Wireless Power Transmission

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Wireless Power Transmission : 

Wireless Power Transmission Presented by Rakesh K.K. 4NM07EC080 Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering NMAM Institute of Technology, Nitte

Overview : 

Overview What is wireless power transmission(WPT)? Why is WPT? History of WPT Types of WPT Techniques to transfer energy wirelessly Advantages and disadvantages Applications Conclusion References 8/31/2010 Wireless Power Transmission 2

What is WPT? : 

What is WPT? The transmission of energy from one place to another without using wires Conventional energy transfer is using wires But, the wireless transmission is made possible by using various technologies 8/31/2010 Wireless Power Transmission 3

Why not wires? : 

Why not wires? As per studies, most electrical energy transfer is through wires. Most of the energy loss is during transmission On an average, more than 30% In India, it exceeds 40% 8/31/2010 Wireless Power Transmission 4

Why WPT? : 

Why WPT? Reliable Efficient Fast Low maintenance cost Can be used for short-range or long-range. 8/31/2010 Wireless Power Transmission 5

History : 

History Nikola Tesla in late 1890s Pioneer of induction techniques His vision for “World Wireless System” The 187 feet tall tower to broadcast energy All people can have access to free energy Due to shortage of funds, tower did not operate 8/31/2010 Wireless Power Transmission 6

History (contd…) : 

History (contd…) Tesla was able to transfer energy from one coil to another coil He managed to light 200 lamps from a distance of 40km The idea of Tesla is taken in to research after 100 years by a team led by Marin Soljačić from MIT. The project is named as ‘WiTricity’. 8/31/2010 Wireless Power Transmission 7

Energy Coupling : 

Energy Coupling The transfer of energy Magnetic coupling Inductive coupling Simplest Wireless Energy coupling is a transformer 8/31/2010 Wireless Power Transmission 8

Types and Technologies of WPT : 

Types and Technologies of WPT Near-field techniques Inductive Coupling Resonant Inductive Coupling Air Ionization Far-field techniques Microwave Power Transmission (MPT) LASER power transmission 8/31/2010 Wireless Power Transmission 9

Inductive coupling : 

Inductive coupling Primary and secondary coils are not connected with wires. Energy transfer is due to Mutual Induction 8/31/2010 Wireless Power Transmission 10

Inductive coupling (contd…) : 

Inductive coupling (contd…) Transformer is also an example Energy transfer devices are usually air-cored Wireless Charging Pad(WCP),electric brushes are some examples On a WCP, the devices are to be kept, battery will be automatically charged. 8/31/2010 Wireless Power Transmission 11

Inductive coupling(contd…) : 

Inductive coupling(contd…) Electric brush also charges using inductive coupling The charging pad (primary coil) and the device(secondary coil) have to be kept very near to each other It is preferred because it is comfortable. Less use of wires Shock proof 8/31/2010 Wireless Power Transmission 12

Resonance Inductive Coupling(RIC) : 

Resonance Inductive Coupling(RIC) Combination of inductive coupling and resonance Resonance makes two objects interact very strongly Inductance induces current 8/31/2010 Wireless Power Transmission 13

How resonance in RIC? : 

How resonance in RIC? Coil provides the inductance Capacitor is connected parallel to the coil Energy will be shifting back and forth between magnetic field surrounding the coil and electric field around the capacitor Radiation loss will be negligible 8/31/2010 Wireless Power Transmission 14

Block diagram of RIC : 

Block diagram of RIC 8/31/2010 Wireless Power Transmission 15

An example : 

An example 8/31/2010 Wireless Power Transmission 16

WiTricity : 

WiTricity Based on RIC Led by MIT’s Marin Soljačić Energy transfer wirelessly for a distance just more than 2m. Coils were in helical shape No capacitor was used Efficiency achieved was around 40% 8/31/2010 Wireless Power Transmission 17

WiTricity (contd…) : 

WiTricity (contd…) 8/31/2010 Wireless Power Transmission 18

WiTricity… Some statistics : 

WiTricity… Some statistics Used frequencies are 1MHz and 10MHz At 1Mhz, field strengths were safe for human At 10MHz, Field strengths were more than ICNIRP standards 8/31/2010 Wireless Power Transmission 19

WiTricity now… : 

WiTricity now… No more helical coils Companies like Intel are also working on devices that make use of RIC Researches for decreasing the field strength Researches to increase the range 8/31/2010 Wireless Power Transmission 20

RIC vs. inductive coupling : 

RIC vs. inductive coupling RIC is highly efficient RIC has much greater range than inductive coupling RIC is directional when compared to inductive coupling RIC can be one-to-many. But usually inductive coupling is one-to-one Devices using RIC technique are highly portable 8/31/2010 Wireless Power Transmission 21

Air Ionization : 

Air Ionization Toughest technique under near-field energy transfer techniques Air ionizes only when there is a high field Needed field is 2.11MV/m Natural example: Lightening Not feasible for practical implementation 8/31/2010 Wireless Power Transmission 22

Advantages of near-field techniques : 

Advantages of near-field techniques No wires No e-waste Need for battery is eliminated Efficient energy transfer using RIC Harmless, if field strengths under safety levels Maintenance cost is less 8/31/2010 Wireless Power Transmission 23

Disadvantages : 

Disadvantages Distance constraint Field strengths have to be under safety levels Initial cost is high In RIC, tuning is difficult High frequency signals must be the supply Air ionization technique is not feasible 8/31/2010 Wireless Power Transmission 24

Far-field energy transfer : 

Far-field energy transfer Radiative Needs line-of-sight LASER or microwave Aims at high power transfer Tesla’s tower was built for this 8/31/2010 Wireless Power Transmission 25

Microwave Power Transfer(MPT) : 

Microwave Power Transfer(MPT) Transfers high power from one place to another. Two places being in line of sight usually Steps: Electrical energy to microwave energy Capturing microwaves using rectenna Microwave energy to electrical energy 8/31/2010 Wireless Power Transmission 26

MP T (contd…) : 

MP T (contd…) AC can not be directly converted to microwave energy AC is converted to DC first DC is converted to microwaves using magnetron Transmitted waves are received at rectenna which rectifies, gives DC as the output DC is converted back to AC 8/31/2010 Wireless Power Transmission 27

LASER transmission : 

LASER transmission LASER is highly directional, coherent Not dispersed for very long But, gets attenuated when it propagates through atmosphere Simple receiver Photovoltaic cell Cost-efficient 8/31/2010 Wireless Power Transmission 28

Solar Power Satellites (SPS) : 

Solar Power Satellites (SPS) To provide energy to earth’s increasing energy need To efficiently make use of renewable energy i.e., solar energy SPS are placed in geostationary orbits 8/31/2010 Wireless Power Transmission 29

SPS (contd…) : 

SPS (contd…) Solar energy is captured using photocells Each SPS may have 400 million photocells Transmitted to earth in the form of microwaves/LASER Using rectenna/photovoltaic cell, the energy is converted to electrical energy Efficiency exceeds 95% if microwave is used. 8/31/2010 Wireless Power Transmission 30

Rectenna : 

Rectenna Stands for rectifying antenna Consists of mesh of dipoles and diodes Converts microwave to its DC equivalent Usually multi-element phased array 8/31/2010 Wireless Power Transmission 31

Rectenna in US : 

Rectenna in US Rectenna in US receives 5000MW of power from SPS It is about one and a half mile long 8/31/2010 Wireless Power Transmission 32

Other projects : 

Other projects Alaska’21 Grand Bassin Hawaii 8/31/2010 Wireless Power Transmission 33

LASER vs. MPT : 

LASER vs. MPT When LASER is used, the antenna sizes can be much smaller Microwaves can face interference (two frequencies can be used for WPT are 2.45GHz and 5.4GHz) LASER has high attenuation loss and also it gets diffracted by atmospheric particles easily 8/31/2010 Wireless Power Transmission 34

Advantages of far-field energy transfer : 

Advantages of far-field energy transfer Efficient Easy Need for grids, substations etc are eliminated Low maintenance cost More effective when the transmitting and receiving points are along a line-of-sight Can reach the places which are remote 8/31/2010 Wireless Power Transmission 35

Disadvantages of far-field energy trasnfer : 

Disadvantages of far-field energy trasnfer Radiative Needs line-of-sight Initial cost is high When LASERs are used, conversion is inefficient Absorption loss is high When microwaves are used, interference may arise FRIED BIRD effect 8/31/2010 Wireless Power Transmission 36

Applications : 

Applications Near-field energy transfer Electric automobile charging Static and moving Consumer electronics Industrial purposes Harsh environment Far-field energy transfer Solar Power Satellites Energy to remote areas Can broadcast energy globally (in future) 8/31/2010 Wireless Power Transmission 37

Conclusion : 

Conclusion Transmission without wires- a reality Efficient Low maintenance cost. But, high initial cost Better than conventional wired transfer Energy crisis can be decreased Low loss In near future, world will be completely wireless 8/31/2010 Wireless Power Transmission 38

References : 

References S. Sheik Mohammed, K. Ramasamy, T. Shanmuganantham,” Wireless power transmission – a next generation power transmission system”, International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) (Volume 1 – No. 13) Peter Vaessen,” Wireless Power Transmission”, Leonardo Energy, September 2009 C.C. Leung, T.P. Chan, K.C. Lit, K.W. Tam and Lee Yi Chow, “Wireless Power Transmission and Charging Pad” David Schneider, “Electrons unplugged”, IEEE Spectrum, May 2010 Shahrzad Jalali Mazlouman, Alireza Mahanfar, Bozena Kaminska, “Mid-range Wireless Energy Transfer Using Inductive Resonance for Wireless Sensors” Chunbo Zhu, Kai Liu, Chunlai Yu, Rui Ma, Hexiao Cheng, “Simulation and Experimental Analysis on Wireless Energy Transfer Based on Magnetic Resonances”, IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC), September 3-5, 2008 8/31/2010 Wireless Power Transmission 39

References(contd…) : 

References(contd…) André Kurs, Aristeidis Karalis, Robert Moffatt, J. D. Joannopoulos, Peter Fisher and Marin Soljačić, “Wireless Power Transfer via Strongly Coupled Magnetic Resonances”, Science, June 2007 T. R. Robinson, T. K. Yeoman and R. S. Dhillon, “Environmental impact of high power density microwave beams on different atmospheric layers”, White Paper on Solar Power Satellite (SPS) Systems, URSI, September 2006 Richard M. Dickinson, and Jerry Grey, “Lasers for Wireless Power Transmission” S.S. Ahmed, T.W. Yeong and H.B. Ahmad, “Wireless power transmission and its annexure to the grid system” 8/31/2010 Wireless Power Transmission 40

THANK YOU! : 

THANK YOU! 8/31/2010 Wireless Power Transmission 41