Forensic Firearms Evidence

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Forensic Firearms Evidence :

Forensic Firearms Evidence Review Questions Click here to begin

Note to the Examinations:

Exam 1 will test your conceptual understanding of the types of evidence which may arise out of a shooting incident and how that evidence can be effectively utilized. Exam 1 should be sufficient to test the understanding and knowledge of prosecutors, attorneys, officers and others who are not directly involved in evidence collection, laboratory work, or firearms examination. Note to the Examinations Continue 2 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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Exam 2 will test your understanding and your specific technical knowledge on the subject of forensic firearms evidence. It is designed for professionals working in the field and features questions most of which we believe should be readily answered correctly by such professionals. Continue 3 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

Exam No. 1:

Exam No. 1 Essay Questions Proceed

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What basic information can the headstamp of a fired cartridge casing provide? Answer Hunahuna, mura po’g naay utok! 5 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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Besides the headstamp, what potential information can a fired cartridge casing provide? Answer Hunahuna, mura po’g naay utok! 6 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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During the investigation of a crime scene at which a 22LR cartridge was fired, you discover a small impression or dent on the side of a wooden desk. You suspect it may be a graze mark caused by a bullet. How could you determine whether or not the dent was caused by a bullet? Answer Hunahuna, mura po’g naay utok! 7 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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In a particular homicide case, the key legal question is: at what distance was the victim from the suspect when the shot was fired. The suspect claims the victim had been choking him when he (the suspect) pulled a pistol from his pocket and fired. A witness stated that the victim was at least 15 feet away when the suspect simply shot him in the chest. Is it possible to determine whether the gun was fired very close to the victim or from a much greater distance? What items would the laboratory need in order to perform any testing? How could the actual range determination be made? Answer 8 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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In a fatal shooting incident, there are two suspects who both admit only firing “warning shots.” Both suspects have the same make, model, and caliber of gun and they both used ammunition from the same box. The autopsy showed that a single bullet had entered the victim’s chest, penetrated his sternum, perforated his heart, glanced off his spine and exited out his back. Two deformed bullets were recovered from a wall behind where the victim had been standing. Click here to Continue 9 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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How could the bullet which missed possibly be distinguished from one which went through the victim? How can the bullets be linked to the particular gun which fired them keeping in mind that both guns were the same in make, model, and caliber; and that each fired the same brand, caliber, and have the same general rifling characteristics; and that each fired the same caliber, brand, type and weight of ammunition? Answer 10 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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At the scene of a shooting, two empty cartridge casings were found. The casings were of the same caliber and cartridge type but with different headstamps. Without further examination of the casings, what could be concluded about the number of firearms used in this incident? After microscopic examination of the cartridge casings, what then could be determined about the number of firearms used? Answer 11 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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A revolver is found on the floor after a shooting incident. What (if anything) should be done before the revolver is picked up? What should be done with it before placing it into an evidence container? Answer Hunahuna, mura po’g naay utok! 12 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

Exam No. 2:

Exam No. 2 Multiple Choice Identification Essay

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In the United States, the weight of bullets are given in: Grains Carats Milligrams Ounces Grams Hunahuna, mura po’g naay utok! 14 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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In Europe and most countries other than the United States, the weight of bullets are given in: Grains Grams Carats Ounces Milligrams Hunahuna, mura po’g naay utok! 15 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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Cartridge cases can be made from: Steel Aluminum Brass All of the above None of the above (a through c) Hunahuna, mura po’g naay utok! 16 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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The most common metal used for the jacket of American made jacketed bullets is: Steel Aluminum Copper Lead Antimony Hunahuna, mura po’g naay utok! 17 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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Some Winchester SILVERTIP pistol and revolver have jackets made of: Steel Aluminum Silver Lead Antimony Hunahuna, mura po’g naay utok! 18 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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The cores of most American jacketed bullets are made of: Zinc Lead Aluminum Nickel Copper Hunahuna, mura po’g naay utok! 19 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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A gun barrel with very wide lands will have Narrow grooves No grooves Very wide grooves Half as many grooves Very deep grooves Hunahuna, mura po’g naay utok! 20 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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The elements present in nearly all American-made centerfire priming compositions which are used to indicate gunshot residues in hand swabbings are: Carbon and lead Lead and copper Barium and antimony Iron and aluminum Sulfur and nitrogen Hunahuna, mura po’g naay utok! 21 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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The primary constituent of smokeless gunpowder is: Potassium nitrate Cyanoguanidine Nitroglycerin Nitrocellulose Sulfur Hunahuna, mura po’g naay utok! 22 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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A box of ammunition is labeled “9 x 19mm.” The 9 and the 19 represent: The weight of the bullet in grams and the metric caliber of the gun. The metric caliber of the bullet and the length of the cartridge case. The metric caliber of the bullet and the diameter of the head of the case. The caliber and weight of the bullet. The weight of the bullet in grains and the diameter of the bullet. 23 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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The gun barrel shown on the right has: 5 lands and grooves with a right twist 10 lands with a right twist 5 lands with a left twist A polygonal profile 5 grooves with a left twist 24 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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The relative widths of the lands compared to the grooves in this barrel are: About 2:1 (The lands are twice the width of the grooves) About 1:2 (The lands are only half as wide as the grooves) About 1:1 About 1:3 Cannot be determined from the drawing as shown 25 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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The headstamps on the two 22 rimfire cartridges shown above reveal that these cartridges were manufactured by the: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Expediter company Umberti company and Federal Cartridge Federal Cartridge and CCI Unknown manufacturer and Super X Co. Remington Co. and Olin-Winchester 26 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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The fired full metal jacket bullet shown on the right was fired from a gun with a: Right twist and lands twice as wide as the grooves Counter spiral with equal lands and grooves Right twist and lands half as wide as the grooves Left twist and lands twice as wide as the grooves Left twist and lands half as wide as the grooves 27 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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If this bullet were to be initialed by you, which location is NOT a suitable location for marking? A B C None of the above are suitable. All of the above (A,B & C) are suitable. 28 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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Identify the most likely source of the marks on the fired cartridge case shown below. A. For FIRING PIN IMPRESSION. A B C D E F G H I 29 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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For EJECTOR MARK A B C D E F G H I 30 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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For EXTRACTOR MARK A B C D E F G H I 31 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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For BREECHFACE IMPRINT A B C D E F G H I 32 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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For HEADSTAMP A B C D E F G H I 33 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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For CHAMBER STRIATIONS A B C D E F G H I 34 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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For FIRING PIN SCRAPE MARK A B C D E F G H I 35 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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For MAGAZINE LIP MARKS A B C D E F G H I 36 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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For EJECTION PORT IMPACT MARK A B C D E F G H I 37 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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Shown below are the breechfaces of four different manufacturers of .380 ACP pistols. Which of these can be considered as having fired the expended cartridge shown on the right? A B C D 38 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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A new pistol chamber for the 10mm automatic cartridge has just been introduced on the market, the bore diameter is measured and found to be 0.390 inches. Visual inspection reveals that the manufacturer has rifled this gun with 10 lands and grooves and a right twist, since the interior circumference of the bore is π x .390 (=1.225"). The width of a land plus the width of a groove. Remains constant and is approximately equal to 0.122 Requires knowing the groove diameter of the gun, not the bore diameter Is approximately equal to 0.061" Requires knowing the twist rate of the 10-right rifling 39 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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Which of the following is NOT particularly useful in determining whether a fired bullet could have been fired by a particular firearm, Number of lands and grooves Direction of twist Rate of twist The widths of either the lands or the grooves 40 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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Match the various physical forms of smokeless gunpowder with the corresponding names: A. TUBULAR A B C D E F pATUNGÁ OG libro, ARON INGNON bright! 41 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PERFORATED DISC-FLAKE A B C D E F pATUNGÁ OG libro, ARON INGNON bright! 42 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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UNPERFORATED DISC-FLAKE A B C D E F pATUNGÁ OG libro, ARON INGNON bright! 43 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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LAMELS A B C D E F pATUNGÁ OG libro, ARON INGNON bright! 44 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BALL A B C D E F pATUNGÁ OG libro, ARON INGNON bright! 45 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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CRACKED BALL A B C D E F pATUNGÁ OG libro, ARON INGNON bright! 46 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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“Bullet Wipe” around the margin of a bullet hole: is a close-proximity discharge phenomena. occurs only after the bore of the gun has been fouled by a previous shot. is composed of soot, bullet metal, primer residue and – on occasion – bullet lubricants is only detectable by infrared photography. is not useful as evidence. 47 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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Identify the parts of these two live rounds of ammunition: A. CENTERFIRE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 48 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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RIMFIRE PRIMING MIXTURE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 49 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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DISC FLAKE POWDER 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 50 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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LEAD BULLET 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 51 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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KNURLED CANNELURE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 52 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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EXTRACTION GROOVE IN CARTRIDGE CASE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 53 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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RIMFIRE CARTRIDGE CASE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 54 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PRIMER 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 55 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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TUBULAR POWDER 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 56 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BULLET JACKET 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 57 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BULLET CORE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 58 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BOXER TYPE FLASH HOLE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 59 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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Identify the: A. BARREL 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 60 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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EXTRACTOR 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 61 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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HAMMER 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 62 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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TRIGGER 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 63 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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CYLINDER 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 64 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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FRAME 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 65 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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MAGAZINE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 66 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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TRIGGER GUARD 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 67 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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EJECTION PORT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 68 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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GRIP 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 69 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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MUZZLE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 70 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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SLIDE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 71 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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Identify the various components or parts of this modern shotgun shell: A. CARTRIDGE RIM A B C D E F G H 72 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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Arrange the following lead shot in order of INCREASING size (i.e., from the smallest to the largest diameter): #4, 00 Buckshot, #4 Buckshot, BB, #9, #6 #9, #6, #4, BB, #4 Buckshot, 00 Buckshot 00 Buckshot, #4 Buckshot, BB, #4, #6, #9 #4, #6, #9, 00 Buckshot, #4 Buckshot, BB BB, #4 Buckshot, 00 Buckshot, #4, #6, #9 73 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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A shotshell wad is recovered from the ground near the victim of a shotgun shooting. Which of the following could NOT be determined from the laboratory examination of this wad? NOTE: There are three answers. The brand of shotgun The brand of shotshell The gauge of the shell The type of gun (autoloader, break-open, etc.) The rifling characteristics of the gun The gauge of the shotgun 74 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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THE LAST QUESTION IS OF THE ESSAY TYPE REQUIRING A WRITTEN ANSWER. USE A SEPARATE PAPER. MAKE YOUR ANSWER AS COMPREHENSIVE AND COMPLETE AS POSSIBLE 75 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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In a shooting incident involving a shotgun, an oval pellet pattern is present in a wooden fence. Some of the deformed pellets can be seen embedded in the wood. No gun has been recovered. What should be done to properly document this pattern? What firearms related evidence should be searched for? And an attempt should be made to determine the location of……? What else should be collected from the scene? What tests should be requested of the Firearms Examiner regarding any physical evidence found or gathered? ANSWER 76 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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The ammunition manufacturer and the caliber of the bullet fired. It also may be possible to derive information about the age of the ammunition (or date of manufacture) and/or special loadings such as a “+P” designation. PROCEED 77 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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It may be possible to determine the specific characteristics of the responsible firearm by the shape and size of the firing pin, the location or orientation of the extractor and ejector, the appearance or nature of the finish on the breechface. If recovered, the responsible gun can be identified as having fired the cartridge by a variety of marks produced by the firing pin, extractor, ejector, breechface marks, chamber striations, etc. PROCEED 78 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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Chemical tests of the mark can be made to determine the presence of lead and/or copper bullet wipe . Any recovered bullets can be examined for traces of wood of the same type as that of the desk. PROCEED 79 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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A. Yes , it is possible to test these two accounts of the same incident. The victim’s clothing (i.e., the garment with the entry bullet hole.) The responsible gun. More of the same ammunition used to shoot the victim . The clothing should be examined for any gunshot residue (soot, powder particles) around the bullet hole. Test firings of the gun and with the same ammunition at known distances such as 2", 3",6" and 1', 2', to determine the Gunshot Residue (GSR) pattern characteristics within arms-reach and the distance at and beyond which no detectable residues are left. PROCEED 80 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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A. The bullet which went through the victim may have embedded trace evidence and therefore should be examined under the microscope for bone, tissue, and/or clothing fibers. Before the bullets are removed from the wall, shape of the holes should be carefully noted and recorded for the following reasons: Click here for the Reasons 81 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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The shape of the holes may show that one of the bullets was already deformed before it struck the wall (by going through the victim’s body.) The shape of the holes may also indicate that one of the bullets was not stabilized when it hit the wall – meaning it had struck the wall while in yaw – which would likely have been caused by its travel through the victim’s body. The height, angle of penetration of each hole in relation to the victim’s injury might help resolve this case. Careful note should be taken of the depth of penetration of each bullet into the wall; i.e., wood, studs, etc. as the bullet which went through the victim would have substantially less velocity when it hit the wall and would likely penetrate much less than the other bullet. Click here for Answer to B 82 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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If either of the recovered bullets has retained sufficient individual characteristics (striations from the bore), it can be matched to one of the guns . (It does not matter that both suspects fired the same type of ammunition in very similar guns.) The two bullet holes in the wall can be associated with the particular guns through penetration depth comparisons and possibly from the height and angle data collected at the crime scene.. PROCEED 83 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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A. Nothing can be concluded regarding the number of firearms involved (1 vs 2) since it is possible for a gun to fire different brands of ammunition (of the same caliber and dimensions.) The use of only one gun could be established if matching firing pin impressions, breechface marks, etc., were found on both expended cartridges. Conversely, the use of two guns could quickly be ascertained if clear and conspicuous differences in firing pin impressions or breechface imprints were observed; e.g., parallel breechface marks vs concentric breechface marks. PROCEED 84 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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A. The first action should be to document its configuration (e.g., hammer cocked or down, cylinder open or closed, etc.) with close-up photographs. Wide-view photographs should also be taken to document the gun’s location within the crime scene. If fingerprints are important in this case, the gun should be handled in such a way so as not to leave or disturb any latent fingerprints ; i.e., handle the gun by the edges of the trigger guard or checkered portion of the grips. Click here to continue 85 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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Carefully place index marks on the cylinder so that its portion relative to the barrel can be determined before the cylinder is opened or rotated. Record the condition (fired, unfired, misfired) and sequence of any cartridges in the chamber of the cylinder. Remove, itemize, and package cartridges taken from the revolver. Mark or tag the revolver for later identification purposes. Describe the make, model, caliber, and serial number of the gun if possible. PROCEED 86 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! PROCEED 87 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 88 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 89 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 90 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 91 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 92 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 93 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 94 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 95 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 96 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 97 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 98 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 99 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 100 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 101 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 102 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 103 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 104 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 105 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 106 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 107 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 108 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 109 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 110 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 111 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 112 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 113 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 114 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 115 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 116 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 117 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 118 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 119 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 120 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 121 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 122 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 123 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 124 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 125 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 126 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 127 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 128 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 129 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 130 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 131 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 132 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 133 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 134 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED B, C, D can be excluded because their breechface imprints do not match those shown on the cartridge. Click the mouse for explanation Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 135 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 136 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 137 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 138 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 139 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 140 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 141 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 142 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 143 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 144 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 145 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 146 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 147 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 148 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 149 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 150 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 151 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 152 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 153 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 154 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 155 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 156 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 157 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 158 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 159 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 160 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 161 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 162 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 163 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 164 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 165 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 166 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 167 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 168 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 169 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 170 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 171 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 172 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 173 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 174 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 175 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 176 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 177 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 178 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 179 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 180 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 181 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 182 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 183 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 184 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 185 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 186 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 187 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 188 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 189 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 190 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 191 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 192 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 193 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 194 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 195 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 196 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 197 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 198 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 199 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 200 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 201 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 202 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 203 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 204 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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CRIMP A B C D E F G H 205 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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METAL HEAD A B C D E F G H 206 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PLASTIC HULL A B C D E F G H 207 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PRIMER A B C D E F G H 208 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROPELLANT A B C D E F G H 209 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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SHOT A B C D E F G H 210 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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WAD A B C D E F G H 211 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 212 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 213 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 214 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 215 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 216 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 217 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 218 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 219 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 220 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 221 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 222 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 223 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 224 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 225 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 226 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 227 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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PROCEED Click here if you have not completed the 3 answers Ok ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAKAIGO! 228 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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BACK Patay ka DOH! Ikaw ma’y NAIGO! Kuyawa ah! Mura ma’g si Lastikman! 229 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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Continue to B A. A scale photograph should be taken with the maximum and minimum diameters of the pattern noted or recorded. (The total number of pellet strikes should be counted if not discernable in the photo). 230 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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Continue to C B. The wads from the shells, any fired shotgun shells and the location of the shooter. There should be a record showing the location of any found wads (and their distance from the impact site on the fence), as well as a record of the location of any shells, or any evidence of a shooter’s position; i.e., footprints in dirt, trampled grass, etc. 231 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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Continue to D C. A section of the fence should be collected if possible or some representative pellets should be removed from the fence. (If collected, the fence section should be marked so the examiner can later determine the original orientation of the section.) 232 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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Continue D. The approximate path or angle of entry and depth of penetration of the pellets should be determined. 233 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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Continue If an expended shotshell is located, the lab should determine the brand and gauge of the shell, the size and type of shot it was loaded with, the charge of shot contained in the shell and the possible type of guns which could have fired the shell based on the markings produced by the responsible gun. 234 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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Continue The pellets from the fence should be compared to the shell to see if the pellets could have come from this shell. If one or more wads were recovered, their gauge and brand should be determined by the laboratory and whether they correspond in brand and gauge to the recovered shell and the size of the shot in the fence. 235 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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Continue If a gun is later recovered, the fired shotshell can be compared to the gun. test firings will allow comparison of the shot pattern and a range determination as well as a comparison of the distance the wads are discharged with the measurements taken at the scene. 236 MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

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