INTRODUCTION TO CRIMINOLOGY : INTRODUCTION TO CRIMINOLOGY A REVIEWER
WILFREDO R. BERALDE Definition of Criminology : Definition of Criminology In its broadest sense, criminology is the entire body of knowledge regarding crimes, criminals and the effort of the society to prevent and repress them.
In a narrower sense, criminology is the scientific study of crimes and criminals. Classical Definition : Classical Definition According to Edwin H. Sutherland and Donald Cressey, criminology is a body of knowledge regarding crime as a social phenomenon. It includes within its scope the processes of making laws, of breaking laws, and of reacting toward the breaking of laws. Slide 4: This scientific study is extended only on three basic lines, and they are:
1. Criminal Etiology – Analysis of the causation of crimes and behavior of criminals;
2. Sociology of Law – Investigating of the nature of criminal law and its administration;
3. Penology – Study of the control of crimes and the rehabilitation of offenders. Related Studies and Sciences : Related Studies and Sciences Study of law
Science of medicine, chemistry and psychology
Social work involving sociology and psychology
Public administration Slide 6: Similarly, criminology includes in the activities of the following offices and agencies of the government:
Law enforcement agencies
Courts and prosecution arms of the government
Educational institutions like schools and colleges
Public charitable and social agencies
Public welfare agencies Slide 7: And among the private sectors whose work is related to criminology are the following:
The family and the home
Church and religion
Private charitable and welfare institutions
Civic clubs and organizations
Print media, newspaper, radio and television
Private schools and colleges and many more… Nature of Criminology : Nature of Criminology Generally, criminology cannot be considered a science because it has not yet acquired universal validity and acceptance; it is not stable and it varies from one time and place to another. However, considering that science is the systematic objective study of social phenomenon and other bodies of knowledge, criminology is a science in itself when applied to law enforcement and prevention of crimes under the following nature: Slide 9: IT IS AN APPLIED SCIENCE – In the study of the causes of crimes, anthropology, psychology, sociology and other natural sciences may be applied. While in crime detection, chemistry, medicine, physics, mathematics, ballistics, polygraphy, legal medicine, questioned document examination, science is also applied. This is called and known as INSTRUMENTATION. Slide 10: IT IS A SOCIAL SCIENCE – Inasmuch as crime is a social creation that it exists in a society being a social phenomenon, its study must be considered part of social science.
IT IS DYNAMIC – Criminology changes as social conditions change. It is concomitant with the advancement of other sciences that have been applied to it. Dynamic means characterized by action or forcefulness or force of personality. Concomitant means following or accompanying as a consequence. Slide 11: IT IS NATIONALISTIC – The study of crime must be in relation with the existing criminal law within the territory of a country. Finally, the question as to whether an act is a crime is dependent on the criminal law of the state. It follows therefore, that the causes of crime must be determined from its social needs and standards. Scope of Study of Criminology : Scope of Study of Criminology Study of the origin and development of criminal law or penal law.
Study of the causes of crimes and development of criminals.
Study of the different factors that enhances the development of criminal behavior such as:
Criminal Physical Anthropology
Victimology Demography – the branch of sociology that studies the characteristics of human populations. Epidemiology – the branch of medical science dealing with the transmission and control of disease. Ecology – The environment as it relates to living organisms. Anthropology – the social science that studies the origins and social relationships of human beings Psychology – The science of mental life. Psychiatry – The branch of medicine dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders. Victimology – Studies the nature and cause of victimization. Slide 13: Study of the various processes and measure accepted by society in cases of violation of criminal law such as:
The detection and investigation of crimes.
The arrest and apprehension of criminals.
The prosecution and conviction of the criminal in a judicial proceeding. Slide 14: The imprisonment, correction and rehabilitation of the convicted offender or criminal.
The administration of the police and other law enforcement agencies.
The enforcement of laws, decrees, rules and regulations.
Maintenance of recreational facilities and other auxiliary services to prevent the development of crimes and criminal behavior. Some Major Areas of Studies in Criminology : Some Major Areas of Studies in Criminology Dactyloscopy – a method of studying fingerprints to establish identification.
Ballistics – the study of the firing, flight, and effects of ammunition.
Questioned Document Examination – the examination of disputed document using a variety of scientific processes and methods. Slide 16: Penology
Police Supervision and Management
Investigation and Detection of Crimes
Industrial Security Management
Traffic Management & Accident Investigation & Others Some Opportunities of Criminology Graduate : Some Opportunities of Criminology Graduate In the law enforcement branches of the government particularly in the civilian, military and police agencies;
In the management and administration of security agencies of commercial and industrial establishment;
Document examiner of police agencies or verifier in the signature control of banks and other financial institutions; Slide 18: As custodial or correctional officers of penitentiary institutions;
As custodial or correctional officers of penitentiaries or penal colonies;
As laboratory technicians and experts in police laboratories;
Consultant in crime research and prevention programs; and