Nervous Coordination - Raj

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Control & Coordination:

Control & Coordination

Nervous Coordination:

Nervous Coordination

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The Vertebrate Brain The vertebrate brain has three parts: Forebrain – hearing, smell, sight etc.. Midbrain –is a site for involuntary actions. Hindbrain – responsible for blood pressure, salivation, vomiting, hearing, balance. Cerebellum: Riding a bicycle, picking up a pencil, walking in a straight line.

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Cerebrum The cerebrum is the control center of the brain. Right and left halves called cerebral hemispheres . Functions in language, conscious thought, memory, personality development, vision.

Neurons:

Neurons A neuron (nerve cell) is the functional unit of the nervous system. Sensory (afferent) neurons carry impulses from sensory receptors to the CNS. Motor (efferent) neurons carry impulses away from the CNS to effectors (muscles and glands). Association neurons, Interneurons connect neurons together.

Neuron:

Neuron

Neurons:

Neurons Two types of cytoplasmic processes extend from the cell body. Dendrites bring signals in to the cell body. Often highly branched. Axons carry signals away from the cell body.

Synapses: Junctions Between Nerves:

Synapses: Junctions Between Nerves Eventually, the impulse reaches the end of the axon. Neurons do not make direct contact with each other – there is a small gap between the axon of one neuron and the dendrite of the next. This junction between a neuron & another cell is called a synapse .

Synapses: Junctions Between Nerves:

Synapses: Junctions Between Nerves Thousands of synaptic knobs may rest on a single nerve cell body and its dendrites. Two types of synapses: Electrical synapses Chemical Synapses

Electrical Synapse:

Electrical Synapse Electrical synapses are points where ionic currents flow directly across a narrow gap junction from one neuron to another. No time lag – important in escape reactions.

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Chemoreception Chemoreceptors include general receptors that transmit information about the total solute concentration of a solution. The perceptions of gustation (taste) and olfaction (smell) are both dependent on chemoreceptors that detect specific chemicals in the environment. The taste receptors of insects are located within sensory hairs called sensilla which are located on the feet and in mouthparts.

Neurotransmitters:

Neurotransmitters Chemical messengers called neurotransmitters carry the message of the nerve impulse across the synapse.

Acetylcholine – Example Neurotransmitter:

Acetylcholine – Example Neurotransmitter

Mechanoreceptors:

Mechanoreceptors Mechanoreceptors sense physical deformation caused by stimuli such as pressure, stretch, motion, and sound. The mammalian sense of touch relies on mechanoreceptors that are the dendrites of sensory neurons.

Mechanoreceptors:

Mechanoreceptors Thermoreceptors , which respond to heat or cold help regulate body temperature by signaling both surface and body core temperature.

Mechanoreceptors:

Mechanoreceptors In humans, pain receptors are a class of naked dendrites in the epidermis that respond to excess heat, pressure, or specific classes of chemicals released from damaged or inflamed tissues.

Electromagnetic Receptors:

Electromagnetic Receptors Electromagnetic receptors detect various forms of electromagnetic energy such as visible light, electricity, and magnetism.

Electromagnetic Receptors:

Electromagnetic Receptors

Vision:

Vision Many types of light detectors have evolved in the animal kingdom and may be homologous. Light sensitive receptors are called photoreceptors .

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Spinal Cord The spinal cord is protected by the vertebrae (derived from the notochord). White, myelinated sheath of axons & dendrites surround the gray matter containing cell bodies.

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Reflex Arc A simple reflex produces a very fast motor response to a stimulus because the sensory neuron bringing information about the stimulus passes the information directly to the motor neuron.

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Reflex Arc Usually, there are interneurons between sensory and motor neurons. An interneuron may connect two neurons on the same side of the spinal cord, or on opposite sides.

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