition characterized by convulsive seizures and a tendency to mental deterioration. The seizure may be extreme loss of consciousness. During the attack, the person become muscularly rigid, respiration ceases, froth on the mouth and tongue may be bitter. Just before the actual convulsion, there may be mental confusion, hallucination or delusion and may commit violent crimes without provocation.

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Types of Epilepsy Grand Mal – There is a complete loss of consciousness and general contraction of the muscles. Petit Mal – Mild or complete loss of consciousness and contraction of muscles. Jacksonian Type – Localized contraction of muscles with or without loss of consciousness.

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ALCOHOLISM – This is a form of vice causing mental disturbance. Causes of Alcoholism: Some people believe that alcohol is an appetizer before taking meal. Sometimes alcohol gives them soothing effects. As a way of escape from unpleasant realities of life. Used as a means of escaping personal problems.

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DRUG ADDICTION – This is another form of vice which causes strong mental disturbance. It is the state of chronic or periodic intoxication produced by the repeated consumption of natural or synthetic drugs. An addict may commit crimes against property to sustain the use of drugs, a woman may become prostitute to get money for drugs and they may commit violent crimes or commit suicide during withdrawal symptom due to extreme sufferings.

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SOCIOLOGICAL CAUSES OF CRIME LACK OF PARENTAL GUIDANCE. Much of our life influenced by the types of parents we have. Experiences proves that many parents lack control over their children through ignorance, severity, carelessness and indifference. Such children generally get into trouble and statistics show that “today’s delinquent is tomorrow’s criminal.”

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BROKEN HOMES AND FAMILY. Family is a homogenous, unified and intimate social groups wherein children have their initial experience with others; receive protection, normal instruction and basic physical and emotional satisfaction.

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Frequently, however, homes are very unpleasant places because of drunkenness, quarrelling and nagging. In such cases, there is a tendency to avoid the home and seek pleasure elsewhere. Too often, the pleasure sought or the places where it is sought are criminal or conducive to crime.

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Characteristics of Normal Home Physically complete where both natural parents are present. There is social and religious harmony in the groups. It must be economically stable to maintain normal health. Both parents must have the same cultural backgrounds. There must be physical and psychological normality There must be functional adequacy

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Basic Needs of Children Security Recognition Status Companionship

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KINDS OF DISORGANIZED OR BROKEN HOME Home with criminal pattern Home in which there are unsatisfactory relations because of domination, favoritism, on solicitude, over-severity, neglect, jealousy, step parent and interfering relatives.

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Home, socially or normally maladjusted because of difference of race, religion, or an immoral situations. Home in which one parent has physical or mental disability. Home under economic pressures like unemployment.

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INJURING STATUS OF NEIGHBORHOOD. The residence in slum or impoverish areas will lower the social status of the child. BAD ASSOCIATION WITH CRIMINAL GROUPS. The old age saying that “one bad apple will spoil a barrel of good ones” unfortunately holds true to a great degree among people.

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LACK OF RECREATIONAL FACILITIES FOR PROPER USE OF LEISURE TIME. Recreational facilities are especially necessary in the use of youthful energy in a legitimate way. Too often, in those areas where the most needed such things as park, clubs and others are missing.

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LACK OF EMPLOYMENT AND POVERTY. Lack of employment gives us too much leisure time, lead us to poverty, loss of self-respect which may lead us to crime. Although, however, poverty in itself is no direct cause of crime, it is through it that may set up demands and situations that can be satisfied only by larceny, illegal occupations and drunkenness.

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THEORIES ON SOCIOLOGICAL CRIMES DIFFERENTIAL-IDENTIFICATION THEORY by Daniel Glacier. It was maintained that a person pursues criminal behavior to the extent that he identifies himself with real or imaginary persons from whose perspective his criminal behavior seems acceptable. A person with the propensities of becoming a thief will consider thieves as their ideal person to identify themselves.

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IMITATION-SUGGESTION THEORY by Gabriel Tarde Delinquency and crime pattern are learned and adopted. The learning process either be conscious type copying or unconscious copying of confronting pattern of behavior.

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DIFFERENTIAL-SOCIAL DISORGANIZATION THEORY This is sometimes called Social Disorganization. There is social disorganization when there is breakdown, changes, conflict of values between the new and the old, when there is reduced influence of the social institution over behavior and when there is declining influence of the solid moral and ethical front.

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CONFLICT OF CULTURE THEORY by Thorstein Sellin. It was emphasized in this theory that the multiplicity of conflicting cultures is the principal source of social disorganization. The high crime and delinquency rates of certain ethnic or racial group is explained by their exposure to diverse and incongruent standards and codes of larger society.

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CONTAINMENT THEORY by Reckless Accordingly, criminality is brought about by the inability of the group to contain behavior of its member and that of effective containment of the individual into the value system and structure of society will minimize crime.

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Containment is better attained when the group is homogenous, isolated, undisturbed by migration and cultural clash. A group of people coming from a common ancestry, isolated outside influence, living in harmony and in cohesion, having a common religion, exercise maximum containment over the behavior of member.

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