Respiratory organs

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Respiratory Organs (Breathing):

Respiratory Organs (Breathing) .’

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The Nose : External part of it bears 2 nostrils separated by a cartilaginous septum. how ATP is made in the second stage of cellular respiration. The hair present in the nostrils prevent large particles from entering the system. The two nostrils open into a pair of nasal chambers. The inner linings of the nasal chambers perform 3 functions: 1) It warms the air as it passes over. 2) It adds moisture to the air. 3) Its mucous secretion entraps harmful particles . So always breath through your nose & not the mouth…! Additional function of Nose : It is to Smell. The sensory cells of smell are located in a special pocket situated high up in the nasal chambers. When you smell something special, you give a sniff which carries the odour up into this pocket.

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Respiratory Organs

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Does the Nose help in speaking? Close your Nose & try to speak “Nanaji goes to Nandigram & not nagpur” “Khadak singh ke khadak ne se khadak thi hai khidkinya, khidkinyo ke khadak ne se khadak ta hai khadak singh” NOSE Nose

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The pharynx: The nasal chambers open at the back into a wide cavity, the pharynx, situated at the back of the mouth. It is common passage of air and food. It leads into air tube, the trachea (windpipe) & a food tube (oesophagus) located dorsally behind the trachea. When not in use, the food tube is partially collapsed as it has soft walls. The entrance to the trachea is guarded by a flap called epiglottis which closes it at the time of swallowing food . Incomplete closure of epiglottis during swallowing causes cough. The Larynx ( Voice box/ Adam’s apple ) : It is a hollow cartilaginous structure located at the start of the windpipe. When you swallow something this part rises & falls. The larynx contains two ligamentous folds called vocal cords not shown in the figure. Air expelled forcibly through the vocal cords vibrates them producing sound. By adjusting the distance between the two cords & their tension by means of attached muscles, a range of sound can be produced. Voice, Speech & language Voice is the sound produced by the vocal cords of the larynx. Speech is the character given to the voice by the complex movements of lips, cheeks, tongue & jaws. Speech consists of words or syllables & it is a speciality of only the human species.

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The Trachea: The trachea or the windpipe emerges from the larynx; down below in the neck where it is partly covered by thyroid gland. Its walls are strengthened by C-shaped rings of cartilage, the incomplete parts of the rings are on the dorsal side. The rings provide flexibility & keep the trachea distended permanently. The Bronchi : Close to the lungs the trachea divides into two tubes called bronchi ( sing. Bronchus ), which enter the respective lungs, each bronchus divides into fine secondary bronchi, which further divide into still finer tertiary bronchi , the cartilaginous rings present on the trachea are also present in the smaller bronchi keeping them distended. Bronchioles are the subsequent still finer tubes of tertiary bronchi which acquire a diameter of 1mm & are without cartilage rings. By repeated branching, the bronchioles ultimately end in a cluster of tiny air chambers called the air sacs or alveoli ( sing. Alveolus ) A network of blood capillaries surrounds the wall of each alveolus. The walls of the alveoli are extremely thin (one cell thick) & moist, thus allowing gaseous diffusion through them. Protective inner lining of respiratory passage: The entire lining of larynx, trachea, bronchi & bronchioles is formed of ciliated epithelium. During life time the cilia are constantly in motion driving any fluid (mucuus) that is on them & also any particles that may have come in with the air towards the mouth.

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The lungs : are a pair of spongy & elastic organs founded by the air sacs, their connecting bronchioles, blood vessels etc. The two lungs are roughly cone shaped, tapering at the top & broad at the bottom. The left lungs has to lobes & the right lung has three . The left lung is smaller to accommodate heart . Membranous coverings of the lungs: Each lung is covered by two membranes – the inner ( Visceral ) pleura & outer ( parietal ) pleura with a watery fluid ( pleural fluid) in the pleural cavity found between the two membranes. This arrangement provides lubrication for free movement of the expanding & contracting lungs. The lungs occupy the greater part of the thoracic cavity. They are located close to the inner surface of the thoracic wall & their lower bases closely rest on the diaphragm. Blood supply to the lungs: The right auricle pumps all the deoxygenated blood received in it from the body into the right ventricle, which in turn pumps into the lungs through the main pulmonary artery . The pulmonary artery soon after its emergence, divides into two branches entering their respective lungs. Inside the lungs, they divide & redivide several times to ultimately form capillaries around the air sacs . Veins arising from these capillaries join & rejoin to form two main pulmonary veins from each lung which pour the oxygenated blood into the left auricle of the heart.

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The bright red parts represent oxygenated blood & the dull brownish parts represent deoxygenated blood. The interconnecting arteries & veins have not been shown in the below figure .

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The figure shows a small part of the lung highly magnified depicting air sacs (alveoli), the capillaries surrounding them & the connected pulmonary artery pulmonary vein.

Cellular Respiration:

Cellular Respiration Is a series of reactions where fats, proteins, and carbohydrates, mostly glucose, are broken down to make CO 2 , water, and energy.

ATP:

ATP Most of the energy from cell respiration is converted into ATP ATP is a substance that powers most cell activities.

Vocabulary:

Vocabulary Cellular Respiration – the transfer of energy from an organic compound into ATP Fermentation – the breakdown of carbohydrates by enzymes, bacteria, yeasts, or mold in the absence of oxygen Pyruvate - an ion of a three-carbon organic acid called pyruvic acid.

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Cellular Respiration Cellular Energy The Stages of Cellular Respiration Cellular respiration has two stages. Glycolysis The first stage of cellular respiration is called glycolysis. Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration The second stage of cellular respiration is either aerobic respiration (in the presence of oxygen) or anaerobic respiration (in the absence of oxygen). A large amount of ATP is made during aerobic respiration. NAD + is recycled during the anaerobic process of fermentation.

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Cellular Respiration Stage One: Breakdown of Glucose Glycolysis Glucose is broken down to pyruvate during glycolysis, making some ATP.

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Cellular Respiration Stage Two: Production of ATP Krebs Cycle The Krebs cycle is a series of reactions that produce energy-storing molecules during aerobic respiration. Electron Transport Chain During aerobic respiration, large amounts of ATP are made in an electron transport chain.

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Cellular Respiration Fermentation in the Absence of Oxygen Fermentation When oxygen is not present, fermentation follows glycolysis, regenerating NAD + needed for glycolysis to continue. Lactic Acid Fermentation In lactic acid fermentation, pyruvate is converted to lactate.

Cellular Respiration:

Cellular Respiration Cellular Respiration is a metabolic process like burning fuel Releases much of the energy in food to make ATP This ATP provides cells with the energy they need to carry out the activities of life. C 6 H 12 O 6 +O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O + ATP

Review:

Review When oxygen is present most the ATP made in cellular respiration is produced by: A. aerobic respiration B. Glycolysis C. alcoholic fermentation D. Lactic acid fermentation.

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