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Presentation Transcript

Slide 1: 

COAL HANDLING PLANT OBJECTIVE: Coal Handling Plant is a plant which handles the coal from its receipt from Coal mines to transporting it to Boiler and store in Bunkers. It also processes the raw coal to make it suitable for Boiler operation A typical coal handling plant in any power plant shall have the following processes in sequence depending on the capacity of the plant. Unloading process Feeding Process Screening Process Crushing Process Stacking Process Reclaiming Process Bunkering Process These processes are explained in successive pages along with figures and flow diagrams. Other important accessories in coal handling plant like magnetic separators and suspended magnets are explained at the end.

Unloading process : 

Unloading process Normally thermal power station receives the coal by three modes of operation By Railway By Road By Arial ropeways Aerial ropeway is available only to the power stations which are near the coal mines. Cost of coal transportation by road is much higher than that for rail Transport and hence most of the coal requirement of the power stations is fulfilled by railway transport by Wagon Tipplers or by BOBR (Bottom Open Bottom Discharge) Wagons.

Slide 3: 

For coal handling plant, wagon tippler arrangement is provided in most of the power plants where bottom discharge wagon are not feasible. Wagon tipplers are at present available to unload 20 tips per hour of 55 ton capacity wagons. A typical Wagon Tippler is shown in the next page. Wagon Tipplers These are the giant machines having gear boxes and motor assembly and are used to unload the coal wagons into coal hoppers in very less time (e.g.20 wagons/hr. or more)

Slide 5: 

Track Hopper Track Hoppers are mainly used for coal storage & handling in power plants. The coal is generally transported from coal mines either by BOBR wagons (Bottom Open Bottom Discharge), or by Top open wagons & rarely by trucks. A standard Track hopper is approximately 210m long. This length of track hopper can accommodate at least 15 BOBR wagons. Each BOBR wagon can carry approximately 45Mt of coal. Hence each length of track hopper, carrying 15 BOBR wagons can unload 675Mt of coal in approximately 30minutes. An assembled Track Hopper is made from a large number of mechanical items. To name a few items are as listed below: (1) Reinforced cement concrete (RCC) hopper of 210m long and 8m wide (2) Steel Gratings covering the RCC hopper (3) Two parallel rail tracks running at the center of the hopper (210m length). (4) Paddle/Plough Feeder located at the discharge side of the RCC hopper (5) Trough Conveyor located at the discharge of the paddle feeders.

Slide 6: 

RCC Hopper These hoppers function as a storage arrangement for discharged coal. Coal filled BOBR wagons are stationed above the 210m long RCC hoppers. BOBR wagons are fitted with a bottom opening mechanism which operates on electrical power. The bottom doors automatically actuates to discharge the coal into the hopper. The coal is transferred from wagons to RCC hopper under gravity. For safety reasons, galvanized steel gratings cover the entire top surface of the RCC hopper. These gratings are removable in times of need. Paddle/ Plough Feeders After the material is discharged from the wagons, they got stored in the RCC hoppers. Paddle /Plough feeder is a mechanism used for the evacuation of coal from the bottom of RCC hoppers. As the name suggests, the feeder ploughs the accumulated coal from the bottom of the hopper and feeds it into a moving belt conveyor. Its construction is like fan with few blades, mounted on a trolley.

Slide 7: 

Feeding Process The feeding process involves continuous and control coal flow to meet the requirement. The efficient and economical storage, movement and control of large coal handling installations, coal car unloading, storage & reclaim system depend on the proper application of feeders. Feeders Various types of feeders are used for these processes. Feeders protect the belt conveyors from damage by feeding the material onto the belt conveyors from storage hoppers, at a controlled rate. These feeders are located below hoppers for feeding of material at uniform rate to Belt Conveyors. The feeders, which are mainly used in the CHP, are listed below. 1)Belt Feeder 2)Apron Feeder 3)Vibrating Feeder

Typical Belt Feeder : 

Typical Belt Feeder Typical Belt Feeder Typical Belt Feeder

Typical Apron Feeder : 

Typical Apron Feeder

Typical Vibrating Feeder : 

Typical Vibrating Feeder

Slide 11: 

ScalpingFor scalping operations at the coarse end of particle distribution, very high screening capacities can be achieved since most of the particles are much smaller than the screen opening and pass through quite easily. Vibrating Screens and Roller Screens are generally used in CHP. But now days roller screen are used. Vibrating Screens Vibrating screens are of gravity feed type, being sloped downward from the feed to discharge end. A high frequency low magnitude vibration is given to the screen by an electric vibrator or other means. The purpose of vibration is to keep the meshes clear of wedged particles and stratify the coal so that fine particles come down in contact with the screen. Screening Process There are three basic types of screening processes. 1)Scalping, 2)Fines removal 3)Grading.

Slide 12: 

Roller Screen The coal is feed on the rollers, which are continuously rotate. While rotating these shaft, transfers the coal from feeding end to crushing process end. The required size of coal is passed through gap of roller shafts. The remaining coal is passed through rollers to crusher In CHP, crushing process is the combination of Impact and Attrition Processes. Some process involves Compression crushing. Crushing Process There are four basic processes to reduce the size of material. 1)Impact 2)Attrition, 3)Shear 4)Compression.

Slide 13: 

The bottom of the Reversible Impactor is open, allowing sized materials to pass through almost instantaneously. Liberal clearance between hammers and the breaker blocks eliminates attrition. Crushing is by impact only. In crushing, impact is the sharp, instantaneous impingement of one moving object against another. Both objects may be moving (a bat connecting with a ball), or one object may be motionless (a golf ball hit off a tee). Typical Impact Crusher Typical Attrition Crusher

Slide 14: 

This crushes by compression without rubbing. Hinged overhead and on the centerline of the crushing zone, the swinging jaw meets the material firmly and squarely. There is no rubbing action to reduce capacity, to generate fines or to cause excessive wear of jaw plates. Shear is a trimming or cleaving action that is usually combined with other methods: single-roll crushers, for example, use shear, impact and compression methods combined. Shear crushing is usually called for under these circumstances: When material is somewhat friable and has relatively low silica content. For primary crushing with a reduction ratio of 6 to 1. Typical Shear Crusher Typical Compression Crusher

Slide 15: 

Stacking & Reclaiming Process Stacking: In this process coal from unloading area shall be stored/stacked in a yard for future use. This shall be done by using belt conveyor with telescopic chute arrangement. Reclaiming: In this process the stacked coal shall be reclaimed for sending to boiler bunkers. Reclaiming shall be done by bulldozer and grizzly hopper arrangement. Both the process shall be combined and executed by Stacker Reclaimers. This equipment receives coal from a charge conveyor or discharge coal from a yard to a discharging conveyor. It is operated by complete remote control with a computer. This shall be controlled by a PLC along with SCADA or by traditional joy sticks. Typical stacker recalimer photos are shown below.

Slide 18: 

This process involves feeding of bins/bunkers and maintaining the level of these bins. From the conveyor belt the coal is discharged into bunker or bins with the help of trippers. The tripper is provided with wheels, which moves on rails parallel to conveyor on each side. It can be set in one position or made to travel slowly backward or forward between stops; to discharge the quantity of coal at desired location. Motorized trippers are usually used where continuous and uniform distribution of coal along the conveyor is required or where frequent forward or reverse movement is required. Trippers having rigid welded steel frame to resist shock and minimize distortion. One way or two way discharge chutes are provided. The bifurcating chute permits the flow and discharge of coal to the desired side. Bunkering Process

Slide 19: 

Magnetic Separator and Suspended Magnet There are more chances of ferrous metal pieces come along with coal from mines. It is essential to remove these metal pieces, to safe guard the crusher and belt conveyors from damage. Inline Magnetic Separators are provided, for continuous and automatic extraction and discharge of tramp magnetic pieces from coal being discharged from conveyors as specified. Suspended Magnetic Separator is provided for picking up tramp magnetic pieces from moving coal over Conveyor. Mounting height of 400 mm shall be taken between top of conveyor belt or bottom of falling material trajectory and the surface of magnetic separator belt.  The cross sections of magnet are suitably designed to provide sufficient area for magnetizing the coil effectively, covering full cross section of the discharge material.  The magnetic separator is located such that it picks-up tramp iron from coal trajectory, after it has been discharged from head pulley

Slide 20: 

Magnetic Separator:

Slide 21: 

Suspension magnet:

Slide 22: 

Typical Coal Handling System Flow To understand the coal flow staring from unloading area to coal bunker, let us take Arasmeta Captive Power Company Private Limited phase 2, Coal Handling System. The coal flow diagram is given in next page. Details of the flow diagram are explained. BCN – Belt Conveyor Number BC – Belt Conveyor BCN1 is the belt which starts from the coal unloading area which lies in Lafarge cement plant premises and has approximately 1000 M length. Coal from wagon tipplers are dropped in a chute at unloading area, and from there it will be dropped in BCN1 which is up to junction tower number 1 From this junction tower, coal shall be taken by BCN2. This BCN2 has movable tripper, for stacking purpose in phase 1 side coal storage yard. Coal flow to bunker through various options are detailed in successive pages.

Slide 24: 

For phase 2, coal from BCN2 shall be diverted by flap gate arrangement and coal reaches BC2 through BC1. BC2 has movable tripper for stacking the coal in coal yard for phase 2. Sequence of coal flow from phase 1 secondary crusher to phase2 coal bunker Coal from secondary crusher of phase1 ↓ BC12 ↓ BC13 ↓ BC8 ↓ BC9 ↓ BC10 ↓ BC11 ↓ BC11A

Slide 25: 

The sequence of coal flow to phase 2 coal bunker from phase 2 coal yard. From reclaim hopper ↓ BC4 ↓ Reversible belt feeder in Primary crusher ↓ If primary vibrating screen 1 is in line (OR) If PVS2 is in line ↓ ↓ BC5 BC6 ↓ ↓ BC6 BC9 ↓ ↓ BC9 BC10 ↓ ↓ BC10 BC11 ↓ ↓ BC11 BC11A↓ BC11A

Slide 26: 

Coal flow from phase 1 secondary crusher and phase 2 coal yard to phase2 coal bunker is explained in the previous page. Similarly, from phase 2 secondary crusher, coal can be taken to phase 1 coal bunker. Refer the coal flow diagram, in junction tower 4 there is a flap gate through which phase 2 coal shall be taken to phase 1 coal bunker through BCN8 which is present in phase 1 coal handling plant.

Slide 27: 

Thank You !

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