Introduction to Civil Aviation

Category: Education

Presentation Description

This presentation is meant for online review of the students currently pursuing the EWYL programme.


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Presentation Transcript

Slide 1: 

An Introduction To Civil Aviation A Presentation by Rajiv Bajaj

Slide 2: 

Part I: Aviation

Categories of Aviation : 

Categories of Aviation Two broad categories…

1. Military Aviation : 

1. Military Aviation Use of aircraft & other flying machines for the purposes of conducting or enabling warfare. Also to provide logistical supply to armed forces.

Slide 5: 

Wide variety of military aircraft includes: Bombers Fighters Fighter bombers Transports Trainers Reconnaissance Aircraft.

2. Civil Aviation : 

2. Civil Aviation Category of flying representing all non-military aviation, both private and commercial.

Slide 7: 

Most countries are members of ICAO. Work together to establish common standards & recommended practices for civil aviation through that agency.

I C A O : 

I C A O International Civil Aviation Organisation

Slide 9: 

A permanent aeronautical organisation of the United Nations. Set up by the Chicago Convention, December 1944.

Slide 10: 

A Provisional International Civil Aviation Organization (P.I.C.A.O.) functioned from 6 June, 1945. Formally established on the April 4th, 1947.

Slide 11: 

Membership of over 185 governments. Joined for the common purpose of promoting civil aviation on a global scale.

Slide 12: 

Headquarter – Montreal, Canada. Regional Offices – Mexico City, Lima, Paris, Dakar, Cairo & Bangkok.

ICAO – Freedoms of the Air : 

ICAO – Freedoms of the Air A set of commercial aviation rights granting a country's airline (s) the privilege to enter and land in another country's airspace / territory in respect of scheduled international air services. Established at the Chicago Convention. Exchanged at the state level either on bilateral or multilateral basis.

Slide 14: 

First Freedom The right to overfly a country without landing. Grants the privilege to fly over the territory of a treaty country without landing. E.g. Air India flight from Delhi to London will have to pass through airspace of several Asian, Middle Eastern & European Countries.

Slide 15: 

Second Freedom The right to stop in a country for refueling or maintenance on the way to another, without transferring passengers or cargo (making a technical halt only) These rights are not commonly exercised by most passenger carriers today. However, widely used by air cargo carriers, and are more or less universal between countries.

Slide 16: 

Third Freedom It was the First Commercial Freedom. The right to carry passengers or cargo from one's own country to another. E.g. Air India carrying passengers, cargo & mail from Delhi to London.

Slide 17: 

Fourth Freedom The right to carry passengers or cargo from another country to one's own. E.g. Air India carrying passengers, cargo & mail between London & Delhi. Third and fourth freedom rights are almost always granted simultaneously in bilateral agreements between countries.

Slide 18: 

Fifth Freedom The right to carry passengers or cargo from one's own country to a second country, and from that country to a third country. E.g. Air India carrying passengers, cargo & mail from Delhi to London, and also uplifting traffic from London to New York.

Civil Aviation Categories : 

Includes two major categories… Civil Aviation Categories

1. Scheduled Air Transport : 

1. Scheduled Air Transport Includes all passenger & cargo flights operating on regular routes as per a published schedule.

2. General Aviation : 

2. General Aviation Includes all other civil flights, private or commercial, which do not operate as per a published schedule.

Slide 22: 

Scheduled Air Transport

Airline : 

Airline An enterprise that provides air transport services for passengers or freight; Generally holds a recognized operating certificate or license.

Slide 24: 

May lease or own their aircraft for providing these services. May form partnerships or alliances with other airlines for mutual benefit.

Scheduled Carriers : 

Scheduled Carriers Air transport enterprise offering or operating regular air service / services; For the general public; Between various points; and

Slide 26: 

Operate according to a published timetable. May include Legacy or Full Service Carriers or LCC / No-Frills / Budget Carriers.

Legacy / Full Service Carriers : 

Legacy / Full Service Carriers Legacy - Something handed down from an ancestor or a predecessor or from the past. A legacy carrier is an established airline that functions as per the older systems of airline operation.

Slide 28: 

Follow traditional business models. Typically follow standard airline infrastructure and hierarchy.

Slide 29: 

This includes different classes, frequent flier programs, meals & snacks service, etc. May belong to an alliance or partnership. E.g – Air India, Jet Airways etc.

Short-Haul / Regional Operators : 

Short-Haul / Regional Operators Airlines operating scheduled services on sectors that have a shorter duration of flying; Flights usually of less than two hours.

Slide 31: 

Mostly operate in a specific region; Do not offer services outside the region. E.g. Paramount Airways

Low-Cost / Budget / No-Frills Carriers : 

Low-Cost / Budget / No-Frills Carriers Airlines that offer generally low fares. Eliminate many traditional passenger services to keep costs low. Flights with quick turn-around time to maximise aircraft utilisation.

Slide 33: 

Provide basic single-class services. Meals generally not served. May be available on extra payment. E.g. Kingfisher Red / Spicejet / Indigo / Go Air

Slide 34: 

General Aviation

Non-Scheduled Operators : 

Non-Scheduled Operators Air transport enterprise offering air transport services to the public. However, flights are not operated according to a regular or published schedule. Note: Both scheduled and non-scheduled airlines can offer non-scheduled services.

Air Charter Operators : 

Air Charter Operators An Air Charter is the business of renting out an entire aircraft. Do not sell individual aircraft seats, whereas airlines specialize in selling transportation by the seat. E.g. TajAir, Raymond, Trans-Bharat

Slide 37: 

Focus on individual private aircraft and itineraries; Urgent or time-sensitive freight / cargo; Air ambulance and any other form of ad hoc air transportation.

Fractional Ownership : 

Fractional Ownership Fractional ownership of aircraft. Allows corporates and individuals to fly when and where they want to, in the comfort of a private aircraft. Offer members guaranteed annual flying time. E.g. Club One Air

Slide 39: 

Members required to share the monthly management cost. Also pay for direct operating cost as and when they fly. No ownership responsibilities or liabilities on members.

Helicopter Services : 

Helicopter Services Often used in congested or isolated areas where fixed-wing aircraft cannot take off or land. Can be operated by companies on both, scheduled and non-scheduled basis, as well as on charter basis.

Cargo Carriers : 

Cargo Carriers Companies engaged in operating air services exclusively for the purpose of carrying freight (cargo & mail).

Slide 42: 

Contemporary Issues In Civil Aviation

Infrastructure : 

Infrastructure Ageing infrastructure. Congested Airport terminals. Lack of Aircraft parking Bays & ATM.

Slide 44: 

Planned - 500 Airports by 2020. Includes ongoing redevelopment of unused or little used airports; and Construction of new Greenfield and Cargo airports

Slide 45: 

Only 80 functional airports equipped to handle scheduled commercial, charter & defence operations. Additionally, another 368 landing strips functioning as makeshift airports. 156 belong to Defence / Semi-Defence sector & various state Govts., while 63 owned by Private sector.

Slide 46: 

Peculiar situation – Air Traffic concentrated at few key airports Includes 16 International Airports; and Another 8 that connect Domestic Sectors to International. These 24 Airports account for a whopping 94% of total traffic. Balance spread over 36 smaller or regional airports.

ATF Prices : 

ATF Prices Highly fluctuating Aviation Turbine Fuel Prices directly impact airline costs. A steep rise in prices makes lower airfares unviable. Higher airfares affect passenger loads.

Security Concerns : 

Security Concerns Aviation is a soft target for terrorists. Increased security concerns post 9/11. High expenditure on aviation security, and hence higher cost of operations.

Economic Downturn : 

Economic Downturn Depressed economy pushing airlines into heavy losses. Many airlines have curtailed operations. Mass retrenchment of staff in the industry.

High Operating Costs : 

High Operating Costs High taxation on aviation facilities. High Landing charges - 60% higher than neighboring countries. User Development Fees (UDF Charges) adding to ticket costs.

Changing Business Models : 

Changing Business Models Current scenario forcing legacy carriers to cut costs & rethink their business models. Many launching all-economy, low-fare services to attract passengers. Cut-throat competition.

Slide 52: 

Vision 2010 Countdown to Commonwealth Games: The New International Terminal At Delhi

Slide 57: 

End of Part I

Slide 58: 

Part II: Airport Procedures

Slide 59: 

Airport Procedures: Arrivals

Before Landing… : 

Before Landing… Filling up of Disembarkation Cards.

After Landing… : 

After Landing… Passport Check at Immigration.

Baggage Collection : 

Baggage Collection Collect luggage from baggage conveyor belt. Duty Free Shopping Available in arrival hall.

Customs Check : 

Customs Check

Exit : 

Exit After Customs check, exit. End of Arrival Formalities.

Slide 65: 

Airport Procedures: Departures

Before Leaving Home… : 

Before Leaving Home… Verify … 1. Correct Departure Terminal. 2. Whether Flight on time. 3. You have all necessary documents.

On Reaching Airport : 

On Reaching Airport Keep Ticket / Passport Handy. Will be required for entering the airport.

Baggage Screening : 

Baggage Screening Check-in Baggage must pass through baggage x-ray screening. Normally done prior to check-in.

Slide 69: 

However, where in-line x-ray systems exist, it is accepted without prior screening. Screened after check-in as it passes through on the conveyor belt on way to the make-up (loading) area.

Airline Check-in : 

Airline Check-in Present Ticket / Passport. Specific seat requests, if any. Ensure Baggage Tagged Correctly.

Slide 71: 

Collect - Boarding Pass, Baggage Claim Tag, Cabin Baggage Tags, Embarkation Card.

Slide 72: 

Bulkhead Seats Frequently Requested Seats…

Slide 73: 

Bassinet Frequently Requested Seats…

Slide 74: 

Exit Row Seats Frequently Requested Seats…

Immigration Check : 

Immigration Check After Check-in, proceed for immigration check.

Customs : 


Transit Area : 

Transit Area Zone between Customs & Security Check. Await security check announcement. Duty Free shopping available here.

Security Check : 

Security Check

Boarding – The Final Step : 

Boarding – The Final Step

Slide 80: 

Once on board, the cabin crew will take care of the passengers. Relax on board and enjoy your flight. Bon Voyage !

Slide 81: 

Questions ?

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