Sheeba and Vadivel 68

Category: Education

Presentation Description

No description available.


Presentation Transcript

slide 1:

Authors agree that this article remains permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 International License Research Paper PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL CONTENTS OF THE LEAVES OF Acrostichum aureum L. M. Arockia Badhsheeba 1 and V. Vadivel 2 1 Department of UG Biotechnology Kumararani Meena Muthiah College of Arts and Science 4 - Crescent Avenue Road Gandhi Nagar Adiyar Chennai – 600 020 Tamil Nadu India 2 PG and Research Department of Botany V. O. Chidambaram College Tuticorin – 628008 Tamil Nadu India. Abstract The physicochemical parameters are mainly used in judging the purity of the drug. Hence in the present investigation moisture content total ash water-soluble ash acid-soluble ash sulphated ash and different solvent extractive values are determined. Preliminary screening of phytochemicals is a valuable step in the detection of the bioactive principles present in medicinal plants and subsequently may lead to drug discovery and development. In the present study chief phytoconstituents of the Acrostichum aureum L Fern medicinal plant of the Pteridaceae family were identified to relate their presence with bioactivities of the plants. These research findings highlight that methanolic extracts of A. aureum leaves had the highest number of phytochemicals compared to other solvent extracts. Hence methanolic extracts of A. aureum leaves holds the great potential to treat various human diseases and has profound medical applicability. Fluorescence analysis of powder under visible light and UV light helps establish the purity of the drug. Hence fluorescence analysis of leaf powder is undertaken. Key words: Acrostichum aureum L. Pteridophytes Physicochemical Phytochemical Screening Fluorescence Analysis. INTRODUCTION The World Health Organization WHO estimates that 80 of people in developing countries depend on traditional medicine for their health needs and 85 of traditional medicine involves the use of plant extracts. Ferns are generally used in traditional medicine for the cure of many deadly diseases like skin problems wounds cough and reproductive problems as well as to make insect repellent 1 2. A wide range of Journal of Global Biosciences ISSN 2320-1355 Volume 9 Number 4 2020 pp. 7003-7018 Website: DOI:

slide 2:

Journal of Global Biosciences Vol. 94 2020 pp. 7003-7018 ISSN 2320-1355 7004 medicinal ferns like Adiantum capillus-veneris Cheilanthes albomarginata Asplenium nidus Ceratopteris thalictroides including Acrostichum aureum exist in Asia 3-5. A. aureum is a member of Pteridaceae which is commonly known to the locals as the Swamp Fern or Mangrove Fern. It is an evergreen shrub found in a hostile environment. Plant species that thrive in a hostile environment replete with bacteria fungi or virus synthesize defensive natural products against these pathogens which may also exhibit bactericidal fungicidal or virucidal activity in the human system 6. Several studies have reported the traditional use of A. aureum’s rhizome for curing wounds non-healing ulcers boils syphilitic ulcers sore throat chest pains elephantiasis purgative febrifuge cloudy urine in women and rheumatism in Malaysia 7 Bangladesh 8 and Yap islands and Micronesia 9. Rhizome paste is applied to heal the wounds and boils. It is also used as anthelmintic vulnerary healing inveterate ulcers and bladder complains in China. Fertile fronds are used for syphilitic ulcers in Borneo. Fronds are used as an antifungal agent 10. In Bangladesh preparations from rhizomes and leaves of A. aureum are used to treat wounds peptic ulcers and boils 11. The native people of Costa Rica use leaves as emollients whereas the Cuna people Panama and Colombia use the young fiddleheads to extract fish bones from the throat and as a medicinal bath for infants 12. The crude extract of a Japanese A. aureum specimen is reported to possess anti-oxidant tyrosinase inhibiting activity 13 while a Hainan specimen reported anti-tumour activity against cervical cancer cell line 14. Uddin et al. 15 reported the cytotoxic effect of water and methanol extracts from a Bangladeshi specimen of A. aureum leaves on gastric colon and breast cancer cells. An understanding of the chemical constituents of plants is a prerequisite for their use in medicine and also for the synthesis of complex chemical substances. Correlation between the phytoconstituents and the bioactivity of the plant is desirable to know for the synthesis of compounds with specific activities to treat various health ailments and chronic diseases as well. Owing to the significance in the above context such preliminary phytochemical screening of plants is the need of the hour to discover and develop novel therapeutic agents with improved efficacy. Numerous research groups have also reported such studies throughout the world. Thus the present study deals with the physicochemical and phytochemical screening of Acrostichum aureum L. leaves. MATERIAL AND METHODS

slide 3:

Journal of Global Biosciences Vol. 94 2020 pp. 7003-7018 ISSN 2320-1355 7005 Collection and Identification of the Plant Material The leaves of Acrostichum aureum L. were collected from the Puthalam Kanyakumari District Tamil Nadu. The plant was identified with help of local flora and authenticated in Botanical Survey of India Southern Circle Coimbatore Tamil Nadu. A voucher specimen VOCC/VV/Bot/11 was also deposited in the PG Research Department of Botany V.O. Chidambaram College Tuticorin. Preparation of A. aureum Leaf Powder Dry conditions are essential to prevent the formation of artefacts as a result of microbial fermentation and subsequent degradation of the plant metabolites. The plant materials are cut or sliced into small pieces to facilitate homogenous drying and prevented from direct sunlight impact to minimize undesirable chemical reactions of plant metabolites resulting in the formation of artefacts. Hence in the present study the leaves of A. aureum were cut into small pieces and were dried in shade and then powder with a mechanical grinder. The powder was passing through sieve number 75 and stored in a labelled air-tight container for further studies. Physicochemical Studies Physicochemical studies include loss on drying moisture content ash value and extractive value to determine the quality and purity of the powder of the leaves of A. aureum. Moisture Loss on Drying About 3g of the air-dried sample was weighed Wb into a pre-dried and weighed Wa tarred porcelain crucible. The sample was dried in an oven at 100-105°C until two consecutive weighing’s Wc do not differ by more than 5mg. The moisture content of the sample was calculated about crude air-dried drug 16. Moisture W b − W C W b −W a x 100 Ash Values Total Ash Value A silica crucible was heated to redness for 10min and cooled in a desiccator and weighed W1. About 3g of the ground air-dried sample was transferred to the crucible and weighed along with the contents accurately W2. The sample was ignited gradually in an electrical muffle furnace increasing the heat to 500–600°C until it is white

slide 4:

Journal of Global Biosciences Vol. 94 2020 pp. 7003-7018 ISSN 2320-1355 7006 indicating the absence of carbon. It was cooled in desiccators and reweighed W3 17. Total ash content was calculated as in equation Total ash W 3 − W 1 W 2 −W 1 x 100 Acid-insoluble Ash Silica Sand content 10ml of 2M HCl was added to the crucible containing the total ash covered with a watch-glass and boiled gently for 5min. The watch-glass was washed with 5ml of hot water and the washings were added to the crucible. The insoluble matter was filtered on an ashless filter paper and washed with hot water until the filtrate is neutral. The filter-paper containing the insoluble matter was transferred to the original crucible dried on a hotplate and ignited to constant weight W4. The residue was allowed to cool in desiccators for 30min and then weighed 17. Acid-insoluble ash content was calculated as in equation Acid-insoluble ash W 4 − W 1 W 2 −W 1 x 100 Water Soluble Ash To the crucible containing the total ash 25ml of water was added and boiled for 5min. The insoluble matter was collected on an ashless filter paper. The filter was washed with hot water and then ignited in a crucible for 15min at a temperature not exceeding 450°C. The residue was allowed to cool in desiccators for 30min and then re-weighed W5 17 calculations were done according to equations Weight of residue W6 g W5 – W1 Weight of ash W7 g W3 – W1 Water-soluble ash g W7 – W6 Water-soluble ash W 7 − W 6 W 1 x 100 Sulphated Ash A silica crucible was heated to redness for 10min allowed to cool in desiccators and weighed Wa. 1g of substance was accurately weighed and transferred to the crucible and weighed along with the contents accurately Wb. It was ignited gently at first until the substance was thoroughly charred. Then the residue was cooled and moistened with 1 ml concentrated sulfuric acid heated gently until white fumes are no longer evolved and ignited at 800 ± 25°C until all black particles have disappeared. The ignition was conducted in a place protected from air currents. The crucible was allowed to cool and a few drops of concentrated sulfuric acid were added and heated. Ignited as before

slide 5:

Journal of Global Biosciences Vol. 94 2020 pp. 7003-7018 ISSN 2320-1355 7007 allowed to cool and weighed Wc 17. The operation was repeated until two successive weighing does not differ by more than 0.5mg. Calculate the percentage of sulphated ash concerning the air-dried drug. Sulphated ash W − W W −W x 100 Extractive Values The extractive values of leaves of A. aureum in various solvents like petroleum ether benzene chloroform ethyl acetate ethanol methanol and water were determined by employing the method of analysis described in Pharmacopoeia of India 17. About 5g of air-dried leaf powder was taken in a stoppered flask. 100ml of the respective solvent was added shaken well and allowed to stand for 24h with occasional shaking. Then the content was filtered. 50ml of the filtrate were pipette out into a clean previously weighed china dish and evaporated on a water bath. Finally it was dried at 105ºC in an oven cooled in a desiccator and weighed. The percentage of solvent-soluble extractive concerning the air-dried sample was calculated. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening Preparation of Plant Extract The coarse powder was subjected to extraction in 250ml each of petroleum ether benzene chloroform ethyl acetate ethanol and methanol solvents separately. The coarse powder 10g of the leaf was weighed and put into the brown glass bottles. Then the solvents were added to it. Then the bottles were sealed with aluminium foil and kept in laboratory shaker at room temperature and the bottles were shaken 130-140rpm for one week. Finally the extract was filtered through many layers of muslin cloth for coarse filtration. The coarse filtrate was then filtered through Whatman number 1 filter paper. The obtained filtrate was evaporated in a vacuum rotary evaporator under reduced pressure at 40ºC until the filtrate was reduced to one-third of the starting filtrate volume collected in the petri dish and dried at room temperature. The dried extract from the petri dish was scraped and transferred to Eppendorf tube. A part of dry extracts powder was re-dissolved in 50ml of dimethyl sulfoxide DMSO and was stored in stopper glass bottles and another part was kept as such in air-tight bottles at 4ºC for further analysis. Phytochemical Screening

slide 6:

Journal of Global Biosciences Vol. 94 2020 pp. 7003-7018 ISSN 2320-1355 7008 The phytochemical screening gives a general idea regarding the presence of different compounds possessing therapeutic values. The different solvent extracts of A. aureum leaf were used for screening the presence of alkaloids steroids coumarin tannins saponins flavonoids quinone anthroquinone phenol protein xanthoprotein carbohydrate glycosides catechin sugar and terpenoids according to standard procedures of Harborne 16 Brindha et al 18 Trease and Evans 19 and Sofowara 20. Screening for Alkaloids Dragendroff’s test 2ml of the extract was mixed with 8ml of 1 HCl warmed and filtered. Then the filtrates were treated with Dragendroff’s reagent solution of Potassium Bismuth Iodide. Formation of a red precipitate indicates the presence of alkaloids. Screening for Steroids Liebermann Burchard test Extracts were treated with chloroform and filtered. The filtrates were treated with few drops of acetic anhydride boiled and cooled. Concentrated sulphuric acid was added. Formation of the brown ring at the junction indicates the presence of phytosterols. Screening for Coumarin 2ml of the extracts was taken in test tubes. The mouth of the tube was covered with filter paper treated with 3ml of 1N NaOH solution. The test tube was placed for a few minutes in boiling water and then the filter paper was removed and examined under the UV light for yellow fluorescence indicated the presence of coumarins. Screening for Tannins 50mg of various solvent extract powder was dissolved in 10ml distilled water and filtered. 1 aqueous iron chloride FeCl3 solution was added to the filtrate. The appearance of intense green purple blue or black colour indicated the presence of tannins in the test samples. Screening for Saponin 50mg of the various solvent extract powder was boiled in distilled water in a test tube in boiling water bath and filtered. 10ml of the filtrate was mixed with 5ml of distilled water and was shaken vigorously to the formation of stable persistent froth. The

slide 7:

Journal of Global Biosciences Vol. 94 2020 pp. 7003-7018 ISSN 2320-1355 7009 frothing was mixed with 3 drops of olive oil and shaken vigorously for the formation of emulsion thus a characteristic of saponins. Screening for Flavonoids Shinoda Test To the extract solution 5ml added few fragments of magnesium ribbon and concentrated HCl dropwise. The appearance of red or orange-red colour indicates the presence of flavonoids. Screening for Quinone 1ml of the extract was mixed with 1ml of concentrated H2SO4. The appearance of red colour shows the presence of Quinone. Screening for Anthroquinone Borntrager’s test 50mg of extract powder was taken into a dry test tube and 5ml of chloroform was added and shaken for 5min. The extract was filtered through Whatman No 1 filter paper and the filtrate was shaken with an equal volume of 10 ammonia solution. A pink violet or red colour in the ammoniacal layer lower layer indicates the presence of anthroquinone. Screening for Phenols The extract powder 50mg was dissolved in 5 ml of distilled water. To this few drops of 10 ferric chloride solution was added. The appearance of a blue or green colour indicates the presence of phenol compounds. Screening for Protein The extract powder 50mg was dissolved in 10ml of distilled water and filtered through Whatman No. 1 filter paper. To the filtrate 1ml of 40 NaOH was added. Then 1 or 2 drops of 2 copper sulfate solution were added. The appearance of violet colour indicates the presence of proteins. Screening for Carbohydrates Molisch Test To 2ml of extracts 3 drops of α-naphthol 20 in ethanol was added. Then 1ml of concentrated sulphuric acid was added along the side of the test tube. Reddish-violet ring at the junction of the two layers indicated the presence of carbohydrates. Screening for Glycosides Borntrager’s test Extract powder 50mg was mixed with concentrated H2SO4 5ml. then it was heated for 3 minutes thereafter it was filtered after that filtrate was mixed with 0.5ml of 10 NaOH and allowed to stand for 3 minutes. The appearance of a reddish-brown precipitate indicates the presence of glycosides.

slide 8:

Journal of Global Biosciences Vol. 94 2020 pp. 7003-7018 ISSN 2320-1355 7010 Screening for Reducing Sugar For the presence of reducing sugars in the extract Fehling test was performed. An amount of 50mg of the extract powder was taken and added it to the equal volume of boiling Fehling solutions A and B in a test tube. A brick- red precipitates indicate the presence of reducing sugar. Screening for Terpenoids Salkowski test 5ml of the various solvent extract was mixed in 2 ml of chloroform followed by the careful addition of 3ml concentrated sulfuric acid H2SO4. A layer of the reddish-brown colouration was formed at the interface thus indicating a positive result for the presence of terpenoids. UV Fluorescence analysis Take about 0.5g of leaf powder into clean and dried test tubes. To each tube 5ml of different organic solvents like distilled water 1N HCl glacial acetic acid 1N HNO3 liquid ammonia 5 Ferric chloride 5 iodine methanol petroleum ether chloroform 50 sulphuric acid 40 NaOH and lead acetate were added separately. Then all the tubes were shaken and they were allowed to stand for about 20-25 min. The solutions obtained were observed under the visible daylight and UV light of short wavelength 254 nm and UV light of long-wavelength 365 nm for their characteristic colour 21. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The dry powder is evaluated for its physicochemical parameters like moisture content total ash water-soluble ash acid-soluble ash sulphated ash and different solvent extractive values Table 1. The physicochemical parameters are mainly used in judging the purity and quality of the drug. Moisture is one of the major factors responsible for the deterioration of drugs and herbal formulations. The moisture promotes the degradation processes caused by enzymes development of microorganisms oxidation and hydrolysis reactions. This study recorded moisture content of 9.25 which is deemed to be good as the water content in herbal drugs should not be greater than 14 A high ash value is indicative of contamination substitution or adulteration by minerals. The residue remaining after incineration of plant material is the total ash or ash value. Ash value represents both physiological ash and non-physiological ash. Physiological ash is derived from plant tissue due to biochemical processes while non-physiological ash consists of residue of the extraneous matter such as sand soil etc. deliberately or

slide 9:

Journal of Global Biosciences Vol. 94 2020 pp. 7003-7018 ISSN 2320-1355 7011 non-deliberately adhering to plant sample itself. Physiological ash gets dissolved in the dilute acid while some of the non-physiological ash remains undissolved. Total ash may compose of carbonates phosphates nitrates sulphates chlorides and silicates of various metals which are taken up from the soil or environment 22. In the present investigation the total ash content of A. aureum leaf is found to be 7.10 which is less than the maximum acceptable limit of total ash 14 recommended by European Pharmacopoeia 23. Table 1 Physicochemical constants of A. aureum leaf Constants Percentage Moisture contents 9.25 ± 0.33 Total ash contents 7.10 ± 0.05 Water-soluble ash 2.41 ± 0.06 Acid soluble ash 1.69 ± 0.06 Sulphated ash 1.24 ± 0.12 Extractive values Petroleum ether 2.6 ± 0.04 Benzene 2.2 ± 0.03 Ethyl acetate 1.2 ± 0.03 Ethanol 5.2 ± 0.03 Methanol 4.6 ± 0.05 Water 6.7 ± 0.02 Acid insoluble ash is a part of total ash and measures the amount of silica present especially as sand and siliceous earth in the samples. The values also indicate the magnitude of presence of oxalates carbonates phosphates oxides and silicates. Therefore the values are indices of excellence of herbal remedies. Water-soluble ash is the part of the total ash content which is soluble in water. This study shows 2.41 of water-soluble ash in A. aureum leaves. Preliminary phytochemical screening of plants is important in the detection of bioactive principles which is a new source of therapeutically and industrially valuable compounds that may lead to the discovery of new drugs. In the present study the presence of fourteen phytochemicals was screened in the petroleum ether benzene chloroform

slide 10:

Journal of Global Biosciences Vol. 94 2020 pp. 7003-7018 ISSN 2320-1355 7012 ethyl acetate ethanol and methanol extracts of A. aureum leaf and their results are shown in Table 2. Table 2 Preliminary phytochemical screening of A. aureum leaf Phytochemical Name of the extract Petroleum ether Benzene Ethyl acetate Ethano l Methano l Alkaloids - - - - - Steroids - + + + + Coumarins - - - - - Tannins - - - - - Saponins + - - + + Flavonoids - - + - + Quinone - - - - - Anthroquinone s - - - - - Phenols + + + + + Proteins + + + + + Carbohydrates - - - - - Glycosides + + + + + Reducing Sugars - - - - - Terpenoids + - - + + + indicates the presence of the phytochemical – indicates the absence of the phytochemical Presence or absence of certain important bioactive compounds in an extract is determined by colour reactions of the compounds with specific chemicals which act like dyes. This procedure is a simple preliminary pre-requisite before going for detailed phytochemical investigation. In India traditional communities like tribal and rural populations are frequently using the crude extracts of local plants for medicinal and other purposes. Crude extracts and medicines manufactured on the principles of natural compounds even by pharmaceutical companies may lead to large scale exposure of humans to natural products. The first step towards this goal is the biological and phytochemical screening of plant extracts from traditional preparations used in popular

slide 11:

Journal of Global Biosciences Vol. 94 2020 pp. 7003-7018 ISSN 2320-1355 7013 medicine. Hence in the present study the crude extracts obtained by petroleum ether benzene chloroform ethyl acetate ethanol and methanol solvents were screened for the presence of phytochemicals. The petroleum ether extract showed the presence of saponins phenols proteins glycosides and terpenoids. The benzene extract showed the presence of steroids phenols proteins and glycosides. The ethyl acetate extract showed the presence of steroids flavonoids phenols proteins and glycosides. The ethanol extract showed the presence of steroids saponins phenols proteins glycosides and terpenoids. The methanol extract showed the presence of steroids saponins flavonoids phenols proteins glycosides and terpenoids. Among the phytochemicals phenols and glycosides were detected in all the presently investigated solvent extracts. These research findings highlight that methanolic extracts of A. aureum leaf had the highest number of phytochemicals compared to other solvent extracts. Hence methanolic extracts of A. aureum leaf holds the great potential to treat various human diseases and has profound medical applicability. Smitha and Vadivel 5 also reported that the methanolic extracts of Ceratopteris thalictroides a pteridophyte also had the highest number of phytochemicals. The presence of steroids saponins flavonoids phenols proteins glycosides and terpenoids in methanolic extracts of A. aureum leaf signals their therapeutic potential. Hossaini et al 24 reported that ethanolic extract of A. aureum root contains glycosides saponins flavonoids steroids fatty acids and long- chain hydrocarbon compounds. Saponins are naturally occurring surface-active glycosides with a distinctive foaming characteristic 25. Saponins are bitter in taste and recent years they have received considerable attention because of their various biological activities including hepatoprotective anti-ulcer anti-tumour antimicrobial adjuvant and anti- inflammatory activities. Saponins have health benefits such as cholesterol-lowering and anticancer properties 26. Recent research has established saponins as the active components in many herbal medicines 27 and highlighted their contributions to the health benefits of foods such as soybeans 28 and garlic 29. The presence of these compounds therefore suggests the good pharmacological potential for A. aureum leaf. Flavonoids are secondary metabolite known to rich in pharmacological properties such as anti-oxidative anti-fungal anti-inflammatory and diuretic actions. Flavonoids are considered favoured bio compounds as chemotaxonomic markers in plants because

slide 12:

Journal of Global Biosciences Vol. 94 2020 pp. 7003-7018 ISSN 2320-1355 7014 they show large structural diversity and are chemically stable 30. The flavonoids extracted from ferns have shown promising potential because of their anti-cancer anti- microbial 31 anti-oxidant 32 and anti-inflammatory activities 33 of the potential use in treating diabetes 34. Flavonoids derived from Cheilanthes tenuifolia fern possess potent anti-cancerous anti-bacterial anti-oxidant activities that are responsible for their chemopreventive potential against bacteria 35. Phenolics have biological and pharmacological properties such as anti-inflammatory antioxidant and antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activities 36. Fluorescence is an important phenomenon displayed by various phytoconstituents present in plant materials. Some show fluorescence in the visible range in daylight. The ultraviolet light produces fluorescence in many natural products which do not visibly fluoresce in daylight. Some of the substances may be often converted into fluorescent derivatives by using different chemical reagents and chemicals though they are not fluorescent hence we can often assess qualitatively some crude drugs using fluorescence as it is the most important parameter of pharmacognostical evaluation 37-39. The results of the fluorescent analysis of leaf powder of polyherbal formulation were depicted in Table. 3. Table 3 Fluorescence analysis of A. aureum leaf powder Treatments Visible light UV light 254nm 365nm Powder as such Brown Green Dark brown Powder + 1N HCl Brown Green Dark brown Powder + Glacial acetic acid Light brown Light green Dark brown Powder + 1N HNO3 Brown Green Black Powder + Ammonia Light brown Light green Brown Powder + Ferric chloride Light brown Light green Brown Powder + 5 iodine Yellowish-brown Light green Black Powder + methanol Yellowish-brown Green Black Powder + petroleum ether Brown Dark brown Black

slide 13:

Journal of Global Biosciences Vol. 94 2020 pp. 7003-7018 ISSN 2320-1355 7015 Powder + chloroform Yellowish-brown Green Brown Powder + 50 H2SO4 Brown Dark brown Black Powder + 40 NaOH Yellowish-brown Green Brown Powder + lead acetate Yellowish-brown Dark green Brown The fluorescence analysis of leaf powder of A. aureum showed green colour under UV light of short wavelength 254nm when treated with 1N HCl IN HNO3 methanol chloroform and 40 NaOH as well as when the powder is used as such. The dark brown colour was observed under UV light of long wavelength 365nm when the leaf powder was treated with 1N HCl and glacial acetic acid as well as the powder without any chemical treatment. Brown colour was observed under visible light when the leaf powder was treated with 1N HCl 1N HNO3 petroleum ether and 50 sulphuric acid as well as the powder without any chemical treatment. Various colours like light brown yellowish-brown light green dark green dark brown and black were also observed under different light conditions. The results of the fluorescent analysis of leaf powder of A. aureum showed characteristic colouration in treatment with various chemical reagents. CONCLUSION Since the plant A. aureum has been used in the treatment of different ailments the medicinal roles of this plant could be related to identifying bioactive compounds. The presence of phytoconstituents such as phenols and flavonoids in plants indicates the possibility of antioxidant activity and this activity will help in preventing several diseases through free radical scavenging activity 4. The present analyses suggest that A. aureum fern contains potentially health-protective phytochemical compounds with a potent source of natural antioxidants and antibacterial activities that may be clinically promising. Thus its also adding new compounds to the ever-increasing canvas of secondary metabolites acting as fountains of health. The fluorescent analysis of powdered drug plays an important role in the determination of the quality and purity of the drug. REFERENCES 1. Nath K. Bhattacharya M.K. and Kar S. 2016 Antibacterial activity of rhizome extracts of four pteridophytes from Southern Assam North East India. AJPCR. 4 1 1–5.

slide 14:

Journal of Global Biosciences Vol. 94 2020 pp. 7003-7018 ISSN 2320-1355 7016 2. Bahadori M.B. Mahmoodi. Kordi F. Ali Ahmadi A. Bahadori S. and Valizadeh H. 2015 Antibacterial evaluation and preliminary phytochemical screening of selected ferns from Iran. Rapid Prototyp. J. 2: 53–59. 3. Chang Y. Hu J.L. Jiang S.J. and Qiang S. 2005 Study on the distribution and the total flavonoids content of medicinal pteridophytes in Nanjing Zijin mountain. J. Northeast Agric. 36 320–323. 4. Arockia Badhsheeba R. and Vadivel V. 2018 Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant activity of Acrostichum aureum Linn. Rachis. J. Pharmacogn. Phytochem. 7: 1146- 1151. 5. Smitha V. and Vadivel V. 2019 Phytochemical screening for active compounds in Ceratopteris thalictroides L. Brongn. J. Pharmacogn. Phytochem. 8: 3556-3559. 6. Chikezie P.C. Ibegbulem C.O. and Mbagwu F.N. 2015 Bioactive Principles from Medicinal Plants. Res. J. Phytochem. 9: 88 -115. 7. Hossan M.S. Hanif A. Agarwala B. Sarwar M.S. Karim M. Rahman M.T. Jahan R. and Rahmatullah M. 2010 Traditional use of medicinal plants in Bangladesh to treat urinary tract infections and sexually transmitted diseases. Ethnobot. Res. Pub. 8: 61-74. 8. Pattanaik C. Reddy C.S. Dhal N.K. and Das R. 2008 Utilisation of mangrove forests in Bhitarkanika wildlife sanctuary. Indian J. Trop Know. 7: 598-603. 9. Defilipps R.A. Maina S.L. and Pray L.A. 1988 The Palauan and Yap medicinal plant studies of Masayoshi Okabe 1941-1943. Atoll Res. Bulletin. 317: 1-25. 10. Benjamin A. and Manickam V.S. 2007 Medicinal pteridophytes from the Western Ghats. Indian J. Tradit. Know. 6: 611-618. 11. Momtaz M.M. 2008 Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh. Dhaka Bangladesh: Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. 12. Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2010. Plants Database. Natural Resources Conservation Sevice United States Department of Agriculture USDA USA Online. Available at: 13. Lai H.Y. Lim Y.Y. and Tan S.P. 2009 Antioxidative tyrosinase inhibiting and antibacterial activities of leaf extracts from medicinal ferns. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 73: 1362–1366.

slide 15:

Journal of Global Biosciences Vol. 94 2020 pp. 7003-7018 ISSN 2320-1355 7017 14. Dai H. Mei W. Hong K. Zeng Y. and Zhuang L 2005 Screening of the tumour cytotoxic activity of sixteen species of mangrove plants in Hainan. Zhongguo Haiyang Yaowu. 24: 44–46. 15. Uddin S.J. Grice I.D. and Tiralongo E. 2011 Cytotoxic effects of Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts. Evid. Based Complement Alternat. Med. 2011: 1–7. 16. Harborne J.B. 1973 Phytochemical Methods. Chapman and Hall Ltd. London: U.K. 49-188. 17. Anonymous. 1996 Indian Pharmacopoeia. Vol. I and II. Government of India Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. The Controller of Publications. New Delhi. 18. Brindha P. Sasikala B. and Purushothaman K.K. 1981 Pharmacognostic studies on Merugan Kizhangu. Bull Med Eth Bot Res. 3: 84-96. 19. Trease G.E. and Evans W.C. 1989 Pharmacognosy 11th edn. Bailliere Tindall Can. Macmillian Publishers London. 45-50. 20. Sofowora A. 1993. Medicinal plants and traditional medicine in Africa 2nd Edition. Spectrum Books Limited Sunshine House Ibadan Nigeria. 289-300. 21. Ranjith D. 2018 Fluorescence analysis and extractive values of herbal formulations used for wound healing activity in animals. J. Med. Plants Stud. 6: 189-192 22. Abdu B.A. Adamu U. Sani S.M. and Joshua O.O. 2015 Physical and phytochemicals study of some local herbal remedies. IOSR J. Pharm. Bio Sci. 10: 05-10. 23. Vaikosen E.N. and Alade G.O. 2011. Evaluation of pharmacognostical parameters and heavy metals in some locally manufactured herbal drugs. J. Chem. Pharm. Res. 3: 88-97. 24. Hossain H. Jahan A.I. Nimmi I. Hossain A. and Kawsar H. 2011 Antiinflammatory activity of the ethanolic extract of Acrostichum aureum Linn. root. Bangladesh Pharm. J. 14: 107-9. 25. Desaia S.D. Desaib D.G. and Kaurc H. 2009 Saponins and their Biological Activities. Pharm. Times. 41: 13- 16. 26. Gurfinkel D.M. and Rao A.V. 2003 Soyasaponins: The relationship between chemical structure and colon anticarcinogenic activity. Nutr. Cancer. 47: 24–33. 27. Liu J. and Henkel T. 2002 Traditional Chinese Medicine TCM: Are polyphenols and saponins the key ingredients triggering biological activities Curr. Med. Chem. 9: 1483–1485.

slide 16:

Journal of Global Biosciences Vol. 94 2020 pp. 7003-7018 ISSN 2320-1355 7018 28. Kerwin S. M. 2004 Soy saponins and the anticancer effects of soybeans and soy- based foods. Curr. Med. Chem. - Anti-Cancer Agents. 4: 263–272. 29. Matsuura H. 2001 Saponins in garlic as modifiers of the risk of cardiovascular disease. J. Nutr. 131: 1000S–1005S. 30. Kumar S. and Pandey A.K. 2013 Chemistry and biological activities of flavonoids: an overview. Sci. World J. 50: 1–16. 31. Nithya T.G. Jayanthi J. and Ragunathan M.G. 2016 Antioxidant activity total phenol flavonoid alkaloid tannin and saponin contents of leaf extracts of Salvinia molesta D. S. Mitchell 1972. Asian J. Pharm. Clin. Res. 9: 200–203. 32. Maruzzella J.C. 2005 Antimicrobial substances from ferns. Nature 191: 518–519. 33. Singh M. Singh M.N. Khare P.B. and Rawat A.K.S. 2008 Antimicrobial activity of some important Adiantum species used traditionally in indigenous systems of medicine. J. Ethnopharmacol. 9: 327–329. 34. Xiao J.B. 2015 Natural polyphenols and diabetes: understanding their mechanism of action. Curr. Med. Chem. 22: 2–3. 35. Jarial R. Shard A. Thakur S. Sakinah M. Zularisam A.W. Rezania S. Kanwar S.S. and Singh L. 2018 Characterization of flavonoids from fern Cheilanthes tenuifolia and evaluation of antioxidant antimicrobial and anticancer activities. J. King Saud Uni. – Sci 30: 425–432. 36. Wojdylo A. Oszmiański J. and Czemerys R. 2007 Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds in 32 selected herbs. Food Chem. 105: 940–949. 37. Alagar Raja M. Shailaja V. David Banji. Rao K.N.V. and Selvakumar D. 2014 Evaluation of standardisation parameters pharmacognostic study preliminary phytochemical screening and in vitro antidiabetic activity of Emblica Officinalis fruits as per WHO guidelines. J. Pharmaco. Phytochem. 3: 21-28. 38. Gupta M.K. 2006 Pharmacognostical evaluation of Grewia asiatica. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 1: 249-251. 39. Ansari S.H. 2006 Essential of Pharmacognosy 1st Edition Birla publications Pvt. Ltd New Delhi.

authorStream Live Help