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A word with many different definitions… probably no such thing as an absolute definition. 1. Manner of behaving or acting. 2. Psychology, Animal Behavior. a. observable activity in a human or animal. b. the aggregate of responses to internal and external stimuli. 3. Often, behaviours. a behaviour pattern. (www.dictionary.com) Slide 3: At the core of this definition lie the ideas of stimulus and response. Stimuli - Sets of circumstances or individual events. Cause people to act or react (respond) to them. Slide 4: Part I Interpersonal Behaviour Slide 5: Harmonious Interpersonal Relationships are the secret of success. “ I will pay more for the ability to deal with people than for any other ability under the sun.” – John Rockfeller Slide 6: Different people, however, have different responses to particular stimuli. In any given situation, different people may react in different ways. Behaviour = The sum of all of a person's varying response styles to varying stimuli. A Closer Look At Behaviour : A Closer Look At Behaviour Communication Stimulus & Response – Transactional Analysis Life Positions Johari Window Slide 8: Communication “Meanings are in people, not in words.” Slide 9: Communication - The bridge of meaning that forms the basis of understanding between the members of an organisation. Communication connects all Human Beings. Effective Communication is one where a message is understood in the same sense in which it has been communicated. Slide 10: Communication : The Flow Sender Receiver Barriers to Effective Communication : Barriers to Effective Communication Barriers to effective communication Noise Distractions Put downs Lack of interest Disability Discomfort with the topic Distance Too many Questions Other people Time Language Cultural Differences Slide 12: Perceptions & Attitudes… Their Impact on Communication Perceptions : Perceptions Perception is a process of making sense of events – the process by which we perceive meaning of any event. Perception and reality are not necessarily one and the same – different people will have different perceptions. Slide 14: Perceptions influence human behaviour in a variety of ways. They qualify or evaluate individuals or events as either – Complete or Incomplete Beautiful or Ugly Sincere or Manipulative Fair or Unfair Precise or Exaggerated Good or Bad Reasonable or Unreasonable Slide 15: Good communicators recognise the fact that others may not necessarily perceive their intentions as they themselves do A classic example: Two salesmen of a shoe company visit a remote village and make the following observations: Salesman A – “There is absolutely no scope. No one wears shoes here !” Salesman B – “No one wears shoes here. There is tremendous scope !” Although the event or information base is the same, the inferences are quite different ! Attitudes : Attitudes Attitude exercises a strong influence on human relationships in any sphere. It essentially relates to a predisposition and concerns an individual’s likes or dislikes. Attitudes can be both positive and negative. Positive attitude contributes to the effectiveness of any process. Negative attitude hinders the process Slide 17: Negative attitude = Barrier. A person with the wrong attitude is often unwilling to listen or to understand reason. Brings negative feelings that undermine the achievement of personal and group objectives. Attitudes, however, are not necessarily permanent in nature – it is possible, with conscious effort, to change the attitude of a person. Slide 18: Behavioural psychologists stress on the need to develop RMA – Right Mental Attitude . People work together better by developing the RMA. Effective communication, like other aspects of human behaviour, relies heavily on positive thinking and the RMA. Slide 19: Attitude is a decision… YOUR decision !! Slide 20: Transactional Analysis Slide 21: One of the most promising breakthroughs in psychiatry. A valuable approach to understanding of Human Behaviour & Action. Developed by Dr Eric Berne, author of the book ‘Games People Play’ & subsequently discussed by Dr Thomas A Harris in his book ‘ I’m OK – You’re OK ’ Slide 22: Starting-point of the theory – When two people encounter each other, one of them will speak to the other. This is called the Transaction Stimulus. The reaction from the other person is called the Transaction Response. Slide 23: The person sending the Stimulus is called the Agent. The person who responds is called the Respondent T.A. became the method of examining the transaction wherein: 'I do something to you, and you do something back'. Slide 24: In any personal interaction, a study of TA is useful in understanding & appropriately responding to varied behaviour. TA divides an individual’s personality into three Ego States. Ego State has been defined as a constant pattern of thinking, feeling or behaving. These states are produced by recalling past events involving real people, real times, real places & real feelings. Slide 25: P A C PARENT EGO STATE Behaviours, thoughts & feelings copied from parents or parent figures. ADULT EGO STATE Behaviours, thoughts & feelings which are direct responses to the here and now. CHILD EGO STATE Behaviours, thoughts & feelings replayed from childhood. Slide 26: The Parent State - Our ingrained voice of authority, absorbed conditioning, learning and attitudes from when we were young. We were conditioned by our real parents, teachers, and ALL older people, next door neighbours, aunts and uncles. Parent is made up of huge number of hidden and overt recorded playbacks. Slide 27: Typically embodied by phrases and attitudes starting with 'how to', 'under no circumstances', 'always' and 'never forget', 'don't lie, cheat, steal', etc, etc. Formed by external events and influences upon us as we grow through early childhood. We can change it, but this is easier said than done. Slide 28: The Child State - Our internal reaction and feelings to external events form the ‘Child’. This is the seeing, hearing, feeling, and emotional body of data within each of us. When anger or despair dominates reason, the Child is in control. Like our Parent we can change it, but it is no easier. Slide 29: The Adult State - Our ability to think and determine action for ourselves, based on received data. The adult in us begins to form at around ten months old. Is the means by which we keep our Parent and Child under control. If we are to change our Parent or Child we must do so through our adult. Slide 30: In other words: Parent is our 'Taught' concept of life. Adult is our 'Thought' concept of life. Child is our 'Felt' concept of life. Slide 31: When we communicate we are doing so from one of our own Ego States, our P, A or C. Our feelings at the time determine which one we use, and at any time something can trigger a shift from one state to another. When we respond, we are also doing this from one of the three states. It is in the analysis of these stimuli and responses that the essence of TA lies. Slide 32: Core of Berne's theory - Effective transactions must be complementary. They must go back from the receiving ego state to the sending ego state. For example, if the stimulus is Parent to Child, the response must be Child to Parent, or the transaction is 'crossed', and there will be a problem between sender and receiver. Slide 33: If a crossed transaction occurs, there is an ineffective communication. Worse still, either or both parties will be upset. For the relationship to continue smoothly the agent or the respondent must rescue the situation with a complementary transaction. Slide 34: In serious break-downs, there is no chance of immediately resuming a discussion about the original subject matter. Attention is focused on the relationship. Discussion can only continue constructively when and if the relationship is mended. TA also refers to FOUR LIFE POSITIONS concerning one’s own self as well as others. Life Positions : Life Positions Life positions - Basic beliefs about self and others, which are used to justify decisions and behaviour. These are perceptions of the world and the people that we ‘transact’ with, as well as of ourselves. Life positions are existential positions, one of which we are more likely to go to under stress. I’m OK – You’re OK : I’m OK – You’re OK Eminently desirable position. Indicates an acceptance of one’s own self-worth as well as that of others. Positive approach in dealing with real life situations. Person concerned shows sense of maturity & comfort in dealing with others. Slide 38: People with this attitude enjoy positions of leadership. They succeed in developing & sustaining meaningful interpersonal relationships. Attitude Displayed - "It's no-one's fault, blame isn't the issue - what matters is how we go forward and sort things out." (I'm okay and you are okay - 'happy') I’m Not OK – You’re OK : I’m Not OK – You’re OK Relates to acceptance of others but not of self. Person suffers from an inferiority complex – feels there is something lacking in him. Shows a shortcoming in dealing with real life situations. Will be submissive or passive. Often display subservient attitude. Slide 40: Often look up to others for advice & seek constant guidance. Display lack of confidence in their own abilities. Attitude Displayed – I’m to blame (You are okay and I'm not okay – ‘helpless’). I’m OK – You’re Not OK : I’m OK – You’re Not OK Relates to acceptance of self but not of others. Feels there is something lacking in others. Suffers from superiority complex. Is aggressive & even intimidating. Tries to dominate and tends to give unsolicited advice to others. Displays Attitude - You are to blame (I'm okay and you are not okay - 'angry'). I’m Not OK – You’re Not OK : I’m Not OK – You’re Not OK Refers to rejection of both self & others. Nothing is right. Something is lacking in them and in others as well. Opposite of “ I’m OK – You’re OK ” kind of person. Visibly negative & pessimistic approach. Undermine themselves as well as others. Slide 43: Look down upon others, and do not give others credit for positive developments. Does not see the positive side of anything. Not capable of becoming an effective leader. Displays Attitude - We are both to blame (I’m not okay and you are not okay – ‘hopeless’). Slide 44: Against backdrop of these Life Positions, TA attempts to analyse a transaction. Transaction forms a basic unit of communication – stimulus by one person and response by another. Transactions take place each time people meet or a communication takes place. The Three Transactions : The Three Transactions Three Categories: Complementary – Smooth conversations with expected responses emanating. Crossed – Unexpected response, breakdown in communication. Hidden – Words spoken do not express real meanings. Real responses conveyed through facial expressions or other actions. Slide 46: Understanding life positions from which a person operates is essential for making communication effective. Knowledge of human behaviours and of transaction types helps to enhance the interpersonal skills of an individual. Slide 47: The Johari Window Slide 48: A cognitive psychological tool created by Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham in 1955. Used for helping people better understand their interpersonal communication and relationships. Slide 49: (Arena) (Façade) Slide 50: Desirable Behaviour: Be A Winner Smile : Smile Cheerfulness flows from goodness. A smile reflects friendliness & openness. It takes more muscles to frown than to smile. It is easier to smile than to frown. Smile often & make it a habit. Show Respect : Show Respect We all want respect, no matter what age we are, no matter what position we hold or what job function we do. The key is to know that each person, no matter how long they've worked or how adept their skill-set, deserves respect, because we are all human beings. Kindness : Kindness Anyone who thinks that kindness isn't a necessity in today's work environment isn't thinking. Kindness is one of the most important skills in dealing with people of all ages. Every living thing responds to kindness. Use this skill for good results in handling people. Help others whenever you possibly can. Control Bad Feelings : Control Bad Feelings People come to work not only with their hands & heads, but also their hearts. They come not only with knowledge, wisdom & intelligence, but also feelings & emotions. Dealing with other people requires control over moods ! Slide 55: Any work situation is a mix of positive & negative, good & bad strokes. Good Interpersonal skills require underplaying negative strokes & not letting them spoil one’s temper. Learn to rise above bad feelings coming from any quarter and do not let these show up or hinder dealings with people. Responsibility : Responsibility Accept responsibility. Responsible behavior is to accept accountability. It represents maturity and sincerity. Acceptance of responsibility is a reflection of our attitude. Mind Your Language ! : Mind Your Language ! Language counts. Choose what you say rather than say what you choose. Your point won’t come across any better if you use rude, derogatory, or obscene language, no matter whom you’re addressing. Talk like a professional and you’ll be seen and treated as one. Admit Mistakes : Admit Mistakes When we make a mistake, we should accept it immediately & willingly. Some people live & learn while others live & never learn. Learn from mistakes. The greatest mistake a person can make is to repeat it. Avoid Arguments : Avoid Arguments Discuss. Don’t argue. It is like fighting a losing battle. Even if one wins, the cost may be more than the victory is worth. It will take you nowhere & the more you argue with people, the more they distance away from you. Emotional battles leave a residual ill will even if you win. Avoid Gossip : Avoid Gossip Gossip is the art of saying nothing in a way that leaves nothing unsaid. Keep gossip or hurtful information to yourself. Do not spread rumors or encourage them. Gossiping is against the principles of kindness. Would you like someone to gossip about you? Respect Privacy : Respect Privacy Do not eavesdrop on anyone. It is a RUDE thing to do ! Give each individual the space he or she is due, as you would expect to be given your own space and privacy. Respect their individuality and privacy. Slide 62: Do not encourage or indulge in politics at workplace … Refrain from Politics ! : Refrain from Politics ! Indulging in Office Politics is against the accepted norms of Etiquettes… Refrain from getting involved in such politics. Slide 64: Practice Leave gender out of the equation : Leave gender out of the equation Coworkers are peers, regardless of gender. Be sensitive towards female colleagues. Of course, dirty jokes, off-color remarks, and discussion of certain private matters are an absolute no-no. Period. Integrity : Integrity Maintain your integrity at all times. When you make a promise or give your word, you need to follow through on it. If you are unable to keep the promise or fulfill the commitment, you must be prepared to make amends and set things right. Slide 67: Remember… Trust is fragile... Very easily broken and very difficult to regain. Only People with integrity are the people we can trust ! Slide 68: Part II Group & Team Behaviour Slide 69: "It's possible to achieve almost anything as long as you are not worried about who gets the credit." – Harry S. Truman Why do people join a group? : Why do people join a group? GROUP SYNERGY Refers to the idea that two heads (or more) are better than one; OR "The whole is greater than the sum of its parts," which also refers to group synergy. Groups are often capable of producing higher quality work and better decisions than can an individual working alone. Slide 71: SUPPORT & COMMITMENT Group may be more willing to take on a large project than would an individual. With increased ability to perform work, group can provide encouragement and support to its members while working on a big project. Slide 72: SOCIAL GROUPS While all groups will have both social and task dimensions, some groups are predominantly social in their orientation. Examples of these groups would be families and social clubs. These provide for our safety & solidarity needs and they help us develop self-esteem. Slide 73: WORK GROUPS Work groups function to complete a particular task. The task dimension is emphasized. Group members pool their expertise to accomplish the task. Examples - Workplaces, Campus Organizations, or Juries etc. Tuckman's Group Development Theory : Tuckman's Group Development Theory 1. Forming 2. Storming 3. Norming 4. Performing 5. Adjourning Forming - Group members learn about each other and the task at hand. Storming - As group members become more comfortable with each other, they will engage each other in arguments and vie for status in the group. These activities mark the storming phase. Slide 75: Norming - Group members establish implicit or explicit rules about how they will achieve their goal. They address the types of communication that will or will not help with the task. Performing - Groups reach a conclusion and implement the conclusion. Adjourning - As the group project ends, the group disbands in the adjournment phase. Slide 76: Teamwork / Workgroup Essentials Goals / Objectives : Goals / Objectives The common Goal / Objective is always more important than the individual role ! Working Together : Working Together Together we can achieve a lot more than an individual can. Roles : Roles All team members play a vital role where they add value with their contributions. The idea is to focus on common objectives and not fight for credit. Leadership : Leadership Strong leadership is vital to team success. Gives the team direction and confidence. Shared Values : Shared Values Shared values & beliefs hold a team together. They define and give identity to a team. Dependability : Dependability Members must be able to count on each other when it really matters. Communication : Communication Interaction fuels action. Members must be able to communicate with each other freely. Communication must be constructive. The Links in the Chain : The Links in the Chain The strength of the Team is Impacted by its weakest link. The Bad Apple : The Bad Apple Bad Attitudes ruins a team ! Slide 86: Questions ? You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.