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Original article The nutritional and antinutritional attributes of sword bean Canavalia gladiata Jacq. DC.: an under-utilized tribal pulse from south India Vaikundaraman Vadivel 1 Karnam Janardhanan 2 1 Indian Cardamom Research Institute Spices Board Myladumpara Kailasanadu 685553 Kerala India 2 Seed Technology Laboratory Department of Botany Bharathiar University Coimbatore 641046 Tamil Nadu India Received 9 August 2003 Accepted in revised form 10 March 2004 Summary Six accessions three with maroon-coloured seed coat and three with white-coloured seed coat of sword bean Canavalia gladiata Jacq. DC. were collected from six different locationsinsouthIndia.Theywereanalysedfortheirproximateandmineralcomposition amino acid profiles of total seed proteins in vitro protein digestibility IVPD and certain antinutritional factors. The essential amino acid profile of total seed proteins compared favourably with FAO/WHO requirements except that there were deficiencies of sulphur containingaminoacidsinallthesixaccessionsandalsotheleucinelysineandtryptophan contents were low in maroon-coloured seed coat accessions. The IVPD of the accessions rangedfrom63.39to76.92.Antinutritionalsubstancesliketotalfreephenolicstannins l-DOPA 34-dihydroxyphenylalanine trypsin inhibitor activity and phytohaemaggluti- nating activity were also investigated. The antinutritional factors that were detected were thought to have little nutritional significance if the beans are properly processed. Keywords Amino acid profiles in vitro protein digestibility proximate and mineral composition. Introduction The growing Third World population and its domestic animals need more protein. The most cost-effectiveproteinsarethosederivedfromplant materials which although in abundance in many developingcountriesareunder-utilized.Thesearch fornovelhigh-qualitybutcheapsourcesofprotein andenergyhascontinuedtobeofmajorconcernto governments and other bodies charged with the responsibilityforfoodandnutritioninmanyparts ofthedevelopingworldBalogunFetuga1986. In India chickpea pigeon pea lentil mung- bean urdbean peas and peanuts are widely cultivated. Nutritional studies on these legumes have been reported Salunkhe 1982 Narasinga Rao et al. 1989 Pushpanjali Khokhar 1995. Nonetheless the production rates of these pulses have failed to keep pace with the requirements of the growing population Ali Kumar 2000. There are however certain under-utilized leg- umessuchasswordbeanfromsouthIndiawhich have received little or no attention. Theswordbean Canavalia gladiataJacq.DC. local name: Koliawarai is a representative of the family Fabaceae and is distributed in north and peninsular India Vadivel Janardhanan 1998. The jack bean Canavalia ensiformis DC. is very closely related to the sword bean. However the seeds can be distinguished by the length of the hilum which is nearly as long as the seed in theswordbeanandlessthanhalfitslengthinthe jackbean.Swordbeanplantswithpinkishflowers produce seeds with maroon-coloured seed coats and plants with white flowers produce seeds with white-coloured seed coats. Leaves are trifoliate with large pubescent leaflets which are acuminate with a short point at the apex. The petioles are shorter than the leaflets with a groove above and stout with a large pulvinus at the base of each leaflet. The seed-pods are usually broad and Correspondent: Fax: +91 4868 237285 e-mail: vadivelvdsrediffmail.com International Journal of Food Science and Technology 2004 39 917–926 917 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.2004.00851.x 2004 Institute of Food Science and Technology Trust Fund

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curved with strongly developed ridges. They are about 20–40 cm long and 3.5–5 cm broad con- taining on average 8 to 16 seeds Purseglove 1968. Fruits of sword bean are consumed by the Indian ethnic/tribal peoples of Arunachal Pra- desh Nagaland Manipur Mizoram Tripura and Meghalaya Borthakur 1996. The Kadar Man- nan and Muthuvan tribal sects of Kerala state south India consume unripe fruits of sword bean Radhakrishnan et al. 1996. This species is also used as a cover crop and seeds are roasted and ground to prepare a coffee-like drink in Guate- mala Bressani et al. 1987. This wild pulse exhibits tolerance to drought low pH salt sand shade virus and water logging Duke 1981. This study is focussed on the determination of proximate and mineral composition amino acid profilesofseedproteinsinvitroproteindigestibility IVPDandcertainantinutritionalcompounds. Materials and methods Sources of seed Six accessions three maroon-coloured seed coat accessions and three white-coloured seed coat accessions of sword bean were gathered as matured pods nearly 5 kg was gathered from each accession from natural stands in six agro climatic/ecological regions. All the maroon-col- oured seed coat accessions are annual climbers whereas the white-coloured seed coat accessions areannualshrubs.Theaccessionswerebotanically identified by using the botanical key of Sudhir et al. 1994. Locality district state and month and year of collection are given in Table 1. The mature pods were collected from tropical rain forests of Western Ghats three accessions and deciduous forest areas in Eastern Ghats three accessions. After thoroughly drying in the sun the pods were thrashed to remove seeds. The seeds after thoroughly cleaning and removal of brokenseeds andforeignmaterials were stored in airtight plastic containers at room temperature 25 C±2 C. The air-dried seeds nearly 50 g from each accession were powdered in a Wiley mill Scientific Equipment Delhi India to pass a 60-meshscreenandstoredinscrew-cappedbottles at room temperature for further analysis. Proximate composition Themoisturecontentoftheseedwasestimatedby taking 50 transversely cut seeds at a time and the weight was taken before and after incubation in a hot-air-oven Toshniwal Brothers SR Private Ltd Chennai India at 80 C for 24 h followed bycoolinginadesiccator.Nitrogencontentinthe powdered seed samples was estimated by the micro-Kjeldahl method Humphries 1956 and crude protein was calculated N · 6.25. Ash content was determined by incineration of 2 g of sample in a muffle furnace Tempo Instrument EquipmentIPrivateLtdBombayIndiakeptat 600 C for 6 h AOAC 1975 14.006. Crude lipid was determined by exhaustively extracting 2 g of sample with petroleum ether using a Soxhlet apparatus AOAC 1975 14.018. Total dietary fibre TDF was estimated by the non-enzymatic- gravimetric method as proposed by Li Cardozo 1994. To determine TDF duplicate 500 mg ground samples were put into separate 250 mL beakers. Each beaker had 25 mL of water added and the mixture was gently stirred until samples were thoroughly wetted i.e. no clumps were apparent. The beakers were covered with alumin- ium foil and allowed to stand for 90 min without stirringinanincubatormaintainedat37 C.After that 100 mL 95 ethanol was added to each beakerandthemixtureallowedtostandfor1 hat room temperature 25 ± 2 C. The residue was collected under vacuum in a pre-weighed crucible containing a filter aid. The residue was washed successivelywith20 mL78ethanol10 mL95 ethanol and 10 mL acetone. The crucible contain- ing the residue was dried ‡2 h at 105 C then cooled ‡2 h in a desiccator and weighed. One crucible and its residue was used for ash deter- mination at 525 C for 5 h. The crucible and ash were cooled for ‡2 h in a desiccator and weighed. Theresiduefromtheremainingduplicatecrucibles was used for crude-protein determination by micro-Kjeldahl method as mentioned above. The TDF was calculated as follows: TDF ¼100 W r ½ð PþAÞ100 W r W s where W r is the mg residue P the protein in residue A the ash in residue and W s the mg sample. Nutritional composition of sword beans V. Vadivel and K. Janardhanan 918 International Journal of Food Science and Technology 2004 39 917–926 2004 Institute of Food Science and Technology Trust Fund

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Thenitrogen-freeextractNFEpercentagewas calculated by subtracting the total of the percent- agesofcrudeproteincrudelipidTDFandashon a moisture-free basis from 100 Muller Tobin 1980. This presumably constitutes the total carbohydrate percentage. The energy value of the seed was estimated in kJ by multiplying the percentagesofcrudeproteincrudelipidandNFE by the factors 16.7 37.7 and 16.7 respectively Siddhuraju et al. 1996. All these constituents were analysed in triplicate. All results were expressed on a dry weight basis. Mineral analysis Five hundred milligrams of the ground legume seed were digested with a mixture of 10 mL concentrated nitric acid 4 mL of 60 perchloric acid and 1 mL of concentrated sulphuric acid. After cooling the digest was diluted with 50 mL de-ionised distilled water filtered with Whatman no. 42 filter paper and the filtrate made up to 100 mL in a glass volumetric flask with de-ionized distilled water. All the minerals except phosphorus were analysed from triple acid diges- ted samples by using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer Perkin–Elmer Model 5000 Boston MA USA Issac Johnson 1975. Phosphorus content in the triple acid digested extract was colorimetrically analysed Dickman Bray 1940 at 650 nm using a spectropho- tometer Model Spectronic 20D Milton Roy Ivyland PA USA. Amino acid analysis The total seed protein was extracted by a modified method of Basha et al. 1976. The ethanol treatment was omitted to retain the prolamin fraction. The extracted proteins were purified by precipitation with cold 20 trichlo- roacetic acid TCA. A protein sample of 30 mg was hydrolysed by 6 N HCl 5 mL in an evacuated sealed tube which was kept in an air oven Toshniwal Brothers SR Private Ltd maintained at 110 C for 24 h. The sealed tube was broken and the acid removed completely by repeated flash evaporation after the addition of de-ionized water. Dilution was effected by means of citrate buffer pH 2.2 to such an extent that the solution contained 0.5 mg protein ml 1 . The solution was passed through a millipore filter 0.45 lm Waters Millipore Mississauga ON Canada and derivitized with O-phthaldialdehyde by using an automated pre-column OPA. Amino acids were analysed by a reversed-phase HPLC Model 23250 ISCO Lincoln NE USA fitted with a spherisorp C 18 column 4.6 · 250 mm and ISCO-dual pump. The flow rate was 1.5 mL min 1 and a fluorescence detec- tor excitation 305–395 nm emission 430– 470 nm was used. The cystine content of protein samples was obtained separately by the Liddell Saville 1959 method. For the determination of tryptophan content of proteins aliquots contain- ing known amounts of proteins were dispersed into glass ampoules together with 1 mL 5 M NaOH. The ampoules were flame sealed and incubated at 110 C for 18 h. The tryptophan contents of the alkaline hydrolysates were deter- mined colorimetrically using the method of Spies Chambers 1949 as modified by Rama Rao et al. 1974. The contents of the different amino acids were expressed as g 100 g 1 proteins. The essential amino acid score was calculated as follows: Table 1 Collection details of six accessions of sword bean seeds Locality District State Month and year of collection Courtallum M Western Ghats Tirunelveli Tamil Nadu March 1994 Paramangalam M Western Ghats Thrissur Kerala February 1994 Nagarjunasagar M Eastern Ghats Nalgonda Andhra Pradesh March 1994 Hogenekkal W Eastern Ghats Dharmapuri Tamil Nadu March 1994 Kumlza W Western Ghats Pathanamthitta Kerala February 1994 Dasukuppam W Eastern Ghats Chitoor Andhra Pradesh March 1994 M maroon-coloured seed coat W white-coloured seed coat. Nutritional composition of sword beans V. Vadivel and K. Janardhanan 919 2004 Institute of Food Science and Technology Trust Fund International Journal of Food Science and Technology 2004 39 917–926

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Determination of in vitro protein digestibility This was determined using the multi-enzyme technique Hsu et al. 1977. Calculated amounts of the control casein and the sample were weighed out hydrated in 10 mL of distilled water and refrigerated 5 C for 1 h. The samples containing protein and enzymes were all adjusted to pH 8.0 at 37 C. The IVPD was determined by the sequential digestion of the samples containing protein with a multi-enzyme mixture trypsin l-chymotrypsin and peptidase at 37 C followed by a protease at 55 C. The pH drop of the samplesfrompH8.0wasrecordedafter20 minof incubation.TheIVPDwascalculatedaccordingto the regression equation Y ¼ 234.84 22.56X where Y is the digestibility and X the pH drop. Analysis of antinutritional compounds The antinutritional compounds total free pheno- lics Bray Thorne 1954 tannins Burns 1971 and the non-protein amino acid l-DOPA 34- dihydroxyphenylalanineBrain1976werequan- tified.Trypsininhibitoractivitywasdeterminedby the enzyme assay of Kakade et al. 1974 by using benzoil-dl-arginin-p-nitroanilide BAPNA as a substrate. One trypsin inhibitor unit TIU has been expressed as an increase of 0.01 absorbance units per 10 mL of reaction mixture at 410 nm. Trypsin inhibitor activity has been defined in terms of trypsin units inhibited per mg protein. Albumin and globulin fractions of the seed pro- teins were extracted and separated according to the method of Murray 1979. Haemagglutinating activity of the albumin and globulin fractions of seed protein was assayed following the method of Liener1976.HumanbloodsamplesABandO were procured from the blood bank of Ray Vijay clinical laboratory Coimbatore Tamil Nadu India. To determine haemagglutinating activity a blood erythrocyte suspension was prepared by washing the blood samples separately with phos- phate-buffered saline pH 7.4 and centrifuged MB 20 Model 1985 Bombay India 5000 · g for 5 min. The supernatant were removed with a Pastur pipette. The washing procedure was repea- ted three times. One millilitre of blood cells after the final wash was taken and mixed with 2 mL of phosphate-buffered saline solution. This was referred as the erythrocyte suspension. After extraction the albumin and globulin fractions were separately mixed with an equal volume of differentgroupsofblooderythrocytessuspensions and allowed to stand for 20 min at room tem- perature and then centrifuged 1000 · g for 3 min. After centrifugation the tubes were gently shaken and then the agglutinating activity recor- ded. Statistical analysis Analysis of Variance anova and Duncan’s Mul- tiple Range Test DMRT were used for analysis mstat – C software version 1.4.1 Michigan State University MI USA of any significant difference in chemical compositions among the six accessions collected from the six locations. Signi- ficance was accepted at P £ 0.05. Results and discussion The proximate compositions of six accessions of sword bean are shown in Table 2. Carbohydrates nitrogen-free extract and crude proteins are the major chemical constituents of the legume sam- ples. Protein content ranged from 24.3 to 35.2. The Paramangalam accession maroon-coloured seed coat had the lowest level and the Dasukup- pam accession white-coloured seed coat the highest. Conversely the Dasukuppam accession had the lowest carbohydrate content and the Paramangalam accession the highest level 59.9. The significant P £ 0.01 difference in protein content was probably due to different growing conditions for the plants from which the seeds were collected Vadivel Janardhanan 2002. The range in protein levels compares well withearlierreportsonswordbeanBressaniet al. 1987 Revilleza et al. 1990 Rodrigues Torne Essentialaminoacidscore¼ gramsofessentialaminoacidin100goftestprotein gramsofessentialaminoacidin100gofFAO/WHO1991referencepattern 100 Nutritional composition of sword beans V. Vadivel and K. Janardhanan 920 International Journal of Food Science and Technology 2004 39 917–926 2004 Institute of Food Science and Technology Trust Fund

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1991 Rajaram Janardhanan 1992 Mohan Janardhanan 1994 but was higher than Cajanus cajan Kumar et al. 1991 and Cicer arietinum Singh et al. 1991. Cajanus cajan and Cicer arietinum are important food legumes consumed on a large scale in the vegetarian diet eaten by many people in India. The remarkably high level of protein in the wild legume accessions under study underscores their importance as sources of this vital nutrient. In general all the three white- colouredseedcoataccessionsrecordedmorecrude fatthanthemaroon-colouredseedcoataccessions. Nonetheless the crude fat content does not mean that the white-coloured seed coat accessions of sword bean can be qualified as an oil-rich legume especially when compared with peanut and soy- beans which have fat contents of about 25.3 and 19.5 respectively Narasinga Rao et al. 1989. The range in ash content of this wild legume Table 2isimportanttotheextentthatitcontains the nutritionally important mineral elements shown in Table 3. It appears that sword bean hasahighrangeofcarbohydrateprobablybecause of its low fat content. Peanut and soybeans have lower carbohydrate values of 26.1 and 20.9 respectively Narasinga Rao et al. 1989. The rangeincaloricvaluesexceedstheenergeticvalues of cowpea green gram horse gram moth bean and peas Narasinga Rao et al. 1989 which are in the range of 1318–1394 kJ 100 g 1 DM. Table 2 Proximate composition of six accessions of sword bean g 100 g 1 seed flour † Component Location CD 5 Courtallum M Paramangalam M Nagarjunasagar M Hogenekkal W Kumlza W Dasukuppam W Moisture 8.5 ± 0.5 a 5.4 ± 0.1 a 3.6 ± 1.1 a 7.7 ± 0.9 a 7.2 ± 3.0 a 8.7 ± 0.1 a n.s. Crude protein 25.5 ± 0.6 d 24.3 ± 0.8 d 27.8 ± 0.5 c 25.0 ± 0.8 d 30.8 ± 0.5 b 35.2 ± 1.7 a 2.276 Crude lipid 3.3 ± 0.4 cd 2.7 ± 0.4 d 3.5 ± 0.1 c 7.3 ± 0.1 b 9.1 ± 0.2 a 8.6 ± 0.3 a 0.7697 TDF 8.5 ± 0.6 b 9.7 ± 0.6 a 8.3 ± 0.5 bc 7.4 ± 0.4 bcd 7.2 ± 0.9 cd 6.8 ± 0.7 d 1.149 Ash 3.5 ± 0.1 c 3.4 ± 0.2 c 5.2 ± 1.1 a 3.9 ± 0.2 bc 4.8 ± 0.7 ab 4.6 ± 0.2 abc 1.233 NFE 59.2 ± 1.4 ab 59.9 ± 1.7 a 55.2 ± 2.1 c 56.4 bc 48.1 ± 2.3 d 44.8 ± 2.6 d 3.358 Calorific value kJ 100 g 1 1539 ± 10.6 b 1508 ± 7.7 b 1518 ± 20.9 b 1635 ± 9.2 a 1661 ± 22.3 a 1660 ± 10.2 a 37.50 Mean values in the row sharing a common letter are not statistically significant according to Duncan’s Multiple Range Test DMRT. M maroon-coloured seed coat NFE nitrogen-free extract TDF total dietary fiber W White-coloured seed coat. Significant at 5 level Significant at 1 level and n.s. means not significant. † Mean of three replications expressed on dry weight basis ±SE. Table 3 Mineral composition of six accessions of sward beans mg 100 g 1 seed flour † Component Location CD 5 Courtallum M Paramangalam M Nagarjunasagar M Hogenekkal W Kumlza W Dasukuppam W Sodium 109 ± 2.7 c 46 ± 1.7 d 38 ± 3.2 e 173±2.3 a 40 ± 3.4 de 145±2.2 b 6.000 Potassium 1640 ± 3.4 a 860±2.4 d 664±4.2 f 1537 ± 4.3 b 870±4.3 c 676±3.2 e 9.621 Calcium 510 ± 6.2 a 396±4.3 c 387±2.6 c 491±5.7 b 287±3.8 e 322±2.3 d 11.94 Magnesium 481 ± 4.6 a 229±3.7 c 198±3.6 d 241±4.8 c 295±4.7 b 158±3.4 e 16.76 Phosphorus 601 ± 3.5 a 359±4.7 d 274±5.7 e 419±8.7 c 409±7.4 c 468±7.7 b 13.86 Iron 11 ± 0.9 a 10 ± 0.4 a 11 ± 0.4 a 11 ± 1.7 a 9±0.5 a 9±0.3 a n.s. Zinc 7 ± 0.2 a 6±0.5 b 5±0.6 c 7±0.6 a 4±0.4 d 5±0.2 d 0.6951 Manganese 2 ± 0.1 b 2±0.3 b 3±0.3 ab 4±0.9 a 2±0.7 b 2±0.3 b 1.238 Mean values in the row sharing a common letter are not statistically significant according to Duncan’s Multiple Range Test DMRT. M maroon-coloured seed coat W white-coloured seed coat. Significant at 5 level Significant at 1 level and n.s. means not significant. † Mean of three replications expressed on dry weight basis ±SE. Nutritional composition of sword beans V. Vadivel and K. Janardhanan 921 2004 Institute of Food Science and Technology Trust Fund International Journal of Food Science and Technology 2004 39 917–926

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When compared with earlier studies Rajaram Janardhanan 1992 the contents of sodium magnesium phosphorus zinc iron and manga- nese were found to be higher and minerals such as potassium seemed to be relatively lower in all the accessions of sword beans investigated in the present study Table 3. Nonetheless all the sword bean accessions can be considered as potential sources of minerals because any diet that contains 2/3 of the RDA Recommended Dietary Allowances values is considered to be adequate Robinson 1987. Generally the statis- tically significant difference in values except iron presented in Table 3 may have been related to the soil types in which the legume plant was found growing and/or to the efficiency of the uptake from the soil by the plants Vadivel Janardha- nan 2002. The essential amino acid profile of total seed proteins compared favourably with the FAO/ WHO 1991 requirement pattern except that there were deficiencies of sulphur containing amino acids in all the six accessions and also in the leucine lysine and tryptophan contents of maroon-coloured seed coat accessions Tables 4 and 5. Among the six accessions of sword bean the three white-coloured seed coat accessions regis- tered higher amounts of IVPD than the three maroon-coloured seed coat accessions Table 6 and their protein digestibility was found to be higher than that of Cajanus cajan Singh Eggum 1984 and Cicer arietinum Attia et al. 1994. The problem of plant protein digestibility has been suggested to be because of the interplay of several factors such as protease inhibitors phy- tates oxalates lectins goitrogens and other anti- nutritional factors. In societies where legumes are consumed rather than much more expensive animal foods there is bound to be great concern overthelevelofantinutrientsinthediets.Forthis reason a preliminary evaluation of some of these factors in raw sword bean was made Table 7. Though the trypsin inhibitor activity has been studiedinanumberofpulsestheresultsobtained in the present investigation cannot be compared because the expression of trypsin inhibitor activ- ity nature and concentration of the substrate etc. are different. However based on investigations that have been reported and where the same experimental conditions were used the trypsin Table 4 Amino acid profiles of acid hydrolysed purified total seed proteins of three accessions of sword bean maroon- coloured seed coat g 100 g 1 protein Amino acid Courtallum EAAS Paramangalam EAAS Nagarjunasagar EAAS FAO/WHO 1991 requirement pattern Aspartic acid 14.02 13.34 12.53 Glutamic acid 19.37 18.73 18.14 Alanine 5.12 4.78 5.32 Valine 4.03 115.14 3.88 110.86 4.13 118.00 3.5 Glycine 5.25 3.67 5.32 Arginine 4.84 6.78 5.43 Serine 3.73 4.35 4.83 Cystine 0.18 67.60 0.09 85.20 0.12 50.80 2.5 Methionine 1.51 2.04 1.15 Threonine 4.02 118.23 3.73 109.71 3.65 107.35 3.4 Phenylalanine 5.23 124.60 5.19 120.95 5.43 130.95 6.3 Tyrosine 2.62 2.43 2.82 Isoleucine 4.44 158.57 2.98 106.43 3.21 114.64 2.8 Leucine 4.03 61.06 3.38 51.21 3.50 53.03 6.6 Histidine 3.12 164.21 4.04 212.63 4.32 227.37 1.9 Lysine 4.85 83.62 3.93 67.76 5.31 91.55 5.8 Tryptophan 1.03 93.64 0.98 89.09 0.96 87.27 1.1 Proline ND ND ND EAAS essential amino acid score ND not detected. Nutritional composition of sword beans V. Vadivel and K. Janardhanan 922 International Journal of Food Science and Technology 2004 39 917–926 2004 Institute of Food Science and Technology Trust Fund

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inhibitor activity in cultivated legumes like pigeon pea 67.1–71.3 TIU mg 1 protein Singh Eggum 1984 is higher than that of sword bean. Trypsin inhibitor activity has the greatest impact on the IVPD of the legumes where the former is known tobeheatlabile. Among thesixaccessions the Paramangalam maroon-coloured seed coat accession had the highest percentage of phenolics and tannins. These levels seem to be higher than those reported in earlier studies in the same species Rajaram Janardhanan 1992 Mohan Janardhanan 1994. Cooking does not destroy phenolic compounds Salunkhe 1982. However a reduction in polyphenolics with cooking of Cajanus cajan Rao Deosthale 1982 has been observed this could be because of losses in the discarded cooking water. Since the majority of tannins are located in the seed coat where their concentration is positively correlated with the darkness of the seed coat colour it might be expected that dehulling of seeds would reduce the level of tannins. In earlier studies it was demon- strated that the level of l-DOPA is significantly reduced by repeated soaking and boiling of seeds Jebadhas 1980 dry heat Siddhuraju et al. 1996 and autoclaving Vijayakumari et al. 1996. The seed protein fractions albumins and glob- ulins in sword bean exhibit hemagglutinating activity without any specificity against the human ABO system. In general globulins exhibit stron- ger agglutinating activity compared to albumin fractions. Lectinsreduceproteindigestibilitybyinhibiting the digestive enzymes Thompson et al. 1986. However lectin activity can be easily eliminated bydryorwetthermictreatmentsLiener1994.In general the three white-coloured seed coat acces- sions were found to contain lower contents of the detectable antinutritional factors than maroon- coloured seed coat accessions. Table 5 Amino acid profiles of acid hydrolysed purified total seed proteins of three accessions of sword bean white-coloured seed coat g 100 g 1 protein Amino acid Hogenekkal EAAS Kumlza EAAS Dasukuppam EAAS FAO/WHO 1991 requirement pattern Aspartic acid 10.87 8.83 9.85 Glutamic acid 14.18 12.32 13.25 Alanine 4.34 4.55 4.45 Valine 5.23 149.43 5.54 158.28 5.39 154.00 3.5 Glycine 2.86 3.73 3.29 Arginine 4.34 4.72 4.53 Serine 4.33 4.43 4.38 Cystine 0.18 54.40 0.09 85.60 0.10 68.80 2.5 Methionine 1.18 2.05 1.62 Threonine 4.16 122.35 5.78 170.00 4.97 146.18 3.4 Phenylalanine 3.97 113.49 3.67 149.68 3.82 131.59 6.3 Tyrosine 3.18 5.76 4.47 Isoleucine 4.25 151.79 4.78 170.71 4.52 161.43 2.8 Leucine 6.94 105.15 6.63 100.45 6.79 102.88 6.6 Histidine 4.23 222.63 6.04 317.89 5.14 270.53 1.9 Lysine 6.55 112.93 7.45 128.45 7.00 120.69 5.8 Tryptophan 1.26 114.54 1.37 124.54 1.43 130.00 1.1 Proline ND ND ND EAAS essential amino acid score ND not detected. Table 6 In vitro protein digestibility IVPD of six accessions of sword bean † Location IVPD Courtallum M 63.39 Paramangalam M 70.16 Nagarjunasagar M 67.90 Hogenekkal W 76.92 Kumlza W 74.66 Dasukuppam W 73.78 M maroon-coloured seed coat W white-coloured seed coat. † Mean of two independent determinations. Nutritional composition of sword beans V. Vadivel and K. Janardhanan 923 2004 Institute of Food Science and Technology Trust Fund International Journal of Food Science and Technology 2004 39 917–926

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Table 7 Antinutritional factors of six accessions of sword bean Component Location CD 5 Courtallum M Paramangalam M Nagarjunasagar M Hogenekkal W Kumlza W Dasukuppam W Total free phenolics † 1.94 ± 0.13 b 2.55 ± 0.02 a 1.61 ± 0.03 c 0.46 ± 0.02 d 0.30 ± 0.03 e 0.38 ± 0.04 de 0.1522 Tannins † 0.20 ± 0.02 c 0.57 ± 0.03 a 0.35 ± 0.01 b 0.06 ± 0.04 e 0.14 ± 0.01 cd 0.12 ± 0.31 de 0.05753 L-DOPA † 2.83 ± 0.05 a 2.58 ± 0.17 ab 2.64 ± 0.21 a 1.98 ± 0.48 c 2.09 ± 0.32 bc 2.04 ± 0.07 c 0.5304 Trypsin inhibitor activity TIU mg 1 protein 26.83 25.48 24.53 18.23 17.42 17.83 – Name of the protein fraction Erythrocytes from human blood group Haemagglutinating activity Phytohaemagglutinating activity Albumins A + + + + + + – Albumins B + + + + + + – Albumins O + + + + + + – Globulins A ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ – Globulins B ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ – Globulins O ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ – Mean values in the row sharing a common letter are not statistically significant according to Duncan’s Multiple Range Test DMRT. M maroon-coloured seed coat W white-coloured seed coat +Clumping pellet partially dispersed ++Clumping no dispersion of pellet. Significant at 5 level and Significant at 1 level. † Mean of three replications expressed on dry weight basis ±SE. Mean of two independent determinations. Nutritional composition of sword beans V. Vadivel and K. Janardhanan 924 International Journal of Food Science and Technology 2004 39 917–926 2004 Institute of Food Science and Technology Trust Fund

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